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Part Three. Special Tests 1. Compression test 2. Flick/tap test 3. Percussion test 4. Collateral stress (wrist) 5. Collateral stress (fingers) 6. Watson.

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Presentation on theme: "Part Three. Special Tests 1. Compression test 2. Flick/tap test 3. Percussion test 4. Collateral stress (wrist) 5. Collateral stress (fingers) 6. Watson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part Three

2 Special Tests 1. Compression test 2. Flick/tap test 3. Percussion test 4. Collateral stress (wrist) 5. Collateral stress (fingers) 6. Watson Clunk 7. Tinel’s sign 8. Digital Allen test 9. Phalen 10. Reverse Phalen 11. Murphy’s sign 12. DeQuervain’s/Finkelstein 13. Long Finger Flexion test 14. Paper/Froment sign 15. Bunnell-Littler test

3 Compression Test (fracture): Examiner begins by grasping pt’s hand and compressing each digit along the long axis Complete on all digits Pain indicates a positive test for possible phalangeal fracture Do not perform if an obvious deformity is present

4 Flick/Tap Test (fracture) Stabilize pt’s finger with one hand and “flick” or tap the tip of pt’s finger with the index finger of the other hand Repeat on all digits Pain indicates a positive test for possible fracture

5 Percussion Test (fracture) Stabilize pt’s hand with one hand and percuss pt’s fingers independently with the index finger of the other hand Repeat on all digits Pain indicates a positive test for possible fracture

6 Collateral Stress Test (wrist) (capsular laxity): The examiner stabilizes the pt’s distal forearm with one hand while grasping the pt’s hand with the other While holding the pt’s forearm in a neutral position, the examiner then applies valgus and varus forces to the pt’s wrist to test the integrity of the pt’s medial and collateral wrist ligaments, respectively

7 Collateral Stress Test (fingers) (laxity): The examiner stabilizes the pt’s finger with the thumb and index finger of one hand and applies mild varus and valgus force to each of the interphalangeal joints with the thumb and index finger of the other hand, looking for laxity or abnormal joint opening that may be indicative of lateral and/or medial collateral ligament sprain Repeat on all phalangeal articulations of all fingers

8 Watson Clunk Test (instability): The examiner stabilizes pt’s distal radius and ulna with one hand and grasps the pt’s scaphoid bone with the thumb and index finger of the other The examiner then attempts to translate the pt’s scaphoid anteriorly and posteriorly Dislocation and/or subluxation indicates a positive test for scaphoid instability

9 Tinel’s Sign (at wrist) neuritis): Examiner taps lightly over the pt’s transverse carpal ligament, looking for signs of paresthesia along the distal-most distribution of the median nerve **Note: reflex hammer not required**

10 Digital Allen Test (arterial compromise): The examiner instructs pt. to rapidly open and close the hand 15 times As soon as the athlete finishes the final repetition, the examiner places his or her thumb over the pt’s radial artery and index finger over the pt’s ulnar artery If pt’s hand remains cyanotic until after the examiner removes the pressure, then the test is positive for poor, impaired, and/or depressed perfusion (circulation) through the distal extremities

11 Phalen Test (CTS/neurologic impairment): Position the patient with the dorsal aspect of both hands in full contact with both wrists maximally flexed Instruct the patient to hold the position for 1 minute Tingling or numbness radiating into the fingers (especially the palmar surface) indicates a positive test for median and/or radial nerve impairment

12 Reverse Phalen Test (carpal tunnel syndrome): Instruct pt to perform a Phalen test with the wrists positioned in full extension and the palms in full contact “Prayer hands” Pt is instructed to hold the position for 1 minute while the examiner applies direct pressure over the athlete’s carpal tunnel Tingling, numbness, and/or paresthesia indicates a positive test for carpal tunnel syndrome

13 Murphy’s Sign (lunate dislocation): Examiner instructs pt to make a fist, then assesses contour of MCP joints If third metacarpal is level with second and fourth metacarpals, lunate dislocation is suspected

14 DeQuervain’s (Finkelstein ) Test (DeQuervain’s disease): Instruct pt to abduct the thumb so that it rests in the palm of the hand Pt is then instructed to wrap the fingers over the thumb in order to make a fist Examiner then stabilizes the wrist with one hand and applies a varus force to the wrist Sharp pain on the lateral aspect of the wrist indicates a positive test for stenosing tenosynovitis to the abductor pollicus longus and/or the extensor pollicus brevis tendon sheath(s)

15 Long Finger Flexion Test (tendon rupture): Independently isolate each of the pt’s interphalangeal joints, looking for obvious inability to flex which may be indicative of muscular lesion and/or avulsion An inability to flex the DIP of any digit indicates a positive test for flexor digitorum profundus lesion An inability to flex the PIP of any digit indicates a positive test for flexor digitorum superficialis lesion

16 Paper Test /Froment’s Sign (neurologic impairment): Pt is instructed to hold a piece of paper between the 1 st and 2 nd digits by forcefully opposing those digits The examiner then attempts to pull the paper out An inability to hold the contraction and/or a weak contraction indicates a positive test for ulnar nerve impairment

17 Bunnel-Littler Test (hypomobility): Examiner holds the pt’s MCP joint in slight extension while moving the PIP joint into flexion If the PIP joint cannot be flexed, the test is positive for tight intrinsic muscles or contracture of the joint capsule The examiner then slightly flexes pt’s MCP joint while moving the PIP into flexion again If the PIP joint will flex, then the intrinsic muscles are tight If the PIP joint will not fully flex, then the joint capsule is tight Repeat on all digits


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