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MILITARY AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Part 1 INTRODUCTION. Military Aircraft Systems During the First World War, aircraft-mounted machine guns and purpose-built bomb.

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Presentation on theme: "MILITARY AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Part 1 INTRODUCTION. Military Aircraft Systems During the First World War, aircraft-mounted machine guns and purpose-built bomb."— Presentation transcript:

1 MILITARY AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Part 1 INTRODUCTION

2 Military Aircraft Systems During the First World War, aircraft-mounted machine guns and purpose-built bomb racks created specialised fighter and bomber aircraft. The inter-war period saw the development of larger, heavier bombers and faster, more powerful fighters. However, weapon technology remained largely unchanged. Air-Launched Weapon Development

3 The Second World War saw the development of early guided weapons and cruise missiles, including: German Fritz-X radio-controlled glide bomb US Bat Radar-guided glide bomb German V-1 jet-powered flying bomb Military Aircraft Systems Air-Launched Weapon Development

4 The Second World War also saw the development of atomic weapons, with the US “Fat Man” and “Little Boy” weapons dropped on Japan in Military Aircraft Systems Air-Launched Weapon Development

5 After the war nations developed guided weapons, including Infrared- and Radar-guided including Infrared- and Radar-guided air-to-air missiles, such as: The US AIM-7 Sparrow, AIM-9 Sidewinder and AIM-4 Falcon As well as the UK Firestreak and Red Top Military Aircraft Systems Air-Launched Weapon Development Sparrow Sidewinder Falcon Red Top Firestreak

6 Military Aircraft Systems Air-to-surface weapons were also developed, seeing regular operational service with the US military during the Vietnam War, including: AGM-62 Walleye TV-guided missile AGM-65 Maverick TV-guided missile Paveway I Laser-Guided bombs Air-Launched Weapon Development Walleye Maverick Paveway

7 Military Aircraft Systems Air-Launched Weapon Development The first combat use of guided weapons by the UK was in the Falklands War in 1982, with more widespread use in the Gulf Wars. New weapons include: AIM-120 AMRAAM radar-guided air-to-air missile ALARM anti-radar missile JDAM GPS-guided bomb JDAM AMRAAM ALARM

8 Military Aircraft Systems Air-Launched Weapon Development Existing weapons, such as the AGM-65 Maverick, continued to be developed to ensure they remain at the cutting edge. AGM-65 Maverick

9 Capabilities of Air-Launched Weapons Precision guided bombs and missiles allow individual targets to be attacked and destroyed with pinpoint accuracy.

10 Capabilities of Air-Launched Weapons Highly agile short-range air-to-air missiles allow for “over-the-shoulder” engagement of enemy aircraft. Medium-range air-to-air missiles allow for multiple targets to be engaged beyond visual range, at a safe distance from the launching aircraft.

11 Capabilities of Air-Launched Weapons To attack individual targets with great precision is very important in modern warfare, as civilian casualties or “collateral damage” are not acceptable. With unguided weapons, accuracy decreases as the range increases, because the weapon’s trajectory is affected by environmental factors such as the wind. Guided missiles are therefore more efficient, more accurate and more effective.

12 Capabilities of Air-Launched Weapons Guided missiles have stability in flight and are steered like a conventional jet aircraft, by the use of fins and wings. The jet propulsion systems used in guided missiles are: Turbojet, Pulsejet and Ramjet The types of thermal jet propulsion used are: Solid propellant, Liquid propellant and Combined propellant.

13 There are three basic types of missile homing: Passive Homing Relies on intelligence received from the target, such as enemy radar emissions. Semi Active Homing Gets its target illumination from an external source, such as a transmitter carried in the launch aircraft. Active Homing Relies on a component carried in the missile, such as a radar transmitter.

14 Capabilities of Air-Launched Weapons The effective range of air-to-air missiles is affected by the speed of both the launching and target aircraft, as well as by the heading of the target aircraft in relation to the attacking aircraft. If the two aircraft are closing head-on, the range of the weapon will differ from a target aircraft flying away. a target aircraft flying away.

15 Guided Weapon Advantages Are more accurate for precision attacks on targets where there is a high risk of collateral damage. Allows targets to be attacked from greater ranges than unguided weapons. Increases the number of targets that can be attacked by a single aircraft. Can more easily defeat a target aircraft’s anti-weapon defence. Paveway IV

16 Guided Weapon Disadvantages Guided weapons are more complicated to integrate onto aircraft. Laser-guided weapons require an external laser designator to guide them to the target. Guided weapons are significantly more expensive than unguided weapons. Paveway IV

17 Unguided weapons are easier to integrate onto an aircraft. Unguided weapons are cheaper and simpler to design and mass-produce. There is no data connection between the weapon and the aircraft. Unguided Weapon Advantages

18 Unguided weapons are imprecise and can’t be used if there is risk of collateral damage. Because they are imprecise, more need to be dropped to guarantee the destruction of the target. Aircraft need to be closer to the target to use unguided weapons. Unguided Weapon Disdvantages

19 Check of Understanding An advantage of unguided missiles over guided missiles is: unguided missiles over guided missiles is: Unguided missiles are more accurate Unguided missiles have a greater range Unguided missiles are cheaper to manufacture Aircraft are able to carry more unguided missiles

20 Check of Understanding In an active missile homing system: Target illumination is supplied by a component carried in the missile, such as a radar transmitter The missile gets its target illumination from an external source, such as a transmitter carried in the launching aircraft A second aircraft supplies target illumination The missile launches automatically

21 Check of Understanding What types of atmospheric jet propulsion are used in guided missiles? Turbojet, Pulsejet and Ramjet Turbofan, Pulsejet and Ramjet Turbojet and Ramjet Turbofan and Pulsejet

22 Check of Understanding An advantage of guided missiles over unguided missiles is: Guided missiles carry a larger warhead Guided missiles rarely miss the target Guided missiles are more accurate Guided missiles never miss the target

23 Check of Understanding What are the types of thermal jet propulsion used in guided missiles? Liquid propellant and gas propellant Solid propellant, liquid propellant and gas propellant Solid propellant and liquid propellant Solid propellant, liquid propellant and combined propellant.

24 Check of Understanding A disadvantage of guided missiles over unguided missiles is: over unguided missiles is: Incredibly expensive research and development costs, and susceptible to decoys. Inexpensive, but possible to give away the position of the releasing aircraft. Inexpensive, but susceptible to jamming and decoys. Expensive per missile, but with high accuracy.

25 Check of Understanding In a passive missile homing system: Target illumination is supplied by a component carried in the missile, such as a radar transmitter The missile gets its target illumination from an external source, such as a transmitter carried in the launching aircraft The pilot has to prime the missile The directing intelligence is received from the target

26 Check of Understanding An advantage of guided missiles over unguided missiles is: Guided missiles will always destroy a target Guided missiles will nearly always destroy a target Guided missiles will always defeat a target aircraft’s anti-weapon defence Guided missiles can more easily defeat a target aircraft’s anti-weapon defence

27 Check of Understanding How is a guided missile steered and provided with aerodynamic stability in flight? By use of elevators and wings By use of ailerons and wings By use of fins and rudders By use of fins and wings

28 Check of Understanding What are the disadvantages of unguided weapons? High accuracy, cost, aircraft & weapon integration is difficult. Low accuracy, more aircraft sorties required to achieve the desired weapons effect. Low accuracy, cost, aircraft and weapon integration is difficult. There are no disadvantages with unguided weapons.

29 Check of Understanding In a semi active missile homing system: The directing intelligence is received from the target The missile launches semi automatically Target illumination is supplied by a component carried in the missile, such as a radar transmitter The missile gets its target illumination from an external source, such as a transmitter carried in the launching aircraft

30 Check of Understanding An advantage of unguided missiles over guided missiles is: Unguided missiles are simpler to design and build Unguided missiles are safer to operate Unguided missiles are safer to store Unguided missiles are smaller and lighter

31 MILITARY AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS End of Presentation


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