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Chapter 21 APUSH.  22 states  23,000,000 population  Industrial economy  Majority of transportation  Lincoln, a military novice. – Asks Robert.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 APUSH.  22 states  23,000,000 population  Industrial economy  Majority of transportation  Lincoln, a military novice. – Asks Robert."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21 APUSH

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3  22 states  23,000,000 population  Industrial economy  Majority of transportation  Lincoln, a military novice. – Asks Robert E. Lee to command Union troops and declines  Belief war is about slavery and preserving the Union.  11 states  10,000,000 –includes 4 million slaves  Agricultural economy –Exports, not food  Limited manufacturing and railroad lines.  Davis, military experience. – Better military leaders  Belief war is about states rights, independence and preserving their war of life. “The North’s major advantage would be its economy and the South’s main disadvantage was its economy”

4 Also known as the Battle of Manassas Junction (depends on the side that won!)Also known as the Battle of Manassas Junction (depends on the side that won!) First major battle of the Civil WarFirst major battle of the Civil War

5 Lincoln decided to try his unready troops against a small Confederate force.Lincoln decided to try his unready troops against a small Confederate force. If successful, would demonstrate Union power and could lead to the fall of RICHMOND.If successful, would demonstrate Union power and could lead to the fall of RICHMOND.

6 Confederate capital during the Civil WarConfederate capital during the Civil War Moved from Montgomery, ALMoved from Montgomery, AL 100 miles south of Washington DC100 miles south of Washington DC

7 Congressman and spectators brought lunch baskets to witness the “fun”Congressman and spectators brought lunch baskets to witness the “fun” Union did well at first, but STONEWALL JACKSON and his troops stood like a stone wall!Union did well at first, but STONEWALL JACKSON and his troops stood like a stone wall! The Union ended up being defeatedThe Union ended up being defeated

8 1.Made the South overconfident 2.Southern soliders deserted feeling war was already over. 3.Southern enlistments dropped!

9 The early Union war strategy and its initial attempts to win the war in Virgina failed miserably.The early Union war strategy and its initial attempts to win the war in Virgina failed miserably. Later the war developed into four phases which were geared towards attritionLater the war developed into four phases which were geared towards attrition

10 1.ANACONDA PLAN--Strangle the South by blockading its coasts 2.Control the Miss. River to cut the Confederacy in half 3.Devastate the South by cutting a path through GA and then sending troops through the Carolinas

11 4. Capture Richmond by annihilating the remaining Confederate armies.

12 Leader of the Army of the PotomacLeader of the Army of the Potomac Lincoln gave command to McClellan in late 1861Lincoln gave command to McClellan in late 1861 He was very cautious (too cautious)He was very cautious (too cautious) Frequently believed he was outnumbered. Frustrates Lincoln!!!!Frequently believed he was outnumbered. Frustrates Lincoln!!!!

13 Initially ineffective, but will begin to workInitially ineffective, but will begin to work Squeeze the South by cutting off its portsSqueeze the South by cutting off its ports Respected by England b/c Britian did not want a future war with NorthRespected by England b/c Britian did not want a future war with North

14 McClellan abandons direct frontal assault in favor of water approach to RichmondMcClellan abandons direct frontal assault in favor of water approach to Richmond Will fail when his forces are diverted to deal with Stonewall JacksonWill fail when his forces are diverted to deal with Stonewall Jackson McClellan will be removed and replaced by John PopeMcClellan will be removed and replaced by John Pope

15 Ships that were plated with ironShips that were plated with iron Allowed them to sustain much more damage and also to create more damageAllowed them to sustain much more damage and also to create more damage Great threat to the Union blockade plansGreat threat to the Union blockade plans

16 Merrimack (CSS Virginia)Merrimack (CSS Virginia) –Confederate ironclad ship; eventually destroyed by Confederates before falling into Union hands MonitorMonitor –Union counterpart to Merrimack

17 Most famous of Confederate commandersMost famous of Confederate commanders Given control of the ARMY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIAGiven control of the ARMY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA

18 Robert E. Lee’s first victory over the UnionRobert E. Lee’s first victory over the Union

19 Lee and Jackson versus PopeLee and Jackson versus Pope Confederate victoryConfederate victory Pope replacedPope replaced

20 Perhaps the most important battle of the warPerhaps the most important battle of the war Lee invaded Maryland hoping to take it from the Union and encourage foreign intervention on behalf of the SouthLee invaded Maryland hoping to take it from the Union and encourage foreign intervention on behalf of the South Bloodiest day of the war. Ended in stalemate!Bloodiest day of the war. Ended in stalemate!

21 South would never again be so close to victory!!!!!South would never again be so close to victory!!!!! –Foreign powers decide not to assist South in light of North’s power! Antietam allowed Lincoln the victory he needed to issue the EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATIONAntietam allowed Lincoln the victory he needed to issue the EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION

22 Freed the slaves in the states that were in rebellionFreed the slaves in the states that were in rebellion Civil War now became a moral crusade or a “higher purpose”Civil War now became a moral crusade or a “higher purpose” All slaves in rebellion declared free now and foreverAll slaves in rebellion declared free now and forever Slaves in Border States not included nor those in specific areas of conquered SouthSlaves in Border States not included nor those in specific areas of conquered South

23 Many Northerners, especially Border States and Ohio Valley, felt Lincoln went too farMany Northerners, especially Border States and Ohio Valley, felt Lincoln went too far Opposed fighting an “abolition” war!Opposed fighting an “abolition” war! Many abolitionists complained Lincoln didn’t go FAR enough!Many abolitionists complained Lincoln didn’t go FAR enough!

24 South accused Lincoln of trying to stir up a slave insurrectionSouth accused Lincoln of trying to stir up a slave insurrection Many in Europe please with the statement!Many in Europe please with the statement!

25 Lee’s smaller army splits Hooker’s in twoLee’s smaller army splits Hooker’s in two Hooker shortly removed and replaced by General MeadeHooker shortly removed and replaced by General Meade This is the battle in which Stonewall Jackson was accidentally shot and killed by his own menThis is the battle in which Stonewall Jackson was accidentally shot and killed by his own men Lee-- “I have lost my right arm”Lee-- “I have lost my right arm”

26 Bloodiest battle of the Civil WarBloodiest battle of the Civil War Lee decided to invade North again, this time through PA in hopes of strengthening peace movement in North and getting direct foreign supportLee decided to invade North again, this time through PA in hopes of strengthening peace movement in North and getting direct foreign support Known as the “High Tide of the Confederacy”Known as the “High Tide of the Confederacy”

27 South doomed after Gettysburg and VicksburgSouth doomed after Gettysburg and Vicksburg Would NEVER again invade the North and would remain on the defensiveWould NEVER again invade the North and would remain on the defensive

28 Given by Lincoln after Battle of GettysburgGiven by Lincoln after Battle of Gettysburg Established the idea of nation over unionEstablished the idea of nation over union Interestingly, attracted little attention at the time but became one of the most important speeches in the worldInterestingly, attracted little attention at the time but became one of the most important speeches in the world

29 Fight in the Western Theatre was for control of the MississippiFight in the Western Theatre was for control of the Mississippi

30 Western Theater Eastern Theater

31 Lincoln’s most able generalLincoln’s most able general Grant captured Fort Henry and Fort Donnellson in northern TN in early 1862Grant captured Fort Henry and Fort Donnellson in northern TN in early 1862 Another famous battle of Grant’s was SHILOH where it was extremely deadlyAnother famous battle of Grant’s was SHILOH where it was extremely deadly Brought a shocking realization to both sides war would not end quickly!!!Brought a shocking realization to both sides war would not end quickly!!!

32 Union leader who takes New Orleans in spring of 1862Union leader who takes New Orleans in spring of 1862 Gives major control of the Mississippi to the NorthGives major control of the Mississippi to the North

33 Involved Lee’s last victories and the famous Battle of GettysburgInvolved Lee’s last victories and the famous Battle of Gettysburg Lee defeated General Burnside at Fredericsburg in Dec. 1862Lee defeated General Burnside at Fredericsburg in Dec –Become’s known as “Burnsides Slaughter Pen” –Burnside removed from command and replaced with “Fighting Joe” Hooker

34 Western Theater Eastern Theater

35 Major battle that split the Confederacy in twoMajor battle that split the Confederacy in two Union now controlled the MississippiUnion now controlled the Mississippi Boosted Union morale along with Union victory at Gettysburg a day beforeBoosted Union morale along with Union victory at Gettysburg a day before

36 Famous Union general who pushed his way through northern GA and captured AtlantaFamous Union general who pushed his way through northern GA and captured Atlanta

37 After taking Atlanta, Sherman cut a 60 mile wide path through the heart of Georgia before arriving in SavannahAfter taking Atlanta, Sherman cut a 60 mile wide path through the heart of Georgia before arriving in Savannah Determined to inflict the horrors of war on the South and break its will!!!Determined to inflict the horrors of war on the South and break its will!!! “War is hell”--Sherman“War is hell”--Sherman

38 Aimed to destroy supplies destined for the Confederate Army and weaken morale of Southern troops by waging war on their homesAimed to destroy supplies destined for the Confederate Army and weaken morale of Southern troops by waging war on their homes Called “total war”Called “total war”

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40 Democratic faction that preached either defeatism with disloyal talk or a “peace at any price” philosophyDemocratic faction that preached either defeatism with disloyal talk or a “peace at any price” philosophy Condemned Lincoln for fighting an “unjust war”Condemned Lincoln for fighting an “unjust war”

41 Most famous CopperheadMost famous Copperhead Exiled to the SouthExiled to the South

42 Republican Party turns for one election into the Union Party with Lincoln as the candidateRepublican Party turns for one election into the Union Party with Lincoln as the candidate Andrew Johnson, a Southern Democrat, becomes his running mateAndrew Johnson, a Southern Democrat, becomes his running mate –Pick up Border State votes! Democrats run George McClellan with hopes of making peace with the ConfederacyDemocrats run George McClellan with hopes of making peace with the Confederacy

43 “Don’t swap horses in the middle of the river”“Don’t swap horses in the middle of the river”

44 The course of the war affected the election!!The course of the war affected the election!! Early in the campaign, the Union forces were stuckEarly in the campaign, the Union forces were stuck Lincoln did not believe he would be re- electedLincoln did not believe he would be re- elected

45 Northern victories by Farragut at Mobile, AL, Sherman taking Atlanta, and Gen. Phillip Sheridan destroying the Shenandoah Valley helped Lincoln winNorthern victories by Farragut at Mobile, AL, Sherman taking Atlanta, and Gen. Phillip Sheridan destroying the Shenandoah Valley helped Lincoln win

46 “With malice towards none, with charity for all”“With malice towards none, with charity for all” Gave some hint of his Reconstruction policy to come!Gave some hint of his Reconstruction policy to come!

47 Grant was moved to the eastern theater late in the warGrant was moved to the eastern theater late in the war Grant’s strategy was to attack Rebel armies simultaneously thus not allowing them to assist one anotherGrant’s strategy was to attack Rebel armies simultaneously thus not allowing them to assist one another Destroy the Confederate ArmyDestroy the Confederate Army

48 Nickname given to Grant b/c of the large amount of deaths allowed by his own menNickname given to Grant b/c of the large amount of deaths allowed by his own men

49 Lee’s army surrounded near APPOMATTOX COURT HOUSE in VirginiaLee’s army surrounded near APPOMATTOX COURT HOUSE in Virginia Lee surrendered the Army of Northern VirginiaLee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia The Civil War is basically over!The Civil War is basically over!

50 Lincoln assassinated on night of April 14 th, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s TheaterLincoln assassinated on night of April 14 th, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater South was happy at first, but eventually saw it as a disaster for them as Congressional Republicans will be much harsher on them than Lincoln would have been!!South was happy at first, but eventually saw it as a disaster for them as Congressional Republicans will be much harsher on them than Lincoln would have been!!

51 Most notorious POW camp during warMost notorious POW camp during war More than 130,000 Union soldiers die thereMore than 130,000 Union soldiers die there

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