2Money MarketMoney market is a place for trading in money and short term financial assets that are close substitutes of money.Provides an opportunity for balancing the short term surplus funds of investors with short term requirements of borrowers.
3Market for short term loans i.e. less than one year. Do not deal in money but near money assets.Money market is not a place but an activity.The transactions are carried out by telephone, mail etc. among people who may have never met one other.Example: Bombay money market, New York money market
4The centre for dealings, mainly short term character, in monetary assets; it meets the short term requirements of borrowers and provide liquidity and cash to the lenders.
5Characteristics of Money Market RBI occupies an important position in the money market.Provides short term funds to various borrowers.Efficient mechanism for cost control, credit control.Enables businessmen to invest their temporary surplus
6Characteristics of a developed money Market Developed commercial banking systemPresence of a central bankAvailability of ample resourcesNear money assetsSub markets
7Players in Indian Money Market RBICommercial banksFinancial institutionsBrokersCorporate unitsDiscount and finance house of India
8Functions Of Money Market 1. Economic development of the country:Provide short term fundsEnsures regular supply of funds through its sub- markets and instrumentsHelps in economic development by providing financial assistance to trade, commerce and industry.
92. Profitable investment: Helps commercial banks to use their excess reserves in profitable investments. Maximize profits by investing their excess reserves.Excess reserves are invested in near money assets which are highly liquid and can be easily converted into cash.
103. Help to government: Borrows short term funds at very low interest rates. 4. Help to commercial Bank: the banks with deficit of funds can raise funds from money market at a low rate of interest. 5. Encouragement to Savings and investment: it encourages saving and investment by transferring funds from one sector to another sector.
131. Call Money MarketIt is the market for very short term funds, also called money at call and short notice.These loans are given for a very short period not exceeding 7 days.More often from day to day or for overnight only i.e. 24 hours.Highly liquid marketLoans are unsecured
142. Collateral loan market Backed by the securities, stocks and bonds.Collateral securities may be in the form of some valuable say govt. bonds which are easily marketable and do not fluctuate much in prices.The collateral is returned to the borrower when the loan is repaidOnce the borrower is unable to repay the loan, the collateral becomes the property of the lender.These loans are given for few months.
153. Acceptance MarketBankers’ acceptance is a draft drawn by an individual or a firm upon a bank and accepted by the bank whereby it is ordered to pay to the order of a designated party or to bearer a certain sum of money at a specified time in future.The market where the bankers’ acceptance are easily sold and discounted is known as acceptance market.A banker’s acceptance can be easily discounted in the money market because they carry signature of the bankers.
164. Bill MarketIt is a market in which short term papers or bills are bought and sold.Short term papersTreasury billsBills of exchange
17A bill of exchange is a written unconditional order which is signed by the drawer requiring the drawee to pay on demand or at fixed future time, a definite sum of money.Treasury bills are government papers securities for a short period usually of 91 days duration.Treasury bills are promissory notes of the government to pay a specified sum after a specified period.
191. Commercial Banks These are the backbone of the money market. These banks use their short term deposits for financing trade and commerce for short period.They invest their surplus funds in discounting bills of exchange.Commercial banks put their excess reserves in different forms or channels of investments which satisfy their liquidity and profitability needs.
202. Central bank Plays a vital role Monetary authority Acts as an apex institutionLender of last resortController and guardian of money marketRaises or reduces the money supply and credit to ensure economic stability in the economy.
213. Acceptance HousesFunctions as intermediaries between importers and exporters and between lenders and borrowers in the short period.Specialize in acceptance of commercial bills/trade bills.
224. Non-banking financial intermediaries Resort to lending and borrowing of short term funds in the money market.E.g. Insurance companies, investment houses, provident funds etc.
24Call and short notice money market Certificate of deposits InstrumentsTreasury billsCall and short notice money marketCertificate of depositsCommercial PaperREPOCommercial Bills
251. Commercial billsWritten instrument containing an unconditional orderSigned by the drawerDirecting a certain person to pay a certain sum of money only to, or order of a certain person, or to bearer of an instrument at a fixed time in future or on demandBill drawn when goods are sold on creditBuyer accepts the bill and return to sellerThe seller may either retain the bill or get it discounted
262. Treasury Bills It is a short term government security Usually of 91 days, 180 days or 365 days durationSold by central bank on behalf of governmentNo fixed rate of interest payableSold on basis of competitive bidding
273. Call and short notice money Call money refers to money given for very short periodTaken for a day or overnight but not exceeding seven days in any circumstances.Notice money refers to a money given for upto 14 daysIf the loan is given for 1 day – Money at callIf loan cannot be called back on demand and will require notice of atleast 3 days – Money at short notice
284. Certificate of deposit These are marketable receipts in bearer or registered form of funds deposited in a bank for a specified period at specified rate of interestFreely transferableLiquid and riskless in terms of default of payment of interest and principal.
295. Commercial Papers These are short term usance promissory notes Issued by reputed companies with good credit rating and having sufficient tangible assetsNegotiable by endorsement and deliveryNormally issued by banks, public utilities, insurance and finance companies.
306. REPOUnder REPO, holder of securities sells them to an investor with an agreement to repurchase at predetermined date and rate.Also called ready forward transaction as it involves selling a security on spot basis and repurchasing the same on forward basis.
31Defects in Indian money market Existence of unorganized money marketSeasonal diversity of money marketLack of integrationDisparity in interest ratesLack of very well organized banking system
32Reforms in Indian Money Market Development of money market instrumentsDeregulation of interest ratesInstitutional developmentPermission to foreign institutional investors