Presentation on theme: "The Roaring 20’s An era of prosperity, Republican power, And Conflict."— Presentation transcript:
The Roaring 20’s An era of prosperity, Republican power, And Conflict
Why Roaring 20’s? Because of widespread economic and social change this became known as the Roaring 20’s.
Postwar Trends World War I had left much of the Americans public exhausted. The economy was in a difficult state of adjustment. The transition process during which a nation at war returns to a state of peace took place called demobilization Returning soldiers took jobs away from women and minorities or faced unemployment. Cost of living had doubled. Farmers and factory workers suffered as wartime orders diminished. Belief in isolationism a policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs
Soldiers return home from war Competition for jobs in northern cities sparks racial tensions 1917 Race riots occurred in Houston, Philadelphia, and East St. Louis. 1919 White mobs terrorized black communities from Texas to Washington, D.C. In Chicago, a white mob stoned a black swimmer to death who had strayed into the “white section” of the beach. 38 more people were killed in the violence that followed. Since 1890, thousands of blacks died in lynching's in the South. Race Relations Worsen
Numerous Labor Strikes Following the war, there was a massive increase in labor strikes in the United States 3,600 strikes by more than 4 million workers General Strike: strike of all union workers in a certain location, not just one industry A strike in Seattle left the city at a standstill
The Red Scare Because the Russian Revolution started as a workers revolt, many Americans associated labor strikes to Bolshevism The fear that Communists were trying to overthrow the U.S. government was known as the Red Scare The fear that Communists were trying to overthrow the U.S. government was known as the Red Scare
People feared labor strikes were roots of attempts to overthrow the government
Emergency Quota Act Set up a temporary quota system for immigration Law limited amount of people admitted to U.S. Provision discriminated against people from Southern and Eastern Europe People feared communism coming in from parts of Europe National Origins Act Allowed unlimited immigration for people from Northern and Western Europe Immigration from Mexico was not limited Mexican immigrants fill jobs created by reduction of European immigration
The case of Sacco and Vanzetti symbolized fear of immigrants
Italian immigrants murderingNicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. anti-foreignismIn this time period, anti-foreignism was high as well. Liberals and radicals rallied around the two men, but they would be executed.
Although the evidence against them was inadequate, they were presumed guilty because they were anarchists. (anarchism - the idea that all forms of gov’t are bad and should be done away with.) The judge was openly prejudiced. This case illustrates what hatred and prejudice can do. The men were convicted, sentenced to death, and despite worldwide protests, they were executed in 1927. Many decades later they were posthumously exonerated (cleared) by the Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis (without all the recent evidence) Sacco - Vanzetti Case continued
Domestic Terrorism Many Americans felt Communists wanted to bring about anarchy (overthrow the government) In April 1919 the U.S. Post Office intercepted 30 bomb packages meant for businessmen In June 8 bombs exploded in 8 cities within minutes of each other One damages the house of United States Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer Palmer creates a new group inside the Justice Department
Attacks lead to the creation of the: Federal Bureau of Investigations Became known for hunting down criminals Top law enforcement officials FBI was led by: J. Edgar Hoover
Palmer Raids! Targeting mostly immigrants, Palmer had thousands arrested and over 5000 deported People had their civil liberties violated Hoover directed simultaneous raids in 30 cities, known as the Palmer Raids. No evidence of attempts to overthrow the government was found
Palmer Raids Palmer Raids (1919–21). These raids were racist, as only foreign born poor people were targeted by the raids. Over 6000 people were illegally arrested and deported. Initially, the press praised the raids. As time wore on, opinions changed, and the Palmer Raids were criticized as unconstitutional fewer than 600 of the over 6000 deportations were substantiated with evidence
1920’s Politics1920’s Politics: Republicans Return to Power 1920’s Politics
Warren Harding People responded to his call for normal life to return and elected him in1920. Harding’s policy was a “Return to Normalcy” His friends were known as the “Ohio Gang” Presidency became known for corruption and scandals Biggest scandal was known as the “Teapot Dome Scandal” Warren G. Harding U.S. President 1921-1923 Died of heart attack brought on, some say, but numerous scandals during his presidency
Policies favoring American Business To protect domestic business from foreign competition Congress passed the Fordney- McCumber Tariff of 1922 which greatly increased tariff rates. Negative consequences. It was more difficult for Europeans to pay their war debts to the United States and farmers found themselves paying more for their machinery, most of which was produced in foreign countries. Due to the fact that wealthy Americans were more likely to invest in the economy, they lowered the tax for the rich leaving the burden on the average wage earner.
Foreign Policy-Washington Naval Conference In 1921 Harding would invite Great Britain, France, Japan, & Italy to Washington to discuss naval disarmament (getting rid of weapons) The US offered to scrap 30 war ships, and other nations soon followed suit. The Washington Naval Conference limited the production of large war ships, but many nations got around this by building more small war ships.
Harding’s Foreign Policies 1)Four Power Treaty an agreement between U.S., Britain, Japan and France. They agreed to respect each other’s territories and rights in the Pacific region and to submit any disputes to a “joint conference” of all four powers. 2) Nine Power Treaty all the delegates at the Naval Conference agreed to respect the independence of China. 3) Collecting War Debts a)Dawes Plan - loan money to Germany to help them pay off France and Great Britain
Teapot Dome Scandal Secretary of Interior Albert Fall took a kickback (money) to allow the drilling Albert Fall rented out Navy petroleum reserves at a location called Teapot Dome to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding and without approval of Congress. Fall goes to prison on bribery charges Became one of the biggest government scandals in U.S. history
Coolidge takes over Following the death of Harding, Calvin Coolidge takes over as president Coolidge believed in the laissez fair theory –that government should not interfere with business “The business of America is business.” --Calvin Coolidge, U.S. president (1923-1929)
Coolidge Prosperity 1)Calvin Coolidge a)Placed his trust in business, and believed in the traditional virtues of America. b) In 1924, Immigration Act gave e b) In 1924, Immigration Act gave each nationality a limit annually to 2 percent of its total presence in the United States. But the census was based on 1890 population not in 1920.
Foreign Policy- Kellogg-Briand Pact Coolidge called for a new disarmament conference in Geneva, Switzerland due to the huge building of cruisers and smaller ships. Conference held in 1927, but the participants refused to accept further limitations and nothing was achieved. American professor suggested a treaty to outlaw war to a French foreign minister. In August of 1927, 15 nations signed the Pact of Paris known as Kellogg-Briand Pact, promising not to use war as an instrument of policy. Congress approved. The Pact effectively outlawed war, and rejected conflict as a form of “national policy” The US had returned to their isolationist ways that they held in the early 1900s
American Economy Boom 1)Automobile Drives Prosperity a)Henry Ford – carmaker, revolutionized production, wages and working conditions. Assembly line Assembly line led to mass production of goods Mass production – rapid manufacture of large numbers of identical products Mass production – rapid manufacture of large numbers of identical products Model T – first car for the average American Model T – first car for the average American Scientific Management – improving efficiency Scientific Management – improving efficiency
Automobile Changes America Stimulated growth in other industries Stimulated growth in other industries Rubber Industry (growth of factories in Ohio) ► Steel Industry (growth of factories Pittsburgh, PA) ► Glass Industry (growth of factories in Ohio) ► Detroit becomes center of automobile industry Road Construction/Highway system Road Construction/Highway system Motels Motels Freedom to travel Freedom to travel Growth of suburbs, decline of cities Growth of suburbs, decline of cities
Rise of Consumer Goods New household items such as washers, dryers, and ovens were mass produced and sold in department stores Business at department stores such as Sears- Roebuck, JC Penney, and Woolworths skyrocket
Rise of Advertising To get people to buy their new products, manufacturers turned to advertising Advertisers created messages that were appealing and persuasive that linked their products with convenience, leisure, success, fashion and style
Easy Consumer Credit Before the „20s, most considered debt shameful. The prosperity of the ‟ 20s gave people the confidence to not worry about going into debt. Americans began buying things such as cars, furniture and home appliances on credit.
As stocks went up in value, more and more people became tempted to buy them in the hope of getting rich quickly. Buying on the Margin – buying stocks on credit. Instead of paying the full price, they paid only 10% and promised to pay the rest later.