Section 1: Louisiana in World War II Define: 1. sabotage 2. blackout 3. ration 4. victory garden 5. United Service Organization
World War II In 1930s, Germany was led by Adolf Hitler Germany wanted to expand their control of Europe Europe Japan was expanding its control of Asia President Roosevelt planned for the USA to be neutral The president looked for ways to help France, Great Britain, and their allies Supplying the allies helped get the US out the Great Depression Sept. 1940: US begins first peacetime draft to prepare for possible war
The Maneuvers August 1941: Louisiana was site of war games or “mock wars” to prepare troops for possible war Winn Parish and Rapides Parish saw the arrival of thousands of soldiers General Dwight D. Eisenhower and General George Patton directed the operations Bossier Parish became important training site – now the home of the US 8 th Air Force
Reaction to Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941: Japan attacked US Navy at Pearl Harbor, HawaiiDecember 7, 1941Pearl Harbor, Hawaii December 8, 1941: US declared war on Japan Extra guards were set up to guard against sabotage (deliberate damage or destruction) blackouts: turning off all lighting to deter nighttime air attacks Civil defense organizations used regular citizens to help guard Louisiana from attack General Claire Lee Chennault: Louisiana’s first famous war hero –Led “Flying Tigers” in air battles with the Japanese By end of war, nearly 275,000 Louisianans had served in the military – over 4,000 were killed4,000 were killed
The Home Front Port of New Orleans important to war effort Webster Parish had a shell loading plant; Ruston had egg dehydration plant for soldiers’ food Women often had to do jobs left by men who had gone to war Many goods in Louisiana had to be rationed (limited) to make sure soldiers had enough supplies Rationed goods included: tires, sugar, coffee, canned fruits and vegetables, butter, meat and shoes
The Home Front Victory gardens (small family gardens) were planted to increase the food supply Children helped in the war effort by distributing information flyers, collecting scrap metal, rubber, and paperChildren Citizens wore star pins or displayed them in windows along with US flags United Service Organization (USO): provided entertainment and assistance to soldiers German prisoners of war (POWs) were held in Louisiana parishes including West Baton Rouge, Lincoln, and RapidesPOWs
The End of the War 1945: war in Europe ended (V-E Day) Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill): federal program to help soldiers get more education and continue life after the military Mardi Gras and other celebrations were started again after the war’s end Click here to return to Main Menu.
Section 2: Louisiana’s Governors Define 1.civil service program
Louisiana’s Governors After Huey Long’s death, state was divided into supporters and opponents Many believed that Long and his supporters were corrupt The “anti-Longs” won the 1940 election when Sam Jones was elected governor The “pro-Longs” did not regain power until the 1948 election
Sam Jones Voters liked Jones because he was not part of the old political crowd War veteran Promised to bring honesty to state government Government employees did not have to contribute money to the governor’s campaign fund Voter lists were published to remove the names of dead citizens Companies doing business with the state had to bid for the contracts to make sure the state got the best price Civil service system set up to protect state workers from governor’s power Like Long, Jones increased spending on pensions, education, roads, bridges, and hospitals
Jimmie Davis Born the son of a poor sharecropper Paid for his own education and began public service in the Public Service Commission Sang country music and played guitar Added retirement system for state workers Directed more money to state education system Left office with the state budget having extra money (surplus)
Earl Long Similar political views to his brother, Huey – believed the fortunate should help the less fortunate; the rich should help the poor Gave away hams and bacon before speeches to draw a crowd Increased spending on health, welfare, education, and highways Pay for African American teachers increased Increased sales, gas, and severance taxes to pay for social programs Abolished the civil service system so that he could put his supporters in office
Robert Kennon Wanted to reform state government and make it more efficient Voting machines added to reduce fraud Worked to eliminate illegal gambling Made it harder to increase taxes – required 2/3 vote of legislature Prisons were improved and prison workers salaries increased Gave control of city government of New Orleans to its citizens
The Return of Earl Long In 1956, Earl Long was re-elected Long had encouraged blacks to register to vote Long had helped to get many social programs for blacks, and he wanted their votes Segregationists (people who wanted to keep whites and blacks separate) worked to get blacks taken off the voting lists Experienced health problems and died of heart attack just after being elected to the US House of Representatives in 1960 Click here to return to Main Menu.
Section 3: Postwar Changes Define 1. right-to-work law 2. Cold War
The Economy 1940s and 1950s Louisiana moved from agricultural to industrial state Many blacks in Louisiana moved north for better jobs and less discrimination Oil industry expanded with offshore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico Labor unions grew in strength, but some believed that their power discouraged new businesses from moving to the state A right-to-work law was passed in 1954 which allowed workers to choose whether to join a union or not
Cultural Changes WDSU (New Orleans) and WAFB (Baton Rouge) were Louisiana’s first television stations in late 1940s By 1950s, many homes had televisions Rock and roll music began in 1950s, shocking many older Louisianans Louisiana’s jazz and blues had helped to encourage rock and roll Elvis Presley sang in Louisiana on several occasions and was very popular with teens
The Cold War Soviet Union and USA began war of diplomacy and words (Cold War) The spread of communism was a great fear of Americans Korean War broke out as US backed South Korea against the communist North Korea – war ended in 1953Korean War Soviet Union and USA also were in an arms race to build stronger nuclear weapons Some Louisianans practiced moving to bomb shelters, but most people thought there was no use to prepare against a nuclear attack Click here to return to Main Menu.