Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

S t o i c h i o m e t r y A q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d y o f c h e m i c a l c h a n g e s.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "S t o i c h i o m e t r y A q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d y o f c h e m i c a l c h a n g e s."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 S t o i c h i o m e t r y A q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d y o f c h e m i c a l c h a n g e s

3 M a s s - M a s s P r o b l e m s G i v e n a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f r e a c t a n t, h o w m u c h p r o d u c t c a n b e f o r m e d ?

4 M a s s - M a s s P r o b l e m s T h e m o l e r a t i o f r o m t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s i n a b a l a n c e d e q u a t i o n i s u s e d t o c h a n g e f r o m o n e s u b s t a n c e t o a n o t h e r.

5 M o l e F r a c t i o n FeS + 2HCl H 2 S + FeCl 2 1 mole FeS = 1 mole H 2 S

6 M o l e F r a c t i o n FeS + 2HCl H 2 S + FeCl 2 2 mole HCl = 1 mole H 2 S

7 Mass-Mass Steps: 1. Write the balanced equation.

8 Mass-Mass Steps: 2. Put given mass on a factor-label form.

9 Mass-Mass Steps: 3. Convert mass of reactant to moles of reactant.

10 Mass-Mass Steps: 4. Convert moles of reactant to moles of product.

11 Mass-Mass Steps: 5. Convert moles of product to grams of product.

12 Mass-Mass Steps: 6. Pick up the calculator and do the math.

13 M a s s - M a s s p r o b l e m s u s u a l l y l o o k l i k e t h i s :

14 I f i r o n p y r i t e, F e S 2, i s n o t r e m o v e d f r o m c o a l, o x y g e n f r o m t h e a i r w i l l c o m b i n e w i t h b o t h t h e i r o n a n d t h e s u l f u r a s c o a l b u r n s.

15 W r i t e a b a l a n c e d e q u a t i o n s h o w i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f i r o n ( I I I ) o x i d e a n d s u l f u r d i o x i d e.

16 N o w t h e m a s s - m a s s p a r t : I f a f u r n a c e b u r n s a n a m o u n t o f c o a l c o n t a i n i n g g o f F e S 2, h o w m u c h s u l f u r d i o x i d e i s p r o d u c e d ?

17 M a s s - M a s s P r o b l e m s S t e p 1: W r i t e t h e b a l a n c e d e q u a t i o n f o r t h e r e a c t i o n.

18 F e S 2 + O 2 F e 2 O 3 + S O 2

19 B a l a n c e t h e e q u a t i o n : 4 D i a t o m i c m o l e c u l e s 4 M e t a l s 4 N o n m e t a l s 4 O x y g e n 4 H y d r o g e n 4 R e c o u n t a l l a t o m s 4 R e d u c e, i f n e e d e d

20 4 F e S O 2 2 F e 2 O S O 2

21 M a s s - M a s s P r o b l e m s S t e p 2: W r i t e w h a t i s g i v e n.

22 1 0 0 g F e S 2 W r i t e w h a t i s g i v e n

23 M a s s - M a s s P r o b l e m s S t e p 3: C o n v e r t m a s s o f r e a c t a n t t o m o l e s o f r e a c t a n t.

24 1 0 0 g F e S 2 1 m o l e F e S g F e S 2 C o n v e r t g r a m s t o m o l e s formula mass: Fe = 1 X 56 = 56 S = 2 X 32 = 64 S = 2 X 32 =

25 M a s s - M a s s P r o b l e m s S t e p 4: U s e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f r e a c t a n t a n d p r o d u c t i n t h e b a l a n c e d e q u a t i o n

26 4 F e S O 2 2 F e 2 O S O 2 R e a c t a n t P r o d u c t

27 M a s s - M a s s P r o b l e m s S t e p 4: C o n v e r t m o l e s o f r e a c t a n t t o m o l e s o f p r o d u c t.

28 1 0 0 g F e S 2 1 m o l e F e S g F e S 2 2 m o l e S O 2 1 m o l e F e S 2 C h a n g e s u b s t a n c e s

29 M a s s - M a s s P r o b l e m s S t e p 5: C o n v e r t m o l e s o f p r o d u c t t o g r a m s o f p r o d u c t.

30 1 0 0 g F e S 2 1 m o l e F e S g F e S 2 2 m o l e S O g S O 2 1 m o l e F e S 2 1 m o l e S O 2 C o n v e r t m o l e s t o g r a m s

31 M a s s - M a s s P r o b l e m s S t e p 6: U s e c a l c u l a t o r t o d o t h e m a t h.

32 100 g FeS 2 1 mole FeS 2 2 mole SO 2 64 g SO g FeS 2 1 mole FeS 2 1 mole SO g S O 2 = = D o t h e m a t h

33 100 g FeS 2 1 mole FeS 2 2 mole SO 2 64 g SO g FeS 2 1 mole FeS 2 1 mole SO 2 R e m e m b e r : F a c t o r - l a b e l c a n c e l s u n i t s

34 P r a c t i c e

35 Problem #1

36 Problem #2

37 Problem #3

38 More P r a c t i c e

39 How much silver is obtained from the decomposition of 100 grams of silver oxide?

40 2Ag 2 O --> 4Ag + O 2

41 100g Ag 2 O 1 mole Ag 2 O 4 mole Ag 108g Ag 232g 2 mole 1 mole Ag Ag 2 O Ag 2 O 93g Ag 2Ag 2 O --> 4Ag + O 2 Ag - 2 X 108 = 216 O - 1 X 16 =

42 50g of iron (II) sulfide react with an excess of HCl in a double displacement reaction. How many grams of hydrogen sulfide are produced?

43 FeS + 2HCl --> H 2 S + FeCl 2 50g FeS 1 mole FeS 1 mole H 2 S 34g H 2 S 88g FeS 1 mole FeS 1 mole FeS 19 g H 2 S

44 How much ammonium hydroxide is produced when 25g of ammonium phosphate react with an excess of barium hydroxide in a double displacement reaction?

45 2(NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 + 3Ba(OH) 2 --> 6NH 4 OH + Ba 3 (PO 4 ) 2 25g 1 mole 6 mole 35g (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 NH 4 OH NH 4 OH 149g 2 mole 1 mole (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 NH 4 OH 18g NH 4 OH

46 Calcium and aluminum chloride combine in a single displacement reaction. Assuming a sufficient amount of calcium is used, how much aluminum is produced from 10g of aluminum chloride?

47 3Ca + 2AlCl 3 --> 2Al + 3CaCl 2 10g AlCl 3 1 mole AlCl 3 2 mole Al 27g Al 132g AlCl 3 2 mole AlCl 3 1 mole Al 2g Al

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58 What mass of water can be produced by 4g of H 2 reacting with 16g of O 2 ?

59 1. Write a balanced equation for the reaction.

60 2. Convert both reactant quantities to moles. 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O

61

62 3. Using the mole ratio from the equation, determine the moles of water that could be formed by each reactant.

63

64 16 grams of O 2 cannot produce as much water as 4 grams of H 2. In other words, 16 grams of O 2 will be used up in the reaction before 4 grams of H Oxygen produces the least amount of water.

65 Oxygen is the "limiting" reactant. Use oxygen to finish the calculation of product amount.

66 5. Complete the problem by converting moles of H 2 O to mass of H 2 O.

67

68 75 grams of calcium oxide react with 130 grams of hydrochloric acid to produce a salt and water. What is the limiting reactant?

69 CaO + HCl Salt + H 2 O

70 CaO + HCl CaCl 2 + H 2 O Balance the equation

71 CaO + 2HCl CaCl 2 + H 2 O Convert both reactants to moles

72 Convert both reactants to moles of product 75 g CaO 1 mole CaO 36 g HCl 130 g HCl 1 mole HCl Ca - 1 X 40 = 40 O - 1 X 16 = g CaO H - 1 X 1 = 1 Cl - 1 X 35 = 35 36

73 56 g CaO 1 mole CaO Whichever produces the LEAST amount of product is the limiting reactant. 75 g CaO 1 mole CaO 1 mole CaCl 2 36 g HCl 2 mole HCl 130 g HCl 1 mole HCl 1 mole CaCl 2

74 56 g CaO 1 mole CaO CaO produces 1.3 mole CaCl 2 HCl produces 1.8 mole CaCl 2 75 g CaO 1 mole CaO 1 mole CaCl 2 36 g HCl 2 mole HCl 130 g HCl 1 mole HCl 1 mole CaCl 2

75 56 g CaO 1 mole CaO CaO produces 1.3 mole CaCl 2 CaO is the limiting reactant. 75 g CaO 1 mole CaO 1 mole CaCl 2 36 g HCl 2 mole HCl 130 g HCl 1 mole HCl 1 mole CaCl 2

76 How much aluminum oxide is produced when 46.5 g of Al react with g of MnO? Homework Problem:

77 2 Al + 3 MnO 3 Mn + Al 2 O 3 Homework Problem

78 46.5g Al 1 mole Al 1 mole Al 2 O 3 Homework Problem 27g Al 2 moles Al g MnO 1 mole MnO 1 mole Al 2 O 3 71g MnO 3 mole MnO Al - 1 X 27 = 27 Mn - 1 X 55 = 55 O - 1 X 16 = 16 71

79 Homework Problem g MnO 1 mole MnO 1 mole Al 2 O 3 102g Al 2 O 3 71g MnO 3 mole MnO 1 mole Al 2 O 3 79 g Al 2 O 3

80 5 grams of copper metal react with a solution containing 20 grams of silver nitrate to produce copper (II) nitrate and silver. A. What is the limiting reactant? B. How many grams of Ag are produced? #1

81 5g Cu 1 mole Cu 2 mole Ag 20g AgNO 3 1 mole AgNO 3 2 mole Ag Cu + 2 AgNO 3 Cu(NO 3 ) Ag 64g Cu 1 mole Cu 170 g AgNO 3 2 mole AgNO silver nitrate is the limiting reactant 1A.

82 20g AgNO 3 1 mole AgNO 3 2 mole Ag 108g Ag Cu + 2 AgNO 3 Cu(NO 3 ) Ag 170 g AgNO 3 2 mole AgNO 3 1 mole Ag 12.7g Ag 1B.

83 A solution containing 20 g of sodium sulfite reacts with 7 ml of phosphoric acid. The concentration of the acid solution is such that there are 1.83 g of H 3 PO 4 per ml of solution. A. How many g of water are produced? B. How many moles of Na 3 PO 4 are produced? C. How many g of SO 2 are produced? #2

84 20g Na 2 SO 3 1 mole Na 2 O 3 3 mole H 2 O 3Na 2 SO 3 + 2H 3 PO 4 2Na 3 PO 4 + 3SO 2 + 3H 2 O 126g Na 2 SO 3 3 mole Na 2 SO g H 3 PO 4 1 mole H 3 PO 4 3 mole H 2 O 98g H 3 PO 4 2 mole H 3 PO g 7 ml 1 ml = 12.8 g

85 3Na 2 SO 3 + 2H 3 PO 4 2Na 3 PO 4 + 3SO 2 + 3H 2 O 2.9 g H 2 O Produced 20g Na 2 SO 3 1 mole Na 2 O 3 3 mole H 2 O 18 g H 2 O 126g Na 2 SO 3 3 mole Na 2 SO 3 1 mole H 2 O 2A.

86 3Na 2 SO 3 + 2H 3 PO 4 2Na 3 PO 4 + 3SO 2 + 3H 2 O 17.4 g Na 3 PO 4 Produced 20g Na 2 SO 3 1 mole Na 2 O 3 2 mole Na 3 PO g Na 3 PO 4 126g Na 2 SO 3 3 mole Na 2 SO 3 1 mole Na 3 PO 4 2B.

87 3Na 2 SO 3 + 2H 3 PO 4 2Na 3 PO 4 + 3SO 2 + 3H 2 O 10.2 g SO 2 Produced 20g Na 2 SO 3 1 mole Na 2 O 3 3 mole SO 2 64 g SO 2 126g Na 2 SO 3 3 mole Na 2 SO 3 1 mole SO 2 2C.

88 Copper and Silver Metals

89


Download ppt "S t o i c h i o m e t r y A q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d y o f c h e m i c a l c h a n g e s."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google