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Broadening the Design Space in Aerospace Anna-Maria R. McGowan, Ph.D. Aeronautics Research Directorate NASA Langley Research Center August 5, 2014 AIAA.

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Presentation on theme: "Broadening the Design Space in Aerospace Anna-Maria R. McGowan, Ph.D. Aeronautics Research Directorate NASA Langley Research Center August 5, 2014 AIAA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Broadening the Design Space in Aerospace Anna-Maria R. McGowan, Ph.D. Aeronautics Research Directorate NASA Langley Research Center August 5, 2014 AIAA Complex Aerospace Systems Exchange (CASE) 2014 San Diego, CA

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4 UAS Issues/Concerns Certification of UAS Aircraft & Operation for Safety  Historically, aircraft certification has focused on protecting the people on board, and thus you protect the people on the ground.  With unmanned aircraft, protecting people and property on the ground becomes paramount. Use of “Sense & Avoid” in place of “See & Avoid.”  Aviation regulations are built around a pilot-on-board, and a pair of eyes on every aircraft.  Principal metric used is “visibility”; but we need a new language for unmanned systems. Privacy Concerns Lost-Link Communications and Protocols Technical/Performance  What is the impact of a UAS ingested by a jet engine?  What are the operating limitations for UAS operating in icing conditions or extreme weather variations?  How do we keep command and control links secure in light of technological advances?  How do we stay in front of challenges as they arise? Vincent Schultz, Deputy PM at NASA Langley, UAS in the NAS,

5 Design in Engineering System Design and Interdependences 5

6 Design in Engineering To Design A System In Engineering Is To Explore And Exploit Interdependences While Enabling The Desired Outcome 6

7 Design in Engineering To Design A System In Engineering Is To Explore And Exploit Interdependences While Enabling The Desired Outcome 7 Aerodynamic Structures Propulsion … …

8 Design in Engineering To Design A System In Engineering Is To Explore And Exploit Interdependences While Enabling The Desired Outcome 8 Aerodynamic Structures Propulsion … …

9 Design in Engineering To Design A System In Engineering Is To Explore And Exploit Interdependences While Enabling The Desired Outcome 9 Aerodynamic Structures Propulsion … … Environment Cyber Security Sense & Avoid Unmanned General Public Use

10 Changing System Design Space Considerations 10 Common Assumptions for Today’s Systems:  Centralized, Expert Operator/Controller  System Use Contained to Small Scenarios  System Use has Minimal Collateral Impact Considerations for Systems of Tomorrow:  Decentralized, More Networked System  System use is remotely operated  Non-Experts blending with Machines to Make Decisions for Operation  System Use is Widely Distributed  System Use may strongly depend on many non-technical issues (fear, ignorance, privacy, economics, etc.)  System Use has Significant Collateral Impact (etc.)

11 Strategic Context System Context Stakeholder Context Implementation Context The Enterprise Systems Engineering Profiler Profiling Complex Systems Renee Stevens The MITRE Corporation 11

12 Design in Engineering To Design A System In Engineering Is To Explore And Exploit Interdependences While Enabling The Desired Outcome 12 Aerodynamic Structures Propulsion … … Environment Cyber Security Sense & Avoid Unmanned General Public Use How # of People # of Locations Internal Org Processes …

13 Competing Values Framework Collaborate ControlCompete Create Clan Hierarchy Adhocracy Market Robert Quinn,

14 Teams of hundreds..more typically thousands Teams are dispersed: Across buildings, states, countries Larger, Dispersed Teams Today 14 Bridging: -Culture, -Language, -Organizational processes -Engineering methods and assumptions

15 Broadening the Design Space Designing Engineering Components  Including Interdependencies between Engineering Components  Including Interdependencies between Engineering and Non-Engineering Aspects of System Use Designing Non-Engineering Components such as:  Organizations and Teams  Processes  Incentive Systems 15

16 “Textbook”AIAA CASE 2013 Discussions: The System = Hardware and Software The System = Hardware + Software + the Environment in Which the System is Developed It’s all about the engineering requirements It’s also about the people, contracts, procedures, stakeholders, municipalities, etc., involved Frozen requirements – up frontInsufficient information upfront to provide detailed or frozen requirements Decompose, develop, test, then re- integrate = Reductionist Interface boundaries are ambiguous and inconsistent; Interdependencies are profuse System is deterministicSystem is nondeterministic Avoid SurpriseExpect Surprise Test and simulate until you know everything Get Realistic Entire team is co-located for the duration of the development Entire team is distributed and often too large to be co- located “Use System as Directed”“Exploit System As Necessary” 16

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