4Star Birth Dust and Gas DUST and GAS Come closer together due to gravity.Mostly Hydrogen and Helium.Star Cluster N81
5Star Birth Dust and Gas Gravity Protostar PROTOSTAR Gas condenses due to gravity.Planets may form.Temperature increases.
6Star Birth Dust and Gas Gravity Protostar At a distance of 7000 light years this nebula contains the largest protostar yet to be discovered. This protostar is 300 times the size of our own solar system. A protostar is a gas cloud that "shrinks" its way to becoming a star.
7Star Birth H + H = He + ENERGY FUSION Hydrogen molecules smash together to form Helium and energy.Star begins to shine.Bigger the star the faster it “burns”.
8Star Birth Dust and Gas Gravity Fusion Protostar FUSION Hydrogen molecules smash together to form Helium and energy.Star begins to shine.Bigger the star the faster it “burns”.
9Star Birth Main Sequence Star Dust and Gas Gravity Fusion Protostar Type of Main Sequence star depends on initial mass.Bigger = Higher Temperature = Change in color.
10Star Birth MAIN SEQUENCE STAR Blue GiantsMAIN SEQUENCE STARType of Main Sequence star depends on initial mass.Bigger = Higher Temperature = Change in color.Sun ClassRed Dwarfs
11Main Sequence Star Dust and Gas Gravity Fusion Protostar BirthMain Sequence StarDeathBlue GiantsSun ClassRed Dwarfs
19Small Star Death Helix Nebula A mere seven hundred light years from Earth, in the constellation Aquarius, a sun-like star is dying. Its last few thousand years have produced the Helix Nebula (NGC 7293), a well studied and nearby example of a Planetary Nebula, typical of this final phase of stellar evolution. Nearly 11 hours of exposure time have gone into creating this remarkably deep view of the nebula. It shows details of the Helix's brighter inner region, about 3 light-years across, but also follows fainter outer halo features that give the nebula a span of well over six light-years. The white dot at the Helix's center is this Planetary Nebula's hot, central star.
20Small Star Death Planetary nebula Small MSS White Dwarf Fuel used up Core CollapsePlanetary nebulaWhite DwarfFuel used upRed GiantWHITE DWARFOuter nebula expands away.Small dense core remains.Size of the Earth, but the mass of the Sun.Will eventually burn out and become a Black Dwarf.
27Large Star Death Supernova Large MSS Supergiant Blow up Fuel used up Supernova RemnantSUPERNOVAExplosion of outer gasses.Very quick.Collapse of core.
28Large Star Death Supernova Large MSS Supergiant Blow up Fuel used up Crab NebulaSUPERNOVAExplosion of outer gasses.Very quick.Collapse of core.
29Star Collapse H + H = He + ENERGY STAR COLLAPSE Outward force of fusion is gone.Gravity dominates.
30Large Star Death Neutron Star Supernova A neutron star is about 12 miles in diameter and has the mass of about 1.4 times that of our Sun. This means that a neutron star is so dense that on Earth, one teaspoonful would weigh a billion tons! Because of its small size and high density, a neutron star possesses a surface gravitational field about 200,000,000,000 times that of Earth.
31Large Star Death Neutron Star Supernova NEUTRON STAR Collapse of core. Pulsating Neutron Star = PulsarNEUTRON STARCollapse of core.Very dense.
32Large Star Death Neutron Star Supernova Black Hole BLACK HOLE Complete collapse of the core.Infinitely small. Infinitely dense.Center of Milky Way
36The sun is a mass of incandescent gas A gigantic nuclear furnace Where hydrogen is built into helium At a temperature of millions of degrees Yo ho, it's hot, the sun is not A place where we could live But here on Earth there'd be no life Without the light it gives We need its light We need its heat We need its energy Without the sun, without a doubt There'd be no you and me The sun is a mass of incandescent gas A gigantic nuclear furnace Where hydrogen is built into helium At a temperature of millions of degrees The sun is hot It is so hot that everything on it is a gas: iron, copper, aluminum, and many others. The sun is largeIf the sun were hollow, a million Earths could fit inside. And yet, the sun is only a middle-sized star. The sun is far away About 93 million miles away, and that's why it looks so small. And even when it's out of sight The sun shines night and day The sun gives heat The sun gives light The sunlight that we see The sunlight comes from our own sun's Atomic energy Scientists have found that the sun is a huge atom-smashing machine. The heat and light of the sun come from the nuclear reactions of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and helium.The sun is a mass of incandescent gas A gigantic nuclear furnace Where hydrogen is built into helium At a temperature of millions of degrees