Presentation on theme: "ROMAN HOUSES AND VILLAS Roman Houses and Villas There was a significant difference between the south- eastern half of Britannia (the Roman name for."— Presentation transcript:
ROMAN HOUSES AND VILLAS Roman Houses and Villas There was a significant difference between the south- eastern half of Britannia (the Roman name for Britain) and the north-western region. In the south-east Roman style country homes known as villas were established. In the north and west of Britain, few villas have been found. Not all Romans lived in villas. The majority of people living in the country lived in houses in the style of the celtic houses. These houses were usually round and made of timber and thatched. celtic houses Did you know? Only one percent of people in Roman Britain lived in villas.
How do we know what Roman houses were like? A lot of building material has survived from the Roman period, but mainly for buildings constructed of stone and tile. There is little evidence of wattle and daub buildings, which are thought to have been used throughout the Roman period. Roman houses, especially ones belonging to rich people, were so well built that the remains of villas and even towns have been found. We can tell from these finds that: the Romans were good builders most people of Roman Britain lived in the countryside rich Romans living in the country, lived in villas and everyone else lived in huts. Some people lived in the towns
DRAWINGS Drawings Using the evidence found, artists make drawings of what Roman houses may have looked like. Our understanding of what Roman houses were like change each year as more evidence is uncovered. Below you can see three drawings of the Roman Villa at Lullingstone. They were drawn or painted at different times but show what the villa may have looked like around AD 360. Each one is slightly different, reflecting the changing information and opinions about how the site may have looked - as well as different artistic styles. In the first painting the view is from above, as a bird might see it. The walls are not plastered and there is a court yard next to the central rooms. The second painting does not have a front entrance up a ramp or steps as the other two have. None of these illustrations are 'right' - each is a separate attempt at picturing the past.
HEATING RRich Roman houses had central heating which was under the floors. This heating system was called a hypocaust. The floors were supported on stacks of tiles (pilae) and hot air was circulated under the floor from a furnace stoked outside the building.
What was a rich Romans house like? Wealthy Roman citizens in the towns lived in a domus. They were single-storey houses which were built around a courtyard known as an atrium. Atriums had rooms opening up off of them and they had no roofs. A rich Roman house had many rooms including kitchen, bath, dining, bedrooms and rooms for slaves. A long covered porch, or verandah, with a low wall and pillars, was built along the front of the house to keep the rooms cool in the summer.
AA atrium formal entrance hall AA lala "wings" opening from atrium CC cubiculum small room; bedroom CCu culina kitchen EE exedra garden room PP peristylium colonnaded garden TT taberna shop TTa tablinum office; study TTri triclinium dining room VV vestibulum entrance hall
Where did poor Romans live? Poor Romans lived in simple flats. These were called insulae. They often only contained one or two rooms. There was no running water.
How did the Romans get their running water? Lead pipes brought water to the rich people houses. The pipes were taxed according to size, The larger the pipes the more the tax. Archaeologists can usually tell the wealth of an owner of a Roman house by simply looking at the size of the lead pipes that brought water to that house.
Every town had its own bath complex (like a large swimming pool). There were 170 baths in Rome during the reign of Augustus and by 300 A.D that number had increased to over 900 baths. The Romans loved washing and bathing. People went to the public baths (Thermae) for entertainment, healing or just to get clean. Big Roman villas also had their own baths.villas There are still Roman baths in the city of Bath, in Somerset.
The layout of a Roman Bath There were usually three bathrooms - a warm one, a hot one, where slaves would rub their masters all over with sweet oil, and a big cold bath to swim in.
Motte and Bailey Castles The term motte and bailey castle comes from Norman French words for mound and enclosed land. The Normans from France introduced this kind of castle to England when they invaded the country in 1066. The term motte and bailey castle comes from Norman French words for mound and enclosed land. The Normans from France introduced this kind of castle to England when they invaded the country in 1066.Normans Motte - mound or 'clod of earth' Bailey - enclosure. Motte - mound or 'clod of earth' Bailey - enclosure.
How were Motte and Bailey Castles built? First a huge mound (the motte), rather like a vast upside down pudding bowl, was built. The main fort called a keep was built on top.
The sides of the motte were so steep that it would have been impossible to run up them. A deep ditch was dug around the bottom of the motte which made it even more difficult to attack. At the bottom of the motte, a smaller mound was built for all the horses and cattle and people who weren't going to be based in the fortress itself. They put a strong wooden fence (palisade) around that and called it a bailey.
Inside the bailey were various buildings for the people who lived and worked in the castle, including stables, storehouses, bakeries, kitchens, cottages, and quarters for soldiers. The bailey was surrounded by a ditch, called a fosse.
The leader of the Normans was called William. When William won the Battle of Hastings, he earned himself the title 'Conqueror'. He marched to London and was crowned King in Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066.
There were motte and bailey castles all over England and along the frontier of Wales. Many of England's existing castles began as motte and bailey castles.
Why did stone castles replace the motte and bailey castles? TTimber, one of the two materials from which motte and bailey castles were built (the other being earth), was perishable (rots) and, more importantly, vulnerable to fire. A more durable and resistant medium was required and that was provided by stone. CCompared to the motte and bailey, stone castles were larger taller and more reliable for defence purposes. They gave better protection against attack, fire and cold rainy weather.
What was the first castle built by William (King William 1)? Windsor Castle was the first in a series of nine castles that England's King William built around London.
When was stone used to build castles? During the 12th century many castles were improved and strengthened. The methods of attacking and besieging castles had improved and so there was a need for stronger, more durable (longer lasting) defences. The timber defences of motte and bailey castles were replaced by walls and towers of stone.