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Chapter Eighteen The American Economy Goods and Services ~~~~~ American Production.

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1 Chapter Eighteen The American Economy Goods and Services ~~~~~ American Production


3 Goods and Services goods and services are produced by a country’s economy the availability of plentiful and affordable goods depends on mass production Goods = products that are manufactured and that consumers can buy and own. Services = work that does not produce an actual product, but which consumers can buy.

4 measures of economic well-being gross domestic product (GDP) dollar value of all goods and services produced annually in U.S. unemployment rate business failure rate tax revenue from American businesses and citizens mass production rapid production by machine of large numbers of identical objects requires many large, complex machines and vast amounts of power origins of mass production Eli Whitney one of the first inventors to make mass production possible 1798 contract to make muskets for the U.S. Army promised to manufacture and deliver 10,000 muskets in just two years special demonstration in Washington, D.C. 10 gun barrels, 10 triggers, 10 stocks, and 10 locks took the four parts and quickly put together a finished musket his methods have become the basis of all mass production U.S. Economy

5 Mass Production machine tools machinery built to produce parts that are exactly the same identical interchangeable parts Whitney = instead of boring each gun barrel by hand he made a machine that did nothing but bore identical gun barrels interchangeable parts parts made by machine tools that are exactly alike wore out parts can easily be replaced by new standard, identical parts Whitney = any gun barrel would fit any gun stock made by Whitney and other parts were also interchangeable and would fit any of the guns division of labor a system in which each worker performs a specialized portion of a total job each worker is a specialist at a certain part of the job specialization speeds the entire process Whitney = triggers, stocks, and locks for Whitney's guns were made by different groups of workers so no single worker made a complete gun The use of machine tools, interchangeable parts, and the division of labor helped increase production

6 waterpower force of falling water early factories were located near streams dams were built to hold back water to turn waterwheels steam power heating water to run a turbine or piston replace waterpower in the late 1700s Scottish engineer James Watt invented a practical steam engine leading source of industrial power during the 1800s internal combustion engine power released by exploding gasoline developed in late 1800s used to run small machines and automobiles electricity channeling electric currents late 1800s the work of Thomas Edison made the widespread use of electricity practical and affordable contributed most to modern mass production nearly every American factory uses electricity as main source of power Power Sources

7 automobile manufacturing good example of modern mass production each worker is highly skilled at a specialized job addition of assembly line to production process assembly line introduced by Henry Ford uses machines and workers to move a product through stages of production until it is completed large conveyor belt system moves items through the factory feeder line (side line) parts are brought to the main assembly line exactly when and where they are needed most large industries use these methods of production Modern Mass Production

8 Mass Production in the World mass production was first developed in the U.S. has spread to other countries around the world used more effectively in some countries than in others command economy does not have the same incentives, or motives, as a free economy lack of a profit motive discourages people from working hard and increasing productivity lower productivity means that there is less money available for modernizing factories free-market economy encourages businesspeople to take risks possibility of making a profit continues to encourage new innovations in production and marketing

9 The Service Sector U.S. has a service economy shift from producing goods to providing services personal services performed directly on customers medical care, haircutting, physical training repair services performed on owned goods auto repair retail services selling new or used goods malls, online sellers professional services performed by trained or licensed professionals banking, financial planning, legal, insurance service training depends on the type of service little or no experience, on-the-job training, formal apprenticeship, advanced degrees

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