Presentation on theme: "Suggestions of methods to oxygenize the deeper part of The Baltic Proper Peter Kjaerboe 1, Stefan Nyström, Arne Moberg 2, and Nick Aladin 3 1 – KTH, 2."— Presentation transcript:
Suggestions of methods to oxygenize the deeper part of The Baltic Proper Peter Kjaerboe 1, Stefan Nyström, Arne Moberg 2, and Nick Aladin 3 1 – KTH, 2 - o2gruppen, 3 - LaboratoryBrackish Water Hydrobiology, Zoological Institute of RAS The Baltic Sea Day St. Petersburg, March 21-23, 2007
Efficiency Systems forced by natural renewable energy More efficient systems commonly found in nature
Problem: oxygen-deficit in The Baltic Sea Red area, oxygen less than 2 ml/l Black, hydrogen sulphide no life except certain bacteria October 2006, SMHI
What if we succed to oxygenize The Baltic? Among other species, neccesary for diversity and survival of mankind, this pal can be saved Value of fish 1 billion euros and tourism 0,2 billion euros per year
”Continuity of mass” yearly flows, q, km 3 /year Rain 200 Brakish out 1 000 Salt in 500 Evaporation 200 Run off 500
Circulation in The Baltic Sea Section view From Sea Research institute Helsinki, Finland Salt water entrainement into The Baltic Sea, plan view
Density depends on temperature and salinity Plimsoll, legend Example ship side
Syreverk, idea presented 2005 in Gotland Syreverk can mix sweet with salt, picture. It can also mix sweet
Run off through Danish sounds except west Sweden and Denmark
Saltlock in The Big Belt sound, idea presented in 2005 Meteorological tide causes alternating flow in/out Moore salt can be brought into the Baltic Sea by reducing the outflow, also look at http://o2gruppen.se/swe.html
Direction and approximate values of currents due to meteorological tide a b c Velocity profile in Big Belt Sound regarding saltinflow, bottom, and brackish water flow. Approximate velocities around 0,2 to 0,4 knots, a. When easterly or southerly wind reaches 25 m/s the outflow has an average velocity of 1 knot, b. Inflow, velocity profile with an average velocity of approximately 1,25 knots. This occurs when westerly or northerly winds reaches 25 m/s.
More info! O2gruppen see http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=4 607854240164995996 and http://o2gruppen.se http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=4 607854240164995996 http://o2gruppen.se
Oscillations, time and causes Thousands of years due to ice 250 years due to change of speed of earth rotation 80 year due to solar activity atmospheric activity, cyclone-anticyclone Yearly due to change of inclination of rotation Monthly due to gravitational forces with moon Weekly due to cyclone ocillations Daily due to rotation Hours due to moon Minutes due to wind, waves Seconds due to breathing
Adaptation Living species have been developed with these oscillations and has adapted to them Examples are hibernation, diapause, even resting during every seven day, Sunday
Peter works with heating of buildings Windows examplesThe floatglass and the window is one of the more important engineering ideas lately. Most people can afford good hygiene indoors, light is good for health and makes cleaning possible, (You can see!), without high heating cost Several panes affordable!
Engineering measures are used in many all day situations Measures, example Insulation, furnace Knives, penicilin Plough, stove, refrigerator Pencil, computer Tools Wheels, ship on water and in air … Situation, example Except in building hygiene also Health Food production and preparation Work Industry Transport …
Engineering have always both positive and negative consequences As long we can argue without reservations and with somebody listening we can find solutions either stop, replace or invent something better However man made solutions always less efficient than natural
Present work Model 3 will soon be presented Model 4 will soon be presented
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