2Military Aircraft Systems Air-Launched Weapon DevelopmentDuring the First World War, aircraft-mounted machine guns and purpose-built bomb racks created specialised fighter and bomber aircraft. The inter-war period saw the development of larger, heavier bombers and faster, more powerful fighters. However, weapon technology remained largely unchanged.
3Military Aircraft Systems Air-Launched Weapon DevelopmentThe Second World War saw the development of early guided weapons and cruise missiles, including: German Fritz-X radio-controlled glide bomb US Bat Radar-guided glide bomb German V-1 jet-powered flying bomb
4Military Aircraft Systems Air-Launched Weapon DevelopmentThe Second World War also saw the development of atomic weapons, with the US “Fat Man” and “Little Boy” weapons dropped on Japan in 1945.
5Military Aircraft Systems Air-Launched Weapon DevelopmentAfter the war nations developed guided weapons,including Infrared- and Radar-guidedair-to-air missiles, such as:The US AIM-7 Sparrow,AIM-9 Sidewinderand AIM-4 FalconAs well as the UK Firestreak and Red TopFirestreakSparrowSidewinderFalconRed Top
6Military Aircraft Systems Air-Launched Weapon DevelopmentAir-to-surface weapons were also developed, seeing regular operational service with the US military during the Vietnam War, including: AGM-62 Walleye TV-guided missile AGM-65 Maverick TV-guided missile Paveway I Laser-Guided bombsMaverickPavewayWalleye
7Military Aircraft Systems Air-Launched Weapon DevelopmentThe first combat use of guided weapons by the UK was in the Falklands War in 1982, with more widespread use in the Gulf Wars. New weapons include: AIM-120 AMRAAM radar-guided air-to-air missile ALARM anti-radar missile JDAM GPS-guided bombALARMJDAMAMRAAM
8Military Aircraft Systems Air-Launched Weapon DevelopmentExisting weapons, such as the AGM-65 Maverick, continued to be developed to ensure they remain at the cutting edge.AGM-65 Maverick
9Capabilities of Air-Launched Weapons Precision guided bombs and missiles allow individual targets to be attacked and destroyed with pinpoint accuracy.
10Capabilities of Air-Launched Weapons Highly agile short-range air-to-air missiles allow for “over-the-shoulder” engagement of enemy aircraft. Medium-range air-to-air missiles allow for multiple targets to be engaged beyond visual range, at a safe distance from the launching aircraft.
11Capabilities of Air-Launched Weapons To attack individual targets with great precision is very important in modern warfare, as civilian casualties or “collateral damage” are not acceptable. With unguided weapons, accuracy decreases as the range increases, because the weapon’s trajectory is affected by environmental factors such as the wind. Guided missiles are therefore more efficient, more accurate and more effective.
12Capabilities of Air-Launched Weapons Guided missiles have stability in flightand are steered like a conventional jet aircraft,by the use of fins and wings.The jet propulsion systemsused in guided missiles are:Turbojet, Pulsejet and RamjetThe types of thermal jet propulsion used are:Solid propellant, Liquid propellantand Combined propellant.
13Capabilities of Air-Launched Weapons There are three basic types of missile homing:Passive HomingRelies on intelligence received from the target,such as enemy radar emissions.Semi Active HomingGets its target illumination from an external source,such as a transmitter carried in the launch aircraft.Active HomingRelies on a component carried in the missile,such as a radar transmitter.
14Capabilities of Air-Launched Weapons The effective range of air-to-air missiles is affected by the speed of both the launching and target aircraft, as well as by the heading of the target aircraft in relation to the attacking aircraft. If the two aircraft are closing head-on, the range of the weapon will differ from a target aircraft flying away.
15Guided Weapon Advantages Are more accurate for precision attacks on targets where there is a high risk of collateral damage. Allows targets to be attacked from greater ranges than unguided weapons. Increases the number of targets that can be attacked by a single aircraft. Can more easily defeat a target aircraft’s anti-weapon defence.Paveway IV
16Guided Weapon Disadvantages Guided weapons are more complicated to integrate onto aircraft. Laser-guided weapons require an external laser designator to guide them to the target. Guided weapons are significantly more expensive than unguided weapons.Paveway IV
17Unguided Weapon Advantages Unguided weapons are easier to integrate onto an aircraft. Unguided weapons are cheaper and simpler to design and mass-produce. There is no data connection between the weapon and the aircraft.
18Unguided Weapon Disdvantages Unguided weapons are imprecise and can’t be used if there is risk of collateral damage. Because they are imprecise, more need to be dropped to guarantee the destruction of the target. Aircraft need to be closer to the target to use unguided weapons.
19Check of Understanding An advantage ofunguided missiles over guided missiles is: Unguided missiles are more accurateUnguided missiles have a greater rangeUnguided missiles are cheaperto manufactureAircraft are able to carry moreunguided missiles
20Check of Understanding In an active missile homing system:The missile launches automaticallyThe missile gets its target illuminationfrom an external source,such as a transmittercarried in the launching aircraftA second aircraft supplies target illuminationTarget illumination is supplied bya component carried in the missile,such as a radar transmitter
21Check of Understanding What types of atmospheric jet propulsionare used in guided missiles?Turbofan and PulsejetTurbofan, Pulsejet and RamjetTurbojet and RamjetTurbojet, Pulsejet and Ramjet
22Check of Understanding An advantage of guided missilesover unguided missiles is:Guided missiles are more accurateGuided missiles carry a larger warheadGuided missiles never miss the targetGuided missiles rarely miss the target
23Check of Understanding What are the types of thermal jet propulsionused in guided missiles?Solid propellant, liquid propellantand combined propellant.Solid propellant, liquid propellant and gas propellantSolid propellantand liquid propellantLiquid propellantand gas propellant
24Check of Understanding A disadvantage of guided missilesover unguided missiles is: Inexpensive, but susceptible to jamming and decoys.Incredibly expensiveresearch and development costs,and susceptible to decoys.Expensive per missile,but with high accuracy.Inexpensive, but possible to give awaythe position of the releasing aircraft.
25Check of Understanding In a passive missile homing system:The pilot has to prime the missileTarget illumination is suppliedby a component carried in the missile,such as a radar transmitterThe directing intelligenceis received from the targetThe missile gets its target illuminationfrom an external source,such as a transmittercarried in the launching aircraft
26Check of Understanding An advantage of guided missilesover unguided missiles is:Guided missiles will always defeat a target aircraft’s anti-weapon defenceGuided missileswill always destroy a targetGuided missiles can more easily defeata target aircraft’s anti-weapon defenceGuided missiles will nearly alwaysdestroy a target
27Check of Understanding How is a guided missile steered andprovided with aerodynamic stability in flight?By use of fins and wingsBy use of ailerons and wingsBy use of fins and ruddersBy use of elevators and wings
28Check of Understanding What are the disadvantages ofunguided weapons?High accuracy, cost,aircraft & weapon integration is difficult.Low accuracy, more aircraft sorties required to achieve the desired weapons effect.Low accuracy, cost, aircraft and weapon integration is difficult.There are no disadvantages with unguided weapons.
29Check of Understanding In a semi active missile homing system:Target illumination is supplied by a component carried in the missile, such as a radar transmitterThe directing intelligence is received from the targetThe missile gets its target illuminationfrom an external source,such as a transmittercarried in the launching aircraftThe missile launches semi automatically
30Check of Understanding An advantage of unguided missilesover guided missiles is:Unguided missiles are smaller and lighterUnguided missiles are safer to operateUnguided missiles are safer to storeUnguided missiles are simplerto design and build