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Language & Meaning Humans’ accommodations for language

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1 Language & Meaning Humans’ accommodations for language
Some characteristics of language Some aspects of meaning English 306A; Harris

2 We’re mammals Distinctive traits include Lactation
Mammalian “isolation cry” Neoteny Middle ear Larynx As factual examples we could choose any of the systems whose evolution is documented by the fossil record, a source apparently acceptable to Behe. The three smallest bones in the human body-the malleus, incus, and stapes-carry sound vibrations across the middle ear, from the membrane-like eardrum to the oval window. This five-component system fits Behe's test of irreducible complexity perfectly-if any one of its parts is taken away or modified, hearing would be lost. This is the kind of system that evolution supposedly cannot produce. Unfortunately for "intelligent design," the fossil record elegantly and precisely documents exactly how this system formed. During the evolution of mammals, hones that originally formed the rear portion of the reptilian lower jaw were gradually pushed backwards and reduced in size until they migrated into the middle ear, forming the bony connections that carry vibrations into the inner ears of present-day mammals. A system of perfectly-formed, interlocking components, specified by multiple genes, was gradually refashioned and adapted for another purpose altogether - something that this book claims to be impossible. As the well-informed reader may know, creationist critics of this interpretation of fossils in the reptile to mammal transition once charged that this could not have taken place. What would happen, they joked, to the unfortunate reptile while he was waiting for two of his jaw bones to migrate into the middle ear? The poor creature could neither hear nor eat! As students of evolution may know, Fuzz Crompton of Harvard University brought this laughter to a deafening halt when he unearthed a fossil with a double articulation of the jaw joint-an adaptation that would allow the animal both to eat and hear during the transition, enabling natural selection to favor each of the intermediate stages. English 306A; Harris

3 We have special larynxes
Functions Controls airflow Phonates We not only have larynxes, as mammals, we have special sorts of larynxes, as humans. English 306A; Harris

4 We have special larynxes
Functions Controls airflow Phonates (Glottis) English 306A; Harris

5 Glottis Glottis Air flow Phonation English 306A; Harris

6 Glottis Glottis Air flow Phonation English 306A; Harris

7 Larynx, tongue, Heimlich
Apes, australopithecus, babies Tongue rooted in mouth Larynx behind mouth Can breathe and swallow at the same time Adult homo erecti + Tongue rooted in throat Larynx in throat Cannot breathe and swallow at the same time English 306A; Harris

8 Lower tongue root + larynx =
Consonants and vowels (big flappy lips help too) Syllables Patterns of rhythm and modulation English 306A; Harris

9 Lower tongue root + larynx =
Speech English 306A; Harris

10 Oh, and one more thing English 306A; Harris

11 Oh, and one more thing A brain Motor cortex Auditory cortex
Language areas English 306A; Harris

12 Language properties Mutability Parity Universality Tacitness
Displacement Productivity (creativity) English 306A; Harris

13  cool  neat  groovy  far-out  radical  cool 
Mutability Languages change.  cool  neat  groovy  far-out  radical  cool  English 306A; Harris

14 Parity All languages are equal. English 306A; Harris

15 Universality All grammars share some basic properties. Words Sentences
Nouns Verbs Sentences Assertions Questions Semantic roles Agents Patients Locations English 306A; Harris

16 Tacitness A great deal of grammatical knowledge is tacit knowledge.
[p] vs [ph] vs [p¬] It is almost instinctual, not as in native-born, but in the way it is so automatically deployed English 306A; Harris

17 Displacement Messages can refer to things remote in time and space, or both, from the site of the communication. English 306A; Harris

18 Elements + combinatorics
At every level Sounds combine into syllables and morphemes Morphemes combine into words Words combine into phrases and sentences Sentences combine into turns or paragraphs Turns combine into conversations Paragraphs combine into texts English 306A; Harris

19 Elements + combinatorics =
Productivity (creativity) New vocables New words New sentences New meanings English 306A; Harris

20 Elements + combinatorics =
Language English 306A; Harris

21 Everything has meaning.
Everything is a sign. This is because we are sentient. We endow everything with meaning: function, intention, implication. It’s our function to figure things out. But how? How do they have meaning? Because everything, from the human perspective, is a sign.<CLICK> English 306A; Harris

22 Types of signs Indexical Iconic Symbolic
A mode defined by relationship of necessity (especially cause and effect). Prototypically, think fever. Iconic A mode defined by relationship of resemblance. Prototypically, think picture. Symbolic A mode defined by relationship of arbitrariness, convention, and learning. Prototypically, think word. English 306A; Harris

23 Dimensions of signs Indexicality Iconicity Symbolicity
A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of necessity (esp. cause and effect). Iconicity A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of resemblance. Symbolicity A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of arbitrariness, convention, and learning. English 306A; Harris

24 Bow-wow-pooh-pooh-yo-he-ho theories
Index-to-icon-to-symbol migration theories Pooh-pooh, Yo-he-ho Index-to-icon-to-symbol Bow-wow English 306A; Harris

25 Metaphor and metonymy Indirect representation Metaphor is iconic
Something (called the vehicle) carries the primary signification for something else (tenor) that ordinarily holds that signification. Metaphor is iconic The vehicle/tenor relationship is an asserted resemblance: the tenor is said to be like the vehicle in some way. Metonymy is indexical The vehicle/tenor relationship is (not exactly necessary but) drawn from the same habitat: the tenor is related to the vehicle in some way. Metonymy = synecdoche = metonymy English 306A; Harris

26 Metonymy, metaphor to go tyson to go ballistic COMPARATIVE
A representative enraged nutbar. Another process altogether, from a different domain (not humans, not emotions). REPRESENTATIVE<CLICK> COMPARATIVE<CLICK> COMPARATIVE REPRESENTATIVE English 306A; Harris

27 Metonymy— The principle of set membership
One element of a set or a relationship (the vehicle) singled out to represent other element(s) (the tenor) Hollywood loves westerns. Toronto collapses! Calgary wins in OT! All hands on deck. Thirty head of cattle. English 306A; Harris

28 Metaphor— The principle of comparison
One element (the vehicle) represents another element (the tenor), to which it is unrelated. My love is red, red rose. Homer is a pig. Toronto is toast. The table leg is broken. The orthopedic wing is closed. Fire kills thousands every year. (Personification) English 306A; Harris

29 English 306A; Harris

30 “Pussy” English 306A; Harris

31 “Pussy” English 306A; Harris
There’s this kind of pussy, the furry, alof, little quadruped. But, no, not this pussy, not directly. Thou we will need to make reference to this type. English 306A; Harris

32 “Pussy” English 306A; Harris There’s this kind of pussy, too.
But, no, that’s not the type of pussy I’m talking about, at least not directly. We’re going to have to make reference to it as well; hence the parental advisory. English 306A; Harris

33 “Pussy” English 306A; Harris
Then there’s this kind of pussy, the kind where one male calls another male a “pussy” because he is not tough enough to do something or another--doesn’t fart enough or spit enough or steal candy from babies, or something. English 306A; Harris

34 “Pussy” Metaphor Tenor = vagina Vehicle = cat Attributes Warm Furry
It’s actually a French metaphor, chat, that English borrowed. English 306A; Harris

35 ! “Pussy!” Stage 1 Metonymy (synecdoche)
Tenor = woman Vehicle = pussy-as-vagina The ultimate devaluing of a (category of a) person: to a small anatomical component. English 306A; Harris

36 “Pussy!” Stage 2 = Metaphor Tenor = the insult target
Vehicle = woman (not vagina) Attributes Weak Soft Quitter Means ‘Opposite of a man’, but in a wholly evaluative way. = English 306A; Harris

37 “Pussy” Metaphor  Metonymy  Metaphor
Indexicality, Iconicity a relatively mundane example of ordinary language not a fancy literary or rhetorical device these processes, and figuration generally, are pervasive English 306A; Harris

38 We now return you to regular programming
F English 306A; Harris

39 Metonymy, metaphor to go tyson to go ballistic Representation
Comparison The picture is metaphoric; the expression isn’t The C-word; Oriana’s c-word; jeph’s question. Sound symbolism. Remember this example of metonymy and metaphor, for the exprssions of rage, to go Tyson and to go ballistic? To go Tyson is metonymic because it is representative<CLICK>; Tyson is representative enraged nutbar. To go ballistic is metaphoric because it is comparative<CLICK>; someone enraged is compared to a rocket going off. One thing that might be misleading in the graphics I chose is that <CLICK>the picture is metaphoric: Tyson is being compared to a junkyard dog. But the expression isn’t. Now, it is true that some comparison is going on. The person who ‘goes Tyson’ is being compared to Tyson. There is also some selection going on with our other term: the domain of rocketry is selected to represent something hot and explosive, rather than volcanoes or fireworks. But the PRIMARY semiotic move of “to go Tyson” is metonymic, because Tyson is <CLICK>associated with insane rage. And the PRIMARY semiotic move of “to go ballistic” is metaphoric, because insane rage is similar<CLICK> to a rocket going off. Metonymy is defined by association, metaphor by comparison. Association Similarity English 306A; Harris

40 Conceptual metaphors TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … I’m not sure people outside of language studies have heard of these beasts, conceptual metaphors, but it’s worth a quick tour, once again to remind you of their pervasiveness and of their contribution to cognitive structure. English 306A; Harris

41 Conceptual metaphors TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … Time is rendered in financial terms: SPEND a day, INVEST three months, BANK your overtime, COST me a weekend, … English 306A; Harris

42 Conceptual metaphors TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … Argumentation is rendered in martial terms: he ATTACKED my point, I DEFENDED it well, she SHOT me down, I BLEW HER OUT OF THE WATER, … English 306A; Harris

43 Conceptual metaphors TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … Anger is rendered in terms you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … Just to reiterate: This is important why? Because it shows that a fundamental principle of mind structure--comparison--coincides with an important set of instruments explored in the rhetorical tradition. Not just metaphor, which is what Lakoff and Johnson think they are talking about, and not just analogy, which I think they were really talking about, but also simile, allegory, and the whole suite of comparative instruments. Here’s another one not commonly explored. <CLICK> English 306A; Harris

44 Conceptual Metonymy PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … CONTAINER FOR CONTAINED that’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … PERSON FOR INSTRUMENT I’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, he’s the drill press, … PLACE FOR PEOPLE BC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, … PLACE FOR INSTITUTION Ottawa raised our taxes again, Queen’s Park changed the speed limits, … Less well known, but equally revealing for how deeply figurative language is conceptual metonymy. Metaphors work by way of similarity or comparison. Something from domain X is treated as belonging to domain Y. Metonymy works within the same domain. One feature, usually a particularly salient feature for a given context, is selected to represent the entire conglomeration of features. Usually these are part-of relations. Metonymy is, like metaphor, an elemental feature of quotidian language: <CLICK> All hands on deck! We ran three-hundred head of cattle. He bought a new set of wheels. They’ve got too many mouths to feed. These features are chosen, as Turner points out, on the basis of an optimality principle: hands for the ropes; heads in the drive or down the chute; wheels for motion; mouths for visual salience. Not just any feature. At the level of conceptual metonymy, we notice that metonymies cluster into specific structural arrangements: <CLICK>Producer for Product I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … <CLICK> Container for contained that’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … <CLICK> Person for Instrument I’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, Nixon bombed Hanoi, … <CLICK> Place for People California voted Republican, Wyoming likes cowboy movies, Houston is surprisingly liberal, … <CLICK> Place for Institution Washington raised our taxes again, Pittsburgh didn’t give the bid to the Isle of Capri, Harrisburg changed the speed limits, … What’s the point? Why do we care? Again, because there are fundamental cognitive principles involved. With metaphor, it is the notion of similarity. With metonymy, as Roman Jakobson noticed in a brilliant article on aphasia, it is contiguity--a principle of mental structure that goes back at least as far as David Hume, probably further. The container is physically contiguous with the contained. In other cases, it’s a more general contiguity, closely aligned to notions of set theory. But, in any case, they are from the same domain. English 306A; Harris

45 Conceptual Metonymy PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … CONTAINER FOR CONTAINED that’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … PERSON FOR INSTRUMENT I’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, he’s the drill press, … PLACE FOR PEOPLE BC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, … PLACE FOR INSTITUTION Ottawa raised our taxes again, Queen’s Park changed the speed limits, … Less well known, but equally revealing for how deeply figurative language is conceptual metonymy. Metaphors work by way of similarity or comparison. Something from domain X is treated as belonging to domain Y. Metonymy works within the same domain. One feature, usually a particularly salient feature for a given context, is selected to represent the entire conglomeration of features. Usually these are part-of relations. Metonymy is, like metaphor, an elemental feature of quotidian language: <CLICK> All hands on deck! We ran three-hundred head of cattle. He bought a new set of wheels. They’ve got too many mouths to feed. These features are chosen, as Turner points out, on the basis of an optimality principle: hands for the ropes; heads in the drive or down the chute; wheels for motion; mouths for visual salience. Not just any feature. At the level of conceptual metonymy, we notice that metonymies cluster into specific structural arrangements: <CLICK>Producer for Product I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … <CLICK> Container for contained that’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … <CLICK> Person for Instrument I’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, Nixon bombed Hanoi, … <CLICK> Place for People California voted Republican, Wyoming likes cowboy movies, Houston is surprisingly liberal, … <CLICK> Place for Institution Washington raised our taxes again, Pittsburgh didn’t give the bid to the Isle of Capri, Harrisburg changed the speed limits, … What’s the point? Why do we care? Again, because there are fundamental cognitive principles involved. With metaphor, it is the notion of similarity. With metonymy, as Roman Jakobson noticed in a brilliant article on aphasia, it is contiguity--a principle of mental structure that goes back at least as far as David Hume, probably further. The container is physically contiguous with the contained. In other cases, it’s a more general contiguity, closely aligned to notions of set theory. But, in any case, they are from the same domain. English 306A; Harris

46 Conceptual Metonymy PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … CONTAINER FOR CONTAINED that’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … PERSON FOR INSTRUMENT I’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, he’s the drill press, … PLACE FOR PEOPLE BC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, … PLACE FOR INSTITUTION Ottawa raised our taxes again, Queen’s Park changed the speed limits, … Less well known, but equally revealing for how deeply figurative language is conceptual metonymy. Metaphors work by way of similarity or comparison. Something from domain X is treated as belonging to domain Y. Metonymy works within the same domain. One feature, usually a particularly salient feature for a given context, is selected to represent the entire conglomeration of features. Usually these are part-of relations. Metonymy is, like metaphor, an elemental feature of quotidian language: <CLICK> All hands on deck! We ran three-hundred head of cattle. He bought a new set of wheels. They’ve got too many mouths to feed. These features are chosen, as Turner points out, on the basis of an optimality principle: hands for the ropes; heads in the drive or down the chute; wheels for motion; mouths for visual salience. Not just any feature. At the level of conceptual metonymy, we notice that metonymies cluster into specific structural arrangements: <CLICK>Producer for Product I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … <CLICK> Container for contained that’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … <CLICK> Person for Instrument I’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, Nixon bombed Hanoi, … <CLICK> Place for People California voted Republican, Wyoming likes cowboy movies, Houston is surprisingly liberal, … <CLICK> Place for Institution Washington raised our taxes again, Pittsburgh didn’t give the bid to the Isle of Capri, Harrisburg changed the speed limits, … What’s the point? Why do we care? Again, because there are fundamental cognitive principles involved. With metaphor, it is the notion of similarity. With metonymy, as Roman Jakobson noticed in a brilliant article on aphasia, it is contiguity--a principle of mental structure that goes back at least as far as David Hume, probably further. The container is physically contiguous with the contained. In other cases, it’s a more general contiguity, closely aligned to notions of set theory. But, in any case, they are from the same domain. English 306A; Harris

47 Conceptual Metonymy PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … CONTAINER FOR CONTAINED that’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … PERSON FOR INSTRUMENT I’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, he’s the drill press, … PLACE FOR PEOPLE BC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, … PLACE FOR INSTITUTION Ottawa raised our taxes again, Queen’s Park changed the speed limits, … Less well known, but equally revealing for how deeply figurative language is conceptual metonymy. Metaphors work by way of similarity or comparison. Something from domain X is treated as belonging to domain Y. Metonymy works within the same domain. One feature, usually a particularly salient feature for a given context, is selected to represent the entire conglomeration of features. Usually these are part-of relations. Metonymy is, like metaphor, an elemental feature of quotidian language: <CLICK> All hands on deck! We ran three-hundred head of cattle. He bought a new set of wheels. They’ve got too many mouths to feed. These features are chosen, as Turner points out, on the basis of an optimality principle: hands for the ropes; heads in the drive or down the chute; wheels for motion; mouths for visual salience. Not just any feature. At the level of conceptual metonymy, we notice that metonymies cluster into specific structural arrangements: <CLICK>Producer for Product I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … <CLICK> Container for contained that’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … <CLICK> Person for Instrument I’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, Nixon bombed Hanoi, … <CLICK> Place for People California voted Republican, Wyoming likes cowboy movies, Houston is surprisingly liberal, … <CLICK> Place for Institution Washington raised our taxes again, Pittsburgh didn’t give the bid to the Isle of Capri, Harrisburg changed the speed limits, … What’s the point? Why do we care? Again, because there are fundamental cognitive principles involved. With metaphor, it is the notion of similarity. With metonymy, as Roman Jakobson noticed in a brilliant article on aphasia, it is contiguity--a principle of mental structure that goes back at least as far as David Hume, probably further. The container is physically contiguous with the contained. In other cases, it’s a more general contiguity, closely aligned to notions of set theory. But, in any case, they are from the same domain. English 306A; Harris

48 Conceptual Metonymy PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … CONTAINER FOR CONTAINED that’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … PERSON FOR INSTRUMENT I’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, he’s the drill press, … PLACE FOR PEOPLE BC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, … PLACE FOR INSTITUTION Ottawa raised our taxes again, Queen’s Park changed the speed limits, … Less well known, but equally revealing for how deeply figurative language is conceptual metonymy. Metaphors work by way of similarity or comparison. Something from domain X is treated as belonging to domain Y. Metonymy works within the same domain. One feature, usually a particularly salient feature for a given context, is selected to represent the entire conglomeration of features. Usually these are part-of relations. Metonymy is, like metaphor, an elemental feature of quotidian language: <CLICK> All hands on deck! We ran three-hundred head of cattle. He bought a new set of wheels. They’ve got too many mouths to feed. These features are chosen, as Turner points out, on the basis of an optimality principle: hands for the ropes; heads in the drive or down the chute; wheels for motion; mouths for visual salience. Not just any feature. At the level of conceptual metonymy, we notice that metonymies cluster into specific structural arrangements: <CLICK>Producer for Product I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … <CLICK> Container for contained that’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … <CLICK> Person for Instrument I’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, Nixon bombed Hanoi, … <CLICK> Place for People California voted Republican, Wyoming likes cowboy movies, Houston is surprisingly liberal, … <CLICK> Place for Institution Washington raised our taxes again, Pittsburgh didn’t give the bid to the Isle of Capri, Harrisburg changed the speed limits, … What’s the point? Why do we care? Again, because there are fundamental cognitive principles involved. With metaphor, it is the notion of similarity. With metonymy, as Roman Jakobson noticed in a brilliant article on aphasia, it is contiguity--a principle of mental structure that goes back at least as far as David Hume, probably further. The container is physically contiguous with the contained. In other cases, it’s a more general contiguity, closely aligned to notions of set theory. But, in any case, they are from the same domain. English 306A; Harris

49 Conceptual Metonymy PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … CONTAINER FOR CONTAINED that’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … PERSON FOR INSTRUMENT I’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, he’s the drill press, … PLACE FOR PEOPLE BC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, … PLACE FOR INSTITUTION Ottawa raised our taxes again, Queen’s Park changed the speed limits, … Less well known, but equally revealing for how deeply figurative language is conceptual metonymy. Metaphors work by way of similarity or comparison. Something from domain X is treated as belonging to domain Y. Metonymy works within the same domain. One feature, usually a particularly salient feature for a given context, is selected to represent the entire conglomeration of features. Usually these are part-of relations. Metonymy is, like metaphor, an elemental feature of quotidian language: <CLICK> All hands on deck! We ran three-hundred head of cattle. He bought a new set of wheels. They’ve got too many mouths to feed. These features are chosen, as Turner points out, on the basis of an optimality principle: hands for the ropes; heads in the drive or down the chute; wheels for motion; mouths for visual salience. Not just any feature. At the level of conceptual metonymy, we notice that metonymies cluster into specific structural arrangements: <CLICK>Producer for Product I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … <CLICK> Container for contained that’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … <CLICK> Person for Instrument I’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, Nixon bombed Hanoi, … <CLICK> Place for People California voted Republican, Wyoming likes cowboy movies, Houston is surprisingly liberal, … <CLICK> Place for Institution Washington raised our taxes again, Pittsburgh didn’t give the bid to the Isle of Capri, Harrisburg changed the speed limits, … What’s the point? Why do we care? Again, because there are fundamental cognitive principles involved. With metaphor, it is the notion of similarity. With metonymy, as Roman Jakobson noticed in a brilliant article on aphasia, it is contiguity--a principle of mental structure that goes back at least as far as David Hume, probably further. The container is physically contiguous with the contained. In other cases, it’s a more general contiguity, closely aligned to notions of set theory. But, in any case, they are from the same domain. English 306A; Harris

50 Indexicality is metonymic
Defined by association (rather than similarity; often on necessity) There must be a certain physical, temporal, or metaphorical relation between referential objects for the words/expressions to function English 306A; Harris

51 Indexicality Egocentricity Anthropocentrism Speaker-oriented
Deixis (pointing words) Anthropocentrism Human-oriented Inherent orientation (human-body orientation projected to objects) Indexicality: general strategies of meaning based on association. English 306A; Harris

52 Indexicality Deictics
Gk. deiktos ≈ “to show” Pointing words Langauge which orks by ‘gesturing outward’ from speaker, the EGO, to other objects English 306A; Harris

53 Indexical orientation — Deictic centre Lexical egocentricity
Pronouns EGO = 1st person (I, me, …) EGO+others = 1st person plural (we, us, …) Hearer-of-EGO = 2nd person (you, your, …) Hearer-of-EGO+others = 2nd person plural (you, your, …) Not-EGO-and-not-hearer-of-EGO = 3rd person (he, she, it, …) Not-EGO-and-not-hearer-of-EGO+others = 3rd person plural (they, them, …) English 306A; Harris

54 Indexical orientation — Deictic centre Lexical egocentricity
Proximals Speaking location Where-EGO-is: here, near, … Where-EGO-is-not: there, far, … Speaking time When-EGO-is: now, today, … When-EGO-is-not: then, tomorrow, … Relative location to speaker Close-to-EGO: this, these, … Not-close-to-EGO: that, those, .. English 306A; Harris

55 Indexical orientation — Deictic centre Expressive egocentricity
The speaker (or, in a rhetorical extention, the hearer) as the (default) reference point for everything else. “The squirrel is behind the tree.” “Mount Pinotubo is on the left” English 306A; Harris

56 Indexicality Anthropocentricity
Gk. anthropos ≈ “man” (hu)man-centred Inherent orientation: human orientation projected onto artefacts and entities) front, back left, right before, behind English 306A; Harris

57 Deictic (egocentric) vs. Inherent (anthropocentric) Orientation
English 306A; Harris

58 Iconicity is metaphoric
Defined by similarity (rather than association) Sequential order “Don’t drink and drive” Distance Immediacy of action Quantity Reduplication Indexicality: general strategies of meaning based on resemblance, on similarity, not association. English 306A; Harris

59 Iconicity Principle of sequential order
Unless marked, the order of words (by default) mirrors the order of events. He kicked sand in my face and I got mad. I got mad and he kicked sand in my face. English 306A; Harris

60 Iconicity Principle of distance
Linguistic distance (proximity) tends to mirror conceptual distance. She squeezed me. She gave me a squeeze. She gave a squeeze to me. English 306A; Harris

61 Iconicity Principle of quantity
Length of utterance correlates with (speaker’s perception of) quantity of concept. Dinosaurs lived a l o o o n g time ago. Dinosaurs lived a long, long, long, … time ago. Lawyerese. Political speeches. English 306A; Harris

62 Iconicity — Principle of quantity Reduplication
Japanese hito 'person' hitobito ’group of people' kami 'god' kamigami ’group of gods' Mandarin xiao 'small' xiaoxiao 'very small' gaoxing 'happy' gaogaoxingxing 'very happy' English 306A; Harris

63 Iconicity — Principle of quantity Reduplication
/ora¯/ = man / ora¯ ora¯/ = all sorts of men /anak/ = child /anak anak/ = all sorts of children /ma¯a/ = mango / ma¯a ma¯a / = all sorts of mangoes English 306A; Harris

64 Iconicity — Principle of quantity Reduplication
Download the SIL IPA fonts to see these transcriptions in PPS files /ora¯/ = man / ora¯ ora¯/ = all sorts of men /anak/ = child /anak anak/ = all sorts of children /ma¯a/ = mango / ma¯a ma¯a / = all sorts of mangoes English 306A; Harris

65 Iconicity — Principle of quantity Conceptual Reduplication
Trinidad and Tobago [jEswij] emphatic confirmation, agreement; interjective intensifier yes-we? yes-whee? yes-oui! English 306A; Harris

66 Any questions? Human accommodations for language Features of language
Metaphoricity, metonymy Symbolicity (arbitrariness, convention, learning) Indexicality (relation of association) Egocentricity (deixis) Anthropocentricity (inherent orientation) Iconicity (relation of resemblance) Sequential order Distance Quantity English 306A; Harris


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