Theodore Roosevelt Nobel prize winner, physical culturalist, naval historian, essayist, biographer, paleontol- igist, taxidermist, ornith- ologist, field naturalist, conservationist, big game hunter, editor, critic, rancher, orator, colonel of cavalry...
He brought to the office of President a broad conception of its powers and invested the presidency with something of its modern status, as the center of national political life A conservative, but also a reformer
Roosevelt: Born into wealth Frail as child (asthma) Drove himself physically and intellectually intellectually
Roosevelt: After wife’s and mother’s death on the same day, he became a rancher in the Dakota Badlands Served in New York State Assembly and displayed an energy seldom seen in “that lethargic body.”
Roosevelt: Became the police Commissioner of New York City—a “flamboyant battler against crime and vice” Vigorously campaigned for the election of William McKinley
... made outstanding war plans including the plan that Admiral Dewey used in routing the Spanish fleet in the Philippines in the early days of the Spanish American War Then left that position to serve as an officer in the Army volunteers
New York Republican political machines political machines found too difficult to found too difficult to control control “Boss” Platt hatched a scheme to “kick upstairs” scheme to “kick upstairs” Nominated as vice presidential candidate for William McKinley’s candidate for William McKinley’s second term second term Elected Governor of New York in 1900
President McKinley......assassinated 6 months...assassinated 6 months into his second term into his second term At age 42, Roosevelt becomes the 26 th President becomes the 26 th President of the United States of the United States Youngest president (John Youngest president (John F. Kennedy was youngest F. Kennedy was youngest person elected president) person elected president)
As president: Boxed with professionals (blinded in one eye) in one eye) Galloped 100 miles on horseback to show it could be done to show it could be done Spared a bear cub on a hunting trip; toy company therefore toy company therefore named the teddy bear after named the teddy bear after him him
Roosevelt’s leadership and publicity campaigns helped create the modern presidency, making him a model by which all futurepresidents would be measured
Used dynamic personality and popularity to advance his programs National welfare: felt government should control whenever states proved incapable of dealing with problems—not a traditional Republican view—but change should be cautious and moderate
Policy of the square deal: if big business victimized workers, he would see to it that common people were helped His study of history convinced him that U. S. required a strong Federal govt. that was the mediator of the public good with president at the center
Heart of his policy: desire to win for federal government the power to investigate the activities of corporations and publicize the results He believed pressure of educated public opinion would alone eliminate most corporate abuses and gov. should legislate solutions to remaining problems
Trust-busting Did not believe all trusts were harmful were harmful Sought to curb trusts when their actions hurt public their actions hurt public trust trust Belief: only big business could ensure national greatness national greatness
Trust-busting Roosevelt Administration filed 44 antitrust suits filed 44 antitrust suits Won many, broke up some trusts, but did not some trusts, but did not slow merger movement slow merger movement Strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission and found Commerce Commission and found success trying to regulate railroads success trying to regulate railroads
1902 Coal Strike: 140,000 PA miners struck and demanded 20% raise & 9-hour day Management refused to even meet with the strikers with the strikers Roosevelt solved by calling both sides to talk at the White House—and sides to talk at the White House—and threatened Federal take-over of mines threatened Federal take-over of mines
1902 Coal Strike: Both sides finally agreed to submit differences to an arbitration differences to an arbitration commission as a mediator commission as a mediator 1903—commission settlement: 10% pay raise; 9 hour workday no closed shop (closed shop no closed shop (closed shop means all workers must belong means all workers must belong to the union) to the union)
1902 Coal Strike: Roosevelt’s actions set new principles: Federal government expected to Federal government expected to intervene when a strike threatened intervene when a strike threatened the public welfare the public welfare Disputes can be settled in an orderly Disputes can be settled in an orderly way with the help of experts way with the help of experts
Regulating Railroads Elkins Act of 1903—rebates (special discounts) to shippers illegal discounts) to shippers illegal Hepburn Act of 1906—strictly limited free railroad passes (form of bribery) free railroad passes (form of bribery) Also gave ICC power to set maximum shipping rates, subject maximum shipping rates, subject to court approval to court approval
Public Health Laws 1906: Pure Food and Drug Act, halted the Drug Act, halted the sale of contaminated sale of contaminated foods and medicines foods and medicines and called for truth and called for truth in labeling. in labeling. Progressive belief: if given accurate information, people would act wisely.
, Roosevelt appointed a Roosevelt appointed a commission commission to investigate to investigate meat packing meat packing industry industry Roosevelt pushed for the Roosevelt pushed for the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 Meat Inspection Act of 1906 After reading The Jungle by Upton Sinclair by Upton Sinclair
Public Health Laws Meat Inspection Act— dictated strict cleanli- ness requirements for meatpackers and began program of Federal meat inspection Meat Act & Hepburn Act: progressive principle of government regulation.
Conservation First president to pay attention to natural resources Said forest and water problems were vital problems were vital national concerns national concerns Attacked environmental problems with Attacked environmental problems with great zeal; banned Christmas Tree at great zeal; banned Christmas Tree at White House in 1902 White House in 1902
Conservation Naturalist John Muir...... persuaded Roosevelt to set aside 148 million to set aside 148 million acres of forest reserves, acres of forest reserves, during a Yosemite NP during a Yosemite NP camping trip in 1903 camping trip in 1903 Roosevelt also set aside 1.5 million acres for water power sites and 80 million acres for U. S. Geological Survey to explore for minerals
Conservation 1905: Roosevelt named professional conservationist Gifford Pinchot the head of the U. S. Forest Service Pinchot persuaded Roosevelt to keep large tracts of federal land exempt from private sale to conserve forest and grazing lands Roosevelt also funded large-scale irrigation projects and dams in West
The Panic of 1907 U. S. industrial production had outrun the capacity of either domestic or foreign markets to absorb it (producing too much) Once again, banking system and stock market—pathetic inadequacies market—pathetic inadequacies Irresponsible speculation and rampant financial mismanagement financial mismanagement
The Panic of 1907 Roosevelt reassured business leaders that he would not interfere with recovery that he would not interfere with recovery efforts efforts J. P. Morgan helped construct a pool of assets construct a pool of assets of several important New of several important New York banks to prop up York banks to prop up shaky financial institutions shaky financial institutions The panic subsided
Like many progressives, Roosevelt’s reforms did not include civil rights for African Americans He did, however, support a few individual Blacks Hosted Booker T. Washington at the White House for dinner & appointed some Blacks to federal jobs
W. E. B. Du Bois & others upset by Roosevelt’s indifference to civil rights In 1909, several African Americans and some Americans and some White reformers met in New York and White reformers met in New York and founded the National Association for founded the National Association for The Advancement of Colored People The Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) (NAACP)
When Roosevelt won re-election in 1904, he pledged not to run for another term in 1908.
Personally selected his own successor: Secretary of War, William H. Taft Democrats ran, for the third time, William Jennings Bryan
In Roosevelt’s shadow: “When I am addressed as ‘Mr. President,’ I as ‘Mr. President,’ I turn around to see turn around to see whether (Roosevelt is) whether (Roosevelt is) not at my elbow.” not at my elbow.” As president, he pursued a cautious agenda
Taft broke up 90 trusts in 4 years; Roosevelt broke up 44 in 7 ½ yrs. Roosevelt broke up 44 in 7 ½ yrs. Campaigned on a platform of lowering tariffs House passed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; but Senate conservative Republicans eliminated most cuts. Taft signed anyway, angering progressive Republicans.
Conservation Taft angered conservationists by appointing Richard A. Ballinger as Secretary of the Interior Seattle lawyer who disapproved of conservationist control of western lands Removed 1 million acres of forest and mining lands from reserved list and approved for sale to developers
After Gifford Pinchot had an argument with Ballinger, Taft fired Pinchot as head of U. S. Forest Service—further angering conservationists. Taft’s actions seemed to favor big business to favor big business interests over those interests over those of conservationists of conservationists and the land. and the land. Conservation
Taft’s cautious nature made it impossible for made it impossible for him to hold the two him to hold the two wings of the GOP wings of the GOP (Grand Old Party) (Grand Old Party) together. together. Progressives (change) (change) Conservatives Conservatives (no change) (no change) GOP began to tear apart
1910, Roosevelt returned from a hunting safari in Africa and said that the Republican Party needed new leadership. 1912, Roosevelt decided to challenge the incumbent Taft, his old friend, for the Republican nomination
Roosevelt’s policies as he re-entered politics re-entered politics Graduated income tax Graduated income tax Graduated inheritance tax Graduated inheritance tax Worker’s compensation Worker’s compensation for industrial accidents for industrial accidents Regulation of the labor of Regulation of the labor of women and children women and children Tariff revision Tariff revision Firmer regulation of corporations Firmer regulation of corporations
The result of the rift in the Republican Party and Taft’s inability to repair it was the loss of the House of Representatives to the Democrats in 1910—first Democratic control in 18 years. Mid-term elections Similar to stunning Democratic loss in 1994 mid-term elections loss in 1994 mid-term elections
1911, Roosevelt begins to aspire to another run for aspire to another run for President President 1911 Anti-trust decision by Taft Administration Taft Administration October 1911 suit against U. S. Steel challenging U. S. Steel challenging policies personally policies personally approved by Roosevelt approved by Roosevelt Reluctant to run because LaFollette had been working for nomination been working for nomination
1911, Roosevelt begins to aspire to another run for President February, 1912: LaFollette suffers a nervous breakdown suffers a nervous breakdown LaFollette’s supporters turned to Roosevelt turned to Roosevelt Roosevelt declared candidacy candidacy
June 1912: Taft supporters (party bosses) will not seat Roosevelt supporters; Taft nominated on first ballot Roosevelt’s supporters form a new, third party: the Progressive Party Nominate Roosevelt for President Roosevelt wins overwhelming victories over Taft in 13 primary elections over Taft in 13 primary elections
Bull Moose platform: Direct election of senatorsDirect election of senators Initiative, referendum & recallInitiative, referendum & recall in all states in all states Women’s suffrageWomen’s suffrage National workmen’s compensationNational workmen’s compensation Eight-hour workdayEight-hour workday Minimum wage for womenMinimum wage for women Federal law against child laborFederal law against child labor
Democrats nominated Woodrow Wilson of Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey New Jersey Taft and Roosevelt turned to calling turned to calling each other names each other names while Wilson stayed while Wilson stayed above it all above it all Campaigned for “New Freedom” Freedom”
Fourth candidate: Socialist Eugene V. Debs Results similar to those of 1992 of 1992
Originally from the SouthOriginally from the South Grandson, son, nephew ofGrandson, son, nephew of Presbyterian ministers Presbyterian ministers Strict moral upbringingStrict moral upbringing Graduate of College ofGraduate of College of New Jersey (now Princeton Univ.) New Jersey (now Princeton Univ.) Returned to Princeton as a politicalReturned to Princeton as a political science professor science professor Named Princeton president 1902—Named Princeton president 1902— national praise for campus reforms national praise for campus reforms Thomas Woodrow Wilson
New Jersey political machine tapped Wilson machine tapped Wilson to run for governor in to run for governor in 1910 1910 Elected, but declared himself independent of machine afterward independent of machine afterward Progressive programs as governor: Progressive programs as governor: Direct primary Workmen’s Compensation Regulation of public utilities Regulation of public utilities and railroads and railroads
Elected president in 1912—moved to 1912—moved to enact laws based on enact laws based on his program of his program of “New Freedom” “New Freedom” Attack on the triple wall of privilege: wall of privilege: Trusts, Tariffs, High Trusts, Tariffs, High Finance Finance
View of role of the government different government different from that of Roosevelt. from that of Roosevelt. Instead of regulating trusts, government trusts, government should break them up. should break them up. Government should not get larger; business should shrink get larger; business should shrink Main focus: attack large concentrations of power to give concentrations of power to give more freedom to average citizens. more freedom to average citizens.
Concentrated powers of Executive branch in his own hands in his own hands Delegated real authority only to those whom he considered loyal beyond whom he considered loyal beyond question question Most powerful figure in his administration: Colonel administration: Colonel Edward M. House Edward M. House Democratic majorities in both houses of Congress both houses of Congress
Significantly lowered tariffs tariffs To replace those revenues... revenues... Pushed through the Sixteenth Amendment (ratified in 1913), which legalized a graduated income tax. Taxed higher incomes at a higher rate than lower incomes. Created a national budget surplus
Financial Reform Pushed through the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 Divided U. S. into 12 districts All national banks in a given district affiliated with their district’s Federal Reserve bank Established the Federal Reserve System; today controls U. S. finance
Federal Trade Act of 1914 Set up a 5-member “watchdog” agency “watchdog” agency called the Federal Trade called the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) with Commission (FTC) with the power to investigate the power to investigate possible violations of possible violations of laws regulating business and to laws regulating business and to put a stop to unfair business put a stop to unfair business competition and business competition and business practices. practices.
Clayton Antitrust Act 1914 Strengthened Sherman Antitrust Act of 1896 Antitrust Act of 1896 Declared certain business practices business practices illegal: illegal: Corporations could no longer acquire stock of another corporation if so doing would create a monopoly
Clayton Antitrust Act Officers of companies who violated the law could be prosecuted Labor unions and farm organizations could exist and would no longer be subject to antitrust laws Strikes, peaceful picketing, boycotts, & collecting strike benefits became legal.
Clayton Antitrust Act Samuel Gompers: The Clayton Act was a Magna Carta for labor. Enhanced relationship between organized labor and Democratic Party
Early 1913, summoned Congress to special session to deliver a “State of the Union” Address. Set a precedent continued to this day
Presided over the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment by Congress in 1919 and its ratification in August 1920, but had refused to support the concept of women’s suffrage himself
Wilson’s Progressive Shortcomings: Shortcomings: Opposed a federal child labor law as labor law as unconstitutional unconstitutional Placed segregationists in charge of federal agencies, in charge of federal agencies, expanding segregation in the expanding segregation in the federal government, military and federal government, military and in Washington, D. C. in Washington, D. C.
Wilson’s Progressive Shortcomings: Shortcomings: Placed white Southerners in his cabinet, thereby extending segregation Opposed federal anti-lynching laws arguing that such crimes fell within states’ jurisdictions.
Roosevelt: strong progressive in domestic, or national affairs...... but equally well-known for his strong efforts in international strong efforts in international affairs affairs Continued McKinley’s thrust toward making the U. S. a world power. Significant contribution
China Europeans & Japanese carving up Many in U. S. feared the U. S. would be the U. S. would be cut out cut out John Hay: “Asking only the open door for ourselves, we are ready to accord the open door to others.”
Open Door Notes Each nation with a sphere of influence in China: respect the Rights and privileges of other Nations in its sphere Chinese officials: continue to collect tariffs in all spheres (existing tariff tariffs in all spheres (existing tariff favored the U. S.) favored the U. S.) No discrimination in levying port dues and railroad rates Roosevelt: vital for maintaining U. S. trade in the Pacific region and for preventing any single nation from establishing dominance there
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) After a year of fighting, Japanese won overwhelmingly at sea and on land. War causing huge economic drain on Japanese. Japanese asked Roosevelt to mediate the conflict. Aboard ship, Portsmouth, NH, 1905 Got both sides to give and take Nobel Peace Prize, 1906
San Francisco—1906, segregated Asian students into separate schools Asian students into separate schools Anti-American riots in Japan Roosevelt intervened 1907-08—Gentlemen’s Agreement: San Francisco Agreement: San Francisco stopped segregation; stopped segregation; Japan limited emigration Japan limited emigration to U. S. to U. S.
Great White Fleet 16 white battleships—Roosevelt sent 16 white battleships—Roosevelt sent on a world tour--1907. on a world tour--1907. Demonstrated U. S. naval power—world Demonstrated U. S. naval power—world class navy class navy
Great White Fleet Warmly received Warmly received by Japanese by Japanese Eventually, the Americans & Japanese, through diplomatic relations, pledged to respect each other’s possessions & interests in East Asia & the Pacific. Prompted the Japanese to increase the Prompted the Japanese to increase the size of their fleet size of their fleet
Roosevelt Corollary Many South American Many South American nations in debt to banks nations in debt to banks in Europe. in Europe. Roosevelt feared European Roosevelt feared European nations would intervene if nations would intervene if SA nations defaulted. SA nations defaulted. Roosevelt determined to make U. S. Roosevelt determined to make U. S. predominant power in Caribbean and predominant power in Caribbean and Central America Central America
Roosevelt Corollary Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine—Big Stick Policy Doctrine—Big Stick Policy Speak softly and carry a big stick! Warned European nations to stay out of Western Hemisphere— U. S. would exercise “international police power” if necessary.
Panama Canal When Roosevelt became President, U. S. had already achieved 3 of Mahan’srecommendations. Modern navy Bases in Caribbean Bases in Hawaii Roosevelt: goal to accomplish the 4 th recommendation—canal in Central America
Panama Canal Engineers found two possible routes. Engineers found two possible routes. Nicaragua Nicaragua Fewer obstacles Would cross Lake Nicaragua Panama (Colombia) Shorter Mountains, swamps, jungle
Panama Canal Philippe Bunau-Varilla Chief engineer of project Investor in New Panama Canal Company Company Sent all U. S. senators a Nicaraguan stamp showing an erupting volcano stamp showing an erupting volcano Convinced Senate to approve building a canal through Panama building a canal through Panama
supported by 11 U. S. warships. Panama Canal Panama owned by Colombia Roosevelt tried to get Colombia to sell Panama to U. S. sell Panama to U. S. Colombia refused Bunau-Varilla helped organize a Panamanian rebellion... Panamanian rebellion...
Panama Canal U. S. negotiated treaty with Colombia Panamanian independence U. S. control of 10-mile-wide canal zone canal zone U. S. began construction in 1904 construction in 1904 1921—U. S. paid Colombia $25 million Colombia $25 million
Panama Canal Workers fought diseases like yellow fever and bubonic plague fever and bubonic plague More than 5,600 workers died from disease. disease. Total cost to the U. S.: $380 million The process of how the U. S. got the land from Colombia caused ill will land from Colombia caused ill will between South American countries between South American countries and the U. S. for many years. and the U. S. for many years.
Dollar Diplomacy Example of U. S. police power: Taft Example of U. S. police power: Taft sent Marines to Nicaragua sent Marines to Nicaragua in 1911 to protect U. S. in 1911 to protect U. S. banking interests. banking interests. Some Marine units stayed in Nicaragua Some Marine units stayed in Nicaragua until 1933. until 1933.
Wilson: little interest or experience in diplomacy experience in diplomacy U. S. in Dominican Republic since 1905 since 1905 1915: landed Marines in Haiti to quell a revolution
Wilson’ Missionary Diplomacy U. S.--moral responsibility U. S.--moral responsibility to deny recognition to any to deny recognition to any South American government South American government it considered oppressive, it considered oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to undemocratic, or hostile to U. S. interests. U. S. interests. Policy pressured other Western Policy pressured other Western Hemisphere nations to establish Hemisphere nations to establish democratic governments. democratic governments.
Wilson’ Missionary Diplomacy First test of policy: Mexico First test of policy: Mexico Mexican Revolution 1911 Mexican Revolution 1911 Dictator Porfirio Diaz overthrown by peasants and workers 1910 peasants and workers 1910 Francisco Madero president 1911 1913—General Victoriano Huerta— took over government; executed took over government; executed Madero Madero Wilson refused to recognize
Wilson’ Missionary Diplomacy Small incident in April 1914 brought U. S. and Mexico close to war. U. S. and Mexico close to war. Marines invaded Vera Cruz—200 Mexicans died Mexicans died Situation calmed when Huertaoverthrown in 1915
Wilson’ Missionary Diplomacy Huerta overthrown by Venustiano Huerta overthrown by Venustiano Carranza Carranza Emiliano Zapata and Francisco “Pancho” Villa rebelled againstCarranza Wilson recognized Carranza govt.
Wilson’ Missionary Diplomacy Villa angry over Wilson’s Recognition of Carranza’s government Villa threatened reprisals against U. S. January 1916—Villa kidnapped U. S. miners in Mexico & executed them miners in Mexico & executed them March 1916—Villa raided Columbus, N.M. & killed 17 Americans. N.M. & killed 17 Americans.
Wilson’ Missionary Diplomacy Wilson sent an expeditionary force Wilson sent an expeditionary force of 15,000 soldiers under General of 15,000 soldiers under General John J. Pershing John J. Pershing Pershing never caught Pershing never caught Villa Villa U. S. withdrew force U. S. withdrew force 1917, to prepare for 1917, to prepare for entry into World War I entry into World War I Pershing’s operations Pershing’s operations angered many Mexicans angered many Mexicans
U. S. intervention in Mexican affairs represented American imperialist attitudes in the early 20 th century. Americans believed their political and economic institutions were superior and tried to extend them to other nations—even by military force. Unlike Europeans and Japanese, few Americans wanted to annex territory.