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Because the Internet is NOT a Library…the Guided Inquiry Process Dr. Ross Todd, Director CISSL Dr. Carol Gordon, Research Director.

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Presentation on theme: "Because the Internet is NOT a Library…the Guided Inquiry Process Dr. Ross Todd, Director CISSL Dr. Carol Gordon, Research Director."— Presentation transcript:

1 Because the Internet is NOT a Library…the Guided Inquiry Process Dr. Ross Todd, Director CISSL Dr. Carol Gordon, Research Director CISSL Pam Chesky, Director Planning & Development CISSL LaDawna Harrington, Library Media Specialist Woodbridge School District

2 Program Agenda Dr. Ross Todd will take us through recent research showing if / how students construct knowledge through library-based research: do they learn anything? Pam Chesky will show us what happens when students are occupied with fact gathering without the instructional interventions of a library media specialist LaDawna Harrington will demonstrate guided inquiry and show the learning that takes place Dr. Carol Gordon show how ISP, Guided Inquiry and Technology can come together to assist in student knowledge construction

3 New Jersey IMLS Funded Research 2003 - 2005 What knowledge outcomes does the school library enable as students make use of diverse digital and print information sources? How might these knowledge outcomes be identified, measured, and embedded into professional practice? Develop a learning impacts measure for use by school-based teams. BUT, DO THEY LEARN ANYTHING?

4 Schools Context & Sample 10 New Jersey public schools Experienced and expert school librarians Diverse public schools 10 school librarians working on curriculum projects with 17 classroom teachers 574 students in Grades 6 – 12; range of disciplines

5 Central Research Questions As they proceed through the stages of a collaborative inquiry project, underpinned by a range of information literacy instructional interventions: What changes, if any, are evident in students’ knowledge of a curriculum topic What changes, if any, are shown in the students’ feelings? How does the students’ study / learning approach influence knowledge construction of a curriculum topic? What interactions exist between knowledge construction, feelings, and study approach? How did school librarians and teachers help students with their learning

6 Data Collection Instruments Five data collection instruments were used to collect the data from the students: 1. Writing Task 1 (at initiation of inquiry unit) 2. Writing Task 2 (at midpoint of inquiry unit) 3. Writing Task 3 (at conclusion of inquiry unit) 4. Search Journal Log 5. My Research Style The instruments consisted of a combination of qualitative and quantitative questions.

7 Changes in Knowledge: 5 Approaches to Measurement 1.Substance of knowledge 2.Amount of knowledge 3.Structure of knowledge 4.Personal estimate of knowledge 5.Labeling of knowledge


9 Substance of Knowledge Statement typeDefinitionExample Propertystatements describing characteristics The color of Valentine’s day is red Mannerstatements describing processes, styles, actions People drive aggressively in USA Reasonstatements of explanations of how and why The wall was constructed to block invaders Outcomestatements providing end result(People eat too much) As a result, people got very sick Causalitystatements showing some event causally leads to another Too much alcohol can lead to liver failure Set Membershipstatements about class inclusionMichelangelo created works such as statue of David, Cistine Chapel and the famous Pieta Implicationstatements showing predictive relations, inference, implied meaning He was suspected of poisoning him Value Judgmentstatements presenting personal position or viewpoint That’s not right

10 NJ Study: Changes in Knowledge Two distinctive approaches to knowledge construction: -- Additive : Transportive -- Integrative : Transformative

11 Additive Approach to Knowledge Construction Knowledge development characterized by progressive addition of property facts As the students built knowledge, they continued to add property and manner statements, and to a lesser extent, set membership statements Stockpile of facts, even though facts were sorted, organized and grouped to some extent into thematic units by conclusion. Remained on a descriptive level throughout

12 Integrative Approach to Knowledge Construction Initial: superficial sets of properties Moved beyond gathering facts: - building explanations - address discrepancies - organizing facts in more coherent ways Interpret found information to establish personal conclusions and reflect on these. Some students subsumed sets of facts into fewer but more abstract statements at the end

13 Factors contributing to differences across Schools Changes in knowledge (knowledge growth) did not occur evenly in the schools No significant variations across the age, grade, and gender groups Nature of task: imposed task or negotiated task; collection of facts/ transport of facts, or transformation of facts Engagement and ownership Nature of Interventions: Development of skills to construct knowledge rather than finding information

14 How School Libraries Help The effective school library helps strongly in terms of providing access to information technology (sources and tools) necessary for students to complete their research assignments and projects successfully It provides up-to-date diverse resources to meet curriculum informational needs Instructional intervention focuses on the development of an understanding of what good research is about and how you undertake good research It engages students in an active process of building their own understanding and knowledge It demonstrates the link between school library services and learning outcomes


16 The story of a well-meaning principal who didn’t realize the Internet is not the library A.C.T.I.O.N Plan for Student Learning All Children Take Intelligence Ownership Naturally

17 A.C.T.I.O.N Plan Goals Principal says… Independent Student Learning Information Literacy Skills Critical thinkers Teacher says…  Students will research nominees for the NJ Hall of Fame  Students will present the information on life-sized images of the nominee  Students will vote for their choices How do kids view this….

18 Hall of Fame Assignment... Where/when born, died, lived Education/Jobs/Career Challenges overcome Qualities that led to greatness Awards/Commendations Political offices held Best remembered for what Connection to NJ

19 Critical thinking??? Walt Whitman (Camden) Considered by many to be the most influential poet in U.S. history.


21 nalyze othing is something hink of all the possibilities

22 Successful “Research” ? As Presented: Born in Loraine Ohio Greatest challenge—a failed marriage 8 th to win the Nobel Prize First African American to win the NP First Woman to win the NP Finest Quality: A great writer Actual Facts: *Born Chloe Anthony Wofford on 2/18/31 in Lorain, Ohio *Won a Pulizer in 1988 *87th to win the NP *8th women to win the NP, 1993 first African American Woman *Taught at Princeton 1987-2006


24 What really occurred… No learning goals conveyed to students No guidance on how to access, evaluate, manipulate, use and communicate information Kids, teachers, parents wrapped up in the end product No understanding, no knowledge construction

25 Wow!! Look what our kids did…

26 “The stock piling of superficial facts does not equal deep knowledge” Dr. Ross Todd



29 Ella Lonely, Nervous, Brave, Determined, Sassy Daughter of parents who filled their house with music Music must have filled her loneliness when her father died Moved to New York for a better life. Who loved the night magic of Harlem, Who loved the celebrities and begging for autographs with her friends Who really loved singing and scatting Who loved her Aunt that took care of her as a child. Who felt loss, when her mother died Who felt anger when she was put in an orphanage Who felt trapped in those walls but they couldn’t keep her down because she felt the pull of her song and the night magic of Harlem. Who felt nervous and fear at auditions Who feared not being able to sing because she had no one to care for her Who feared dying from diabetes and possibly going blind, Who feared whom she would pass her singing crown down to Who wanted to see someone take over her singing crown Who would have liked to have spent more time with her late parents Who wanted to work with the best bands Who changed the world of jazz and swing Who was very proud of her awards and achievements She was “The First Lady Of Song”; she was “Sassy” and a Legend of Jazz Born in Virginia, grew up in New York, adopted by the world. Ella was great Fitzgerald


31 Is information literacy enough?

32 Information to knowledge 3. Knowledge: application of data and information in a strategy or practice or method; answers "how" 1. Data: symbols with no meaning; out of context 2. Information: data that are processed to be useful; provides answer to "who", "what", "where", and "when" questions How does the Hall of Fame work? Presentation What’s a Hall of Fame?

33 Understanding to Wisdom 5. Wisdom: embodies principles, insights,morals, archetypes; evaluated understanding What is greatness? 4. Understanding: appreciation of "why “ Museum Tour

34 What does cognitive psychology tell us? Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory All knowledge begins with confusion Constructs are patterns built to make sense of the world Patterns provide frames of reference for decisions and choices Constructs built from experience to anticipate future events Constructs are not easily discarded or changed Dewey’s Reflective Thinking Five phases: suggestion, intellectualization, guiding idea (hypothesis), reasoning, testing by action Inter-relatedness of actions and thoughts Facts, data, and information arouse ideas that help make inferences (“leaps from the known’) Piaget/ Bruner’s: Schema Theory Schema: integrated, organized representation of the past which guides us in reconstructing previously encountered material and enables us to go beyond evidence, to fill gaps, to extrapolate.

35 When it goes wrong … Mal-Constructs Q: What does "varicose" mean? A: Nearby. Eventually, the Ramons conquered the Geeks. History call people Romans because they never stayed in one place for very long. At Roman banquets, the guests wore garlic in their hair. Julius Caesar extinguished himself on the battlefields of Gaul. The Ides of March killed him because they thought he was going to be made king. Nero was a cruel tyrany who would torture his poor subjects by playing the fiddle to them. Q: What happens to a boy when he reaches puberty? A: He says good-bye to his boyhood and looks forward to his adultery. What are the signs that it is going wrong?

36 Guided Inquiry for Knowledge Construction Guided Inquiry is carefully planned, closely supervised targeted intervention of an instructional team of school librarians and teachers to guide students through curriculum based inquiry units that build deep knowledge and deep understanding of a curriculum topic, and gradually lead towards independent learning. Guided Inquiry is grounded in a constructivist approach to learning, based on the Information Search Process developed by Kuhlthau, for developing students’ competence with learning from a variety of sources while enhancing their understanding of the content areas of the curriculum. Novice Expert VygotskyKuhlthau Zone of Proximal DevelopmentZones of Intervention Uncertainty Understanding Constructivism Meta-cognition

37 StagesFeelingsThoughtsActions Task Initiation uncertaintyambiguity seeking i i relevant Topic Selection optimism n n information c t Pre-focus exploration confusion r e e r Focus formulation clarity a e s s Information Collection confidence e t d Search closure reliefspecificity seeking pertinent Starting writing satisfaction/dissatisfaction information What does the ISP tell us?

38 Task Initiation TaskThoughtsFeelingsActionsStrategies Prepare for select- ing a topic Contemplate assignment Comprehend task; Consider possible topics Relate to prior knowledge Apprehen- sion Uncertainty Talking with others Browsing library collection Brainstorming Discussing Contemplating possible topics Tolerating uncertainty Interventions: Avoid information overload (Use print sources; webquests) No note taking! Identifying personal interests. E-mails and blogs Skimming books for headings, tables of content, glossaries, indexes, pictures Mapping prior knowledge (Inspiration); Building background knowledge; Use of visuals and visualization; Reading selected passages to build background knowledge; Building motivation and confidence (but not the false confidence of surfing the Net) FeelingsThoughts Technology

39 Topic Selection TaskThoughtsFeelingsActionsStrategies Decide on topic Weighing topics against criteria: inter- est, require- ments, info available, time Predicting outcome of choices Choosing topic with potential success Confusion Sometimes anxiety Brief elation after selection Anticipation of prospective task Consulting with info mediators Making preliminary searches Using info sources Discussing possible topics Predicting outcome of choices Using general sources for overview of possible topics Interventions: Avoid information overload (Use print sources; webquests) Identifying personal interests. E-mails and blogs; No note-taking; clearing up misconceptions; anchor experiences; Helping students choose reading materials (Picture books); Making inferences from book covers, illustrations; Mental modeling; Thinking aloud; Tracking thinking; Sifting topic from details ThoughtsTechnology Feelings

40 Prefocus Exploration TaskThoughtsFeelingsActionsStrategies Investi- gate informa- tion to find a focus Becoming informed about general topic Seeking focus Identifying possible focuses Inability to express precise infor- mation need Confusion Doubt Threaten- ing Uncertainty Locating relevant info Reading to be inform- ed Taking notes on facts, ideas Citing Reading to learn topic Tolerating inconsistency and incom- patibility of info encoun-tered Seeking focus Listing descriptors Interventions: Avoid information overload (Use print sources; webquests) Identifying personal interests. E-mails and blogs Pair/four-way shares; Keeping a journal; text-to-self connections; No notetaking; Listing questions; Reading for specific answers; Making Connections-text-to-self; diagramming connections; Monitoring comprehension; List- Ing questions; Categorizing questions (thick and thin questions) Feelings Thoughts Technology

41 Focus Formulation TaskThoughtsFeelingsActionsStrategies Formul ate a focus from the informa tion found Predicting outcome of possible foci using interest, require- ments, avail-ability, time Identifying ideas in info to form focus Moment of insight Optimism Confidence in ability to complete task Reading notes for themes Making a survey of notes; Listing possible foci; Choosing a focus, discarding others; Combining themes to form focus Interventions: Gradual release of responsibility; Drawing inferences; Making connections; text-to-world; Prediction; Repair (fix-up) strategies when comprehension breaks down; Reading opposing opinions; reading/writing connections (journal entries, letters); Formative Assessments (self-evaluation rubrics, checklists, rubrics, journals); Electronic sources: databases, internet, blogs Feelings Thoughts Technology

42 Information Collection TaskThoughtsFeelingsActionsInterventions Gather info that defines extends, supports focus Seek info to support focus Define & extend focus thru info Gathering Pertinent info Organizing info in notes Realize ex- tensive work to be done Confid- ence in ability to com- plete task; Increased interest Use library to collect pertinent info Request specific sources from librarian Take notes & citations Using descriptors to search out pertinent info Making comprehensive search of various types of materials Using indexes Request help from librarian Interventions: Gradual release of responsibility; Making connections text-to-text; Reading between the lines (making comparisons); coding text with sticky notes; Highlighting, Graphic organizers; concept maps (note collection + analysis); Distinguishing important from less important ideas; Drawing inferences; Blogs; emails; Zoomerang/Survey Monkey; Databases; Websites; Info lit instruction for digital environments Feelings Thoughts Technology

43 TaskThoughtsFeelingsActionsInterventions Conclude information search Identifying need for additional info Considering time limit Diminishing relevance Redundancy Sense of relief Sometimes satisfaction Sometimes disappoint- ment Rechecking sources for information initially overlooked Confirming information and citations Returning to library to make summary search Keeping books until completion of writing (etc.) to recheck information Presentation Interventions: Peer review of drafts; Exhibitions; Self-evaluations; Moving toward independence; Authentic assessments (summative); Making comparisons; Making connections; Making inferences; Predicting; Analyzing; Synthesizing; Re- telling to synthesize; Evolving thinking by summarizing + personal responses; Seeking answers to questions that have none; Production tools-PowerPoint; Web design; Word Processing to academic formats; Citation Machine; Word Processing (writing is synthesis) Feelings Thoughts Technology

44 impact student learning.

45 Because the Internet is NOT a Library…the Guided Inquiry Process Dr. Ross Todd, Director CISSL Dr. Carol Gordon, Research Director CISSL Pam Chesky, Director Planning & Development CISSL LaDawna Harrington, Library Media Specialist Woodbridge School District

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