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APUSH REVIEW APUSH. Which of the following statements about the settlers that arrived at Plymouth in 1620 is not true? A.their original goal was a landfall.

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Presentation on theme: "APUSH REVIEW APUSH. Which of the following statements about the settlers that arrived at Plymouth in 1620 is not true? A.their original goal was a landfall."— Presentation transcript:

1 APUSH REVIEW APUSH

2 Which of the following statements about the settlers that arrived at Plymouth in 1620 is not true? A.their original goal was a landfall farther south, at the northern edge of Virginia Company territory B.while English, they had lived for a time in the Netherlands C.they had experienced persecution in England for their religious beliefs and sought to separate from the Church of England D.they probably would have starved to death without the assistance of local Indians E.they became the dominant political and religious force in New England in the 1630s and 1640s

3 (E) they became the dominant political and religious force in New England in the 1630s and 1640s Explanation: Often referred to as Pilgrims or Separatists, the 102 passengers on the Mayflower sought religious freedom first in the Netherlands and then in the New World. While originally intending to land farther south near the Hudson River, the ship was buffeted by storms and landed first on Cape Cod and then Plymouth in what is now Massachusetts. Despite early hostile encounters, local Indians assisted the 53 who had survived the first winter. Another group of settlers, mainly composed of Puritans, established Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 and became the dominant force in New England.

4 The biggest surrender in American military history, involving almost 12,000 U.S. soldiers, occurred where during World War 2? A.Kasserine Pass in North Africa B.on the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippine Islands C.at the Battle of the Bulge in northern Europe D.on Guadacanal Island in the South Pacific E.at Anzio Beach in Italy

5 (B) on the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippine Islands Along with the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Japanese forces invaded the Philippine Islands. After resistance proved futile, American General Ned King surrendered his troops to the Japanese. The captured American and Filipinos were then forced to participate in a brutal 75-mile march to prison camps which resulted in thousands dying of thirst, beatings, and executions. The Japanese commanding general, Masaharu Homma, was tried and executed for war crimes following Japan's surrender in 1945.

6 Henry Ford did which of the following in mass-producing automobiles in the 1920s? A.he hired more Jews in management positions B.he utilized a style of management that delegated corporate decisions to professionals in specialized divisions C.he paid his workers higher wages than they could receive with comparable jobs D.he paid his workers lower wages than they could receive with comparable jobs E.he instituted worker-management teams to share decision-making about

7 Answer: (C) he paid his workers higher wages than they could receive with comparable jobs Explanation: Ford began paying his workers $5 per an eight-hour work day in 1914, almost double the rate for comparable work with longer hours. His action reduced employee turnover and increased worker efficiency. Ford also used assembly lines for the mass production of inexpensive automobiles.

8 Vice-president George H.W. Bush succeeded Ronald Reagan as president following the 1988 election. Before him, the last incumbent vice-president who was directly elected president rather than succeeding a president who died in office was A.Martin Van Buren B.Lyndon Johnson C.Calvin Coolidge D.Theodore Roosevelt E.Harry Truman

9 Answer: (A) Martin Van Buren Explanation:. George H.W. Bush followed Reagan's two terms as president and built a solid reputation for decisive action with the Operation Desert Storm success against Iraq. Economic stagnation at home and Bush's decision to break his "Read My Lips. No New Taxes" pledge caused his popularity to fall and he was defeated by Bill Clinton in Andrew Jackson's second vice-president, Martin Van Buren, was elected president in Johnson, Coolidge, Roosevelt and Truman all succeeded presidents who died in office.

10 The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 A.finally removed the British presence from the Ohio River Valley B.reduced the authority of the federal government in the western territories C.provided a procedure for admitting new states to the Union D.resulted in Shays' Rebellion E.divided land into sections that were then sold to investors

11 Answer: (C) provided a procedure for admitting new states to the Union Explanation: The Northwest Ordinance, in addition to prohibiting slavery in the Northwest Territories, provided that residents could apply for statehood when the population reached 60,000 inhabitants. New states came in on the same level as the original 13 states. In 1803 Ohio became the first state admitted under the provisions.

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13 In which pair is the first event an immediate cause of the second? A.Assassination of James Garfield in 1881-the Pendleton Civil Service Act B.Election of John Adams in 1796-Twelfth Amendment's adoption C.Sinking of the Lusitana in 1915-U.S. entry into World War I D.Assassination of Alexander Hamilton in end of the Federalist Party E.Germany's invasion of the Sudetenland in U.S. entry into World War II

14 Answer: (A) Assassination of James Garfield-the Pendleton Civil Service Act Explanation: President James Garfield was assassinated by a disappointed office-seeker in Congress passed the Pendleton Civil Service Act in 1883, creating a set of civil service exams for federal positions to reduce the spoils system in which the president had the authority to appoint many employees.

15 Which of the following is not true of explorer Henry Hudson A.he led voyages in search of both a Northeast and a Northwest Passage to Asia B.his crew on the ship Discovery mutinied and either set him adrift or murdered him in what is now known as Hudson Bay C.he sailed for both the British and Dutch D.he assumed that any passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans would be long and difficult E.he explored the Hudson River and helped the Dutch establish a claim to New Netherlands (New York)

16 Answer: (D) Hudson assumed that any passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans would be long and difficult Explanation: Hudson, who sought a route from Europe to Asia in both the eastward and westward directions, assumed that a narrow strip of land separated the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. How he died is not known, though his mutinous crew on the Discovery is thought to have either murdered him or set him adrift on a small boat in Hudson Bay in 1611.

17 Which of the following statements about the World War II Potsdam Conference is not accurate A.Prime Minister Winston Churchill left the meeting following his party's defeat in an election in Great Britain B.the Allied leaders decided to defeat Germany first, then focus on Japan C.it was decided that Nazi leaders would be tried as war criminals D.Pres. Truman officially informed Soviet Premier Stalin of the existence of the atomic bomb E.all of the statements are accurate

18 Answer: (B) the Allied leaders decided to defeat Germany first, then focus on Japan Explanation: Germany had already surrendered by the time of the Potsdam Conference. Churchill was recalled to London and replaced by Clement Attlee. The planning for the Nuremberg Tribunals began at Potsdam. Stalin was informed about the atomic bomb, though Soviet spies on the Manhattan Project had probably already provided him that information.

19 Muckraking writers of the Progressive Era exposed A.unsafe meat packaging B.corruption in city government C.unhealthy mining conditions D.the anti-competition tactics of trusts E.all of the above

20 Answer: (E) all of the above Explanation: Muckraker was the nickname given to a journalist or other writer who exposed corruption. Ida Tarbell (Standard Oil trusts), Lincoln Steffens (city machine politics), and Upton Sinclair (meat-packing practices) were some of the more famous of these early investigative reporters.

21 What type of multiple-family dwelling became prevalent in New York City in the last quarter of the 19th century A.the dumbbell tenement B.the skyscraper C.Condominums D.5th Avenue mansions E.bed-and-breakfast hotels

22 Answer: (A) the dumbbell tenement Explanation: Originally designed for one family, the dumbbell tenements were divided (often multiple times) to accommodate more families, mainly on Manhattan's Lower East Side. The Tenement Act of 1879 required each room to have a window, necessitating the construction of air shafts. This led to a dumbbell shape, wider at the street and back, narrower in the middle to accommodate the airshaft. The overcrowding, lack of adequate sanitation, and insufficient fresh air supply eventually led to their being banned in New York City. The New Law of 1901 required each tenement to have a large courtyard.

23 Which of the following were contributions of the Protestant Reformation to the founding of America? A.the creation of a number of denominations that suffered persecution and sought religious freedom in the New World B.the concept of the priesthood of all believers, which promoted individualism and aided the development of democracy C.an emphasis on literacy, as the Bible was translated into the language of the people and not limited to only those who could read Latin D.a challenge to religious authority which led logically for some to a challenge to political authority E.all of the above were contributions

24 Answer: (E) all of the above were contributions Explanation: The Protestant Reformation, which began in Germany but soon spread to the rest of Europe and then the New World, led to the formation of many religious groups, as the challenge to religious authority gave many individuals and groups the confidence to form their own sects. Central to the Reformation is the concept of the priesthood of all believers, essentially stating that each Christian has direct access to God and needs no intermediary. This religious independence view easily translated to a similar attitude towards political authorities. Luther, besides breaking with the Roman Catholic Church, translated the Bible into German, thus giving access to it for those not able to read or understand Latin.

25 Which of the following was not a characteristic of the Whig Party? A.many of its members eventually became Republicans B.it opposed President Jackson’s policies C.it was united in its support for the expansion of slavery into the western territories D.it was particularly popular among evangelical Protestants E.It supported internal improvements paid for by the federal government

26 Answer: (C) it was united in its support for the expansion of slavery into the western territories Explanation: The Whig Party became deeply divided on the issue of slavery. Many of its members, including Abraham Lincoln, quit the party and joined the newly formed Republican Party which was formed in The Whigs generally opposed Jackson, supported Clay's American System which included internal improvements, and gained support from evangelical Protestant voters.

27 The Fugitive Slave Act was a provision of which of the following A.the Missouri Compromise B.the Wilmot Proviso C.the Compromise of 1850 D.the Kansas-Nebraska Act E.the Ostend Manifesto

28 Answer:(C) the Compromise of Explanation: Although the Constitution supported the return of runaway slaves (Article IV, Section II) and fugitive slave bills had been passed prior to 1850, the inclusion of the Fugitive Slave Law in the Compromise of 1850 proved to be the most controversial. Southerners demanded it in exchange for concessions to the North, such as California's admission as a free state. Abolitionists hated it and saw its federal enforcement as an example of Southern "slave power."

29 Which of the following decisions of the Marshall Court is improperly matched with its description? A. Marbury v. Madison--established the principle of judicial review by overturning an act of Congress, the Judiciary Act of 1789 B. McCullough v. Maryland--ruled that a state could not tax a federal agency, in this case the Bank of the U.S. C. Gibbons v. Ogden--gave the federal government undisputed control over interstate commerce D. Fletcher v. Peck--established the principle that state laws conflicting with the U.S. Constitution were invalid E. Dartmouth College v. Woodward--states were no longer sovereign since they had signed the Constitution

30 Answer: (E) Dartmouth College v. Woodward--states were no longer sovereign since they had signed the Constitution Explanation: In the Dartmouth College decision, the Supreme Court upheld a charter that predated New Hampshire's statehood, thus establishing the principle that charters are binding contracts and cannot be broken by a state legislature. In Cohens v. Virginia, the Court ruled that ratifying the Constitution meant that states were no longer sovereign entities. State courts were required to submit to federal authority.

31 In Common Sense by Thomas Paine A.Parliament is seen as the enemy of freedom, but King George III is viewed with respect B.colonists are encouraged to cut their ties with Great Britain C.colonists are encouraged to find areas of compromise with Parliament and King George III D.colonists are encouraged to ignore political issues and focus on economic advancement E.an argument is made that the colonists are represented virtually in Parliament because they are still British subjects

32 Answer: (B) colonists are encouraged to cut their ties with Great Britain Explanation: Written in January 1776, following Lexington and Concord but prior to the Declaration of Independence, Common Sense directly challenged those who asserted that the American colonies should remain within the British Empire. Paine urged colonists to sever their ties with the mother country, contending that Great Britain had abused the colonies. He concluded that "'tis time to part."

33 Which of these was not a position formerly held by President Thomas Jefferson? A.governor of Virginia B.secretary of state C.vice-president of the United States D.president of the 1787 Constitutional Convention E.member of Virginia's House of Burgesses

34 Answer: (D) President of the 1787 Constitutional Convention Explanation: George Washington served as president of the Constitutional Convention in Jefferson was Minister to France at that time. Jefferson did however serve in Virginia's House of Burgesses, as governor of Virginia during the Revolutionary War, as the first Secretary of State, and as vice-president to political enemy John Adams. Jefferson's greatest skills were probably not as a politican or diplomat, however, but as a political philosopher and visionary. He penned the Declaration of Independence and following his terms as president, planned the curriculum and designed the buildings of the University of Virginia. At a dinner of Nobel Prize winners in the White House in 1962, President John Kennedy ad libbed "I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent and of human knowledge that has ever been gathered together at the White House – with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone."

35 Of the factors listed below, which one proved critical to the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs? A.the overwhelming number of Spanish soldiers B.the total lack of organization of the Aztec political and military system C.the support of Portuguese soldiers D.the pacifist nature of the Aztecs E.a smallpox epidemic spread by contact with the Spanish soldiers

36 Answer: (E) a smallpox epidemic spread by contact with the Spanish soldiers Explanation: Smallpox devastated the native populations of the New World. The Aztec population, estimated at 30 million when the Spanish arrived in Mexico, was down to 3 million by 1568 and 1.6 million in Despite having an army of perhaps only 600 Spaniards, Hernan Cortes was able to eventually defeat the Aztec forces and claim Mexico City for Spain in BUT IF “THE AZTEC USE OF A TRIBUTE SYSTEM” HAD BEEN A CHOICE IT WOULD BE JUST AS TRUE. And if the religious tenet concerning the return of the Gods in the year “Reed One” had been a choice, it would have been just as good b/c this idea predisposed Aztecs to the idea of apocalypse. Had it been JUST a matter of numbers, then 600 v. 1.6 million is still a long shot

37 Which of the following 19th century social reformers advocated a secular curriculum for public schools, more and better-equipped schoolhouses, higher pay for teachers, and universal compulsory education? A.Dorothea Dix B.Elijah P. Lovejoy C.Angelina Grimke D.Horace Mann E.Elizabeth Cady Stanton

38 Answer: (D) Horace Mann Explanation: Known as the "father of American public education," Mann used his position as secretary of the Massachusetts board of education to effect change in schools first in Massachusetts and then throughout the U.S. He advocated better training for teachers, sought to remove religious influence from the curriculum, and urged increased public spending on education.

39 Which member of the Nixon administration was accused of extortion, tax fraud, conspiracy, and bribery? A.Attorney General John Mitchell B.Commerce Secretary Maurice Stans C.Vice-President Spiro Agnew D.White House Counsel John Dean E.Press Secretary Ron Ziegler

40 Answer: (C) Vice-President Spiro Agnew Explanation: Spiro "Ted" Agnew, governor of Maryland, was selected by Richard Nixon to be his running-mate in the 1968 election. Agnew was an important piece in Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and became a popular figure for his attacks on Democrats. Though there was some talk of replacing him in the 1972 election, Nixon chose Agnew again as his running-mate. After an investigation turned up a number of criminal charges, Agnew pleaded no contest, resigned from office, and was given a $10,000 fine. He later paid over $260,000 to the state of Maryland. Agnew was replaced by Gerald Ford as vice-president. Agnew was the second vice- president in history to resign, the first being Andrew Jackson's first vice-president, John C. Calhoun.

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42 During World War I, anti-German attitudes led to A.some German cities and street names being renamed B.libraries burning their German-language books in public bonfires C.German being dropped from high school curricular offerings D.mob violence E.all of the above

43 Answer: (E) all of the above Explanation: Suspicion of the loyalty of German-Americans (and Dutch, Swiss, and other European-Americans confused with Germans) was widespread in the U.S. and resulted in a number of anti-German actions, including banning of German language instruction in schools, renaming sauerkraut "liberty cabbage," book-burnings, and mob violence, including a lynching of a German-American in Illinois who was accused of making disloyal remarks. The Committee of Public Information, led by George Creel, published inflammatory anti-German posters to sell Liberty Bonds and encourage army recruitment.

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45 Name the individual who was described in the following ways by these observers for his actions in 1859: Herman Melville--"the meteor of the war“ Henry David Thoreau--"an angel of light“ Frederick Douglass--"His zeal in the cause of freedom was infinitely superior to mine. Mine was as the taper (candle) light; his was as the burning sun.“ A.Abraham Lincoln B.John Brown C.Stephen Douglas D.Robert E. Lee E.William Lloyd Garrison

46 Answer: (B) John Brown Explanation: Fanatical abolitionist John Brown led a raid on an arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia in 1859 in an attempt to start a slave uprising. The raid failed and Brown was captured and hanged. While many Southerners viewed him as an example of the irrational hatred of abolitionists, in the North he was seen by many as a martyr. Douglass wrote of Brown: "John Brown began the war that ended American slavery and made this a free Republic."

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48 Who was the abolitionist leader and publisher of The Liberator who referred to the U.S. Constitution as "the most bloody and heaven-daring arrangement ever made by men for the continuance and protection of a system of the most atrocious villany ever exhibited on earth?" A.Theodore Weld B.William Lloyd Garrison C.Lewis Tappan D.Elijah P. Lovejoy E.John Quincy Adams

49 Answer: (B) William Lloyd Garrison Explanation: Garrison was a member of the American Colonization Society which supported sending ex-slaves back to Africa, but broke with them in 1830 and began publishing The Liberator in He advocated for the immediate and complete abolition of slavery and rejected any attempts at compromise on the issue. He wrote: "I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation.... I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD."

50 Which of the following is not an example of religious revivalism in American history? A.the mass rallies of Billy Graham B.the preaching of George Whitefield during the Great Awakening C.the Cane Ridge, Kentucky camp meetings D.Billy Sunday's tent meetings E.the radio broadcasts of Father Charles Coughlin

51 Answer: (E) the radio broadcasts of Father Charles Coughlin Explanation: Revivalism, usually appealing to listeners' emotions, has a long tradition in American history. Charles Coughlin was a Roman Catholic priest who developed a following of radio listeners during the 1930s by politically attacking the New Deal programs of Franklin Roosevelt and preaching a message of anti-Semitism while offering apologies for Italy's Mussolini and Germany's Hitler. Billy Graham and Billy Sunday held huge revival meetings to spread their message of the need for religious conversion. George Whitefield was an inspiring and highly effective preacher of the Great Awakening in the 1730s, while the Kentucky Cane Ridge meetings beginning in 1800 led to revivals through the frontier regions of the U.S.

52 As a response to Booker T. Washington's call for accommodation and gradualism in the Atlanta Compromise, W.E.B. DuBois encouraged African- Americans to A.pursue vocational training B.focus exclusively on economic gains and not become involved in politics or social reform issues C.engage in activism and pursue higher education D.adopt a passive and submissive attitude in their dealings with whites in authority E.all of the above

53 Answer: (C) engage in activism and pursue higher education Explanation: Washington and DuBois provided two very different sets of recommendations for the advancement of African-Americans. Washington encouraged a gradual approach of economic and political progress and a reliance on developing skills through vocational education. DuBois urged an activist role and a liberal arts education for African-Americans.

54 Which of the following statements about the French & Indian War are accurate? I. The British national debt greatly increased as a result of fighting the war II. The French gained a great deal of territory at the 1763 Peace of Paris negotiations III. Indian tribes were divided in their loyalties, with some assisting the French and others the British IV. Following the war, the British implemented several new colonial policies, including restricting the westward settlements of American colonists A.I, II, and IV only B.I, III, and IV only C.I and III only D.I and IV only E.all of the statements are true

55 Answer: (B) I, III, and IV only Explanation: The French & Indian War, known as the Seven Years' War in Europe, pitted British and French forces against one another in battles along the Ohio River Valley, New England, and in Canada. Some Indian tribes, such as the Huron, allied themselves with the French while others, including the Mohawks, assisted the British. France gave up almost all of its North American possessions at the conclusion of the war and while the British gained considerable territory, they also acquired a huge debt and a growing sense that the American colonies should pay for their own defense.

56 The Eisenhower administration opposed the military actions of Great Britain and France in which location in 1956? A.French Indochina B.Berlin C.Taiwan D.Egypt E.Cuba

57 Answer: (D) Egypt Explanation: After Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, Great Britain, France, and Israel coordinated attacks on Egypt in the Sinai Peninsula and at several locations in Egypt. The U.S. opposed the actions. After the invasion, which was largely successful, the U.S. pushed for a cease-fire and U.N. peacekeepers were put in place.

58 “You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.” This quote is representative of A.the bimetallism position of the 1890s B.a supporter of Andrew Jackson in the war over the recharter of the Bank of the U.S. C.a Democrat-Republican's response to Federalist policies D.a supporter of Reaganomics E.an opponent of the Kansas-Nebraska Act

59 Answer: A) the bimetallism position of the 1890s A.Explanation: William Jennings Bryan, the Democrat and Populist candidate for president in 1896, delivered the "Cross of Gold" speech as he campaigned across the country in support of adding silver as an official currency in a fixed ratio in relation to gold. Bryan lost the election and bimetallism faded as a national issue.

60 Which of the following New Deal programs funded artists, actors, and writers? A.Works Progress Administration B.Civilian Conservation Corps C.Civil Works Administration D.National Recovery Administration E.National Youth Administration

61 Answer: (A) Works Progress Administration A.Explanation: The WPA funded theatrical productions, dance recitals, state histories, and art projects large and small in an attempt to assist out-of-work artists. The Federal Art, Theatre, and Writers' Projects were criticized by many for being a form of socialism.

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63 Which of the following was not an accomplishment of John C. Frémont? A.he invaded California during the Mexican- American War B.he was the first Republican candidate for president C.he led several significant explorations of the West D.he was promoted by Pres. Lincoln for his actions in Missouri during the Civil War E.he was a senator from California

64 (D) he was promoted by Pres. Lincoln for his actions in Missouri during the Civil War Explanation: Frémont, nicknamed "The Pathfinder," led several important expeditions through the West before his military and political careers. He served in both the Mexican- American and Civil Wars and was selected to represent California in the U.S. Senate when it became a state in The newly formed Republican Party chose him as their candidate in Frémont was relieved of command in Missouri by Lincoln during the Civil War, however, when he emancipated slaves and confiscated the property of secessionists in Lincoln hoped to keep the border states from seceding and Frémont's actions, if allowed to stand, might antagonize those states.

65 Which president is incorrectly matched with the quote? A.Franklin Roosevelt--"the only thing we have to fear is fear itself“ B.Abraham Lincoln--"with malice towards none, with charity for all“ C.Gerald Ford--"my fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over. Our Constitution works; our great Republic is a government of laws and not of men“ D.Theodore Roosevelt--"the world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion“ E.Andrew Jackson--"nullification means insurrection and war; and the other states have a right to put it down"

66 Answer: (D) Theodore Roosevelt--"the world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion" In Franklin Roosevelt's 1933 inaugural address, he stated "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." In his second inaugural address in 1865, Lincoln pledged "with malice towards none, with charity toward all." On pardoning Richard Nixon in 1974, Ford declared "our long national nightmare is over." In his address to Congress in April 1917, Woodrow Wilson stated "the world must be made safe for democracy." Jackson, facing the South Carolina nullification crisis in 1832, stated "nullification means insurrection and war; and the other states have a right to put it down."

67 The founders of the California missions in California A.were Jesuits B.were universally praised for their compassionate policies towards Indians C.established a series of missions roughly one- day's walk apart along California's coast D.helped control the spread of disease E.helped Spain establish a dynamic and lucrative economic system throughout California in the 1700s

68 Answer:(C) established a series of missions roughly one-day's walk apart along California's coast Explanation: Franciscan fathers established the California missions along El Camino Real (the King's Highway) in locations approximately one-day's walk apart. Mission administrators were criticized both in Mexico and Spain for cruel and exploitative practices involving Indians living near the missions. Concentrating populations near the missions resulted in the rapid spread of disease. Alta ("upper") California never proved to be a profit center for Spain, which relinquished its control with Mexico's independence in 1821.

69 Which of the following was not part of George Washington's administration? A.Benjamin Franklin--Postmaster General B.Thomas Jefferson--Secretary of State C.John Marshall--Supreme Court Chief Justice D.John Adams--Vice-President E.Alexander Hamilton--Secretary of the Treasury

70 Answer: (C) John Marshall--Supreme Court Chief Justice Explanation: Marshall was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by John Adams in John Jay was the nation's first Chief Justice. Marshall ruled from the bench for 34 years, use the S.C. power of “precedence” to embed a STRONG federally supported pro- capitalist mentality into American culture.

71 The Port Huron statement, which begins "We are people of this generation, bred in at least modest comfort, housed now in universities, looking uncomfortably to the world we inherit..." was published by what 1960s-era organization? A.Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee B.Students for a Democratic Society C.Weather Underground D.Black Panther Party E.Vietnam Veterans Against the War

72 Answer: (B) Students for a Democratic Society Explanation: The SDS published the Port Huron Statement in 1962 as its manifesto for change. Written largely by Tom Hayden, a student at the University of Michigan, the statement summarized feelings of discontent, alienation, and fear of some 1960s- era college students. Student protest for civil rights and against the Vietnam War was a strong voice in American society in the 1960s.

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75 The 1862 Morrill Land Grant Act required that funds acquired from the sale of federal lands be used to support A.the education of freed slaves B.state colleges offering agricultural education programs C.the purchase of guns, ammunition, and uniforms for Union soldiers D.the education of Indian tribes E.the construction of railroads linking the east and west coasts

76 Answer: (B) state colleges offering agricultural education programs Explanation: The Morrill Act, passed by Congress during the Civil War, proved to be a major contributor to the development of state colleges throughout the U.S. Each state received 30,000 acres of federal lands to be sold, with the proceeds going to colleges intending "to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts."

77 Slavery was officially outlawed in the border state of Kentucky A.when Ulysses S. Grant expelled Confederate troops from the state B.with the implementation of the Emancipation Proclamation\ C.with the ratification of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution D.with the Supreme Court's decision in the Slaughterhouse Cases E.with Lincoln's re-election in 1864

78 Answer: (C) with the ratification of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution Explanation: As a border state, Kentucky was excluded from the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared the end of slavery for those living in states in rebellion against the United States effective January 1, This was an important consideration for Lincoln, as he needed to keep the border states from joining the Confederacy while still convincing European nations to stay out of the war. The 13th Amendment, ratified in December 1865, officially ended slavery throughout the U.S.

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80 The 1924 National Origins Act A.temporarily halted all African immigration B.was designed to restrict immigration from northern and western Europe C.created a quota system for immigration to the U.S. D.was opposed by Samuel Gompers, head of the American Federation of Labor E.focused exclusively on immigration from Latin America

81 Answer: (C) created a quota system for immigration to the U.S Explanation: The National Origins Act, which was part of the Immigration Act of 1924, established the first national quotas on immigrants. Quotas were set at two percent of the number of foreign-born residents of a given country already living in the U.S. Germany, Great Britain, and Ireland had the largest quotas. Gompers, head of the American Federation of Labor, supported immigration restrictions.

82 The U.S. committed to giving the Philippine Islands their independence A.following Emilio Aguinaldo's uprising after the Spanish-American War B.with the passage of the 1916 Jones Act C.with the Platt Amendment D.in 1946 after WWII showed the problems of colonialism E.with the Teller Amendment

83 Answer: (B) with the passage of the 1916 Jones Act Explanation: The Treaty of Paris transferred control of the Philippine Islands from Spain to the U.S., although many in America opposed the continued U.S. presence there. The Jones (or Philippine Autonomy) Act of 1916 declared the intention of the U.S. to give the Philippines their freedom, though no date was specified. Their independence was achieved with the surrender of the Japanese in 1945.

84 The nullification crisis during the Jackson administration arose over which issue? A.the re-charter of the U.S. Bank B.protective tariffs C.the Maysville Road D.the Peggy Eaton affair E.removal of the Cherokee Indians

85 Answer: (B) protective tariffs Explanation: The concept of nullification, that states need not obey federal laws they felt unconstitutional, emerged first during the Federalist Era in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Tariffs, which are taxes on imports, were seen by many Southerners as benefiting the North while placing a financial burden on Southern citizens, who lacked a significant manufacturing basis and thus had to import more products. South Carolina's legislators, angered by the 1828 Tariff of Abominations, were still unhappy even though the Tariff of 1832 passed by Congress and signed by Jackson, reduced tariff duties. A state convention voted that the tariffs were unconstitutional and unenforceable in South Carolina. This controversy, which Jackson saw as a challenge to his authority as president, provided states' rights arguments later used in the secession of the South before the Civil War.

86 “The wilderness masters the colonist. It finds him a European in dress, industries, tools, modes of travel, and thought... It strips off the garments of civilization and arrays him in a hunting shirt and moccasin....Little by little he transforms the wilderness, but the outcome is not the old Europe....The fact is, that here is a new product that is American....” This statement was made by which famous American historian? A.Carl Degler B.Charles A. Beard C.Frederick Jackson Turner D.Steven Ambrose E.Henry Adams

87 Answer: (C) Frederick Jackson Turner Explanation: Turner delivered a paper entitled "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" to the 1893 American Historical Association. Using the statement from the 1890 Census that the American frontier was officially closed, Turner developed an explanation of the impact of the "westering" character of the American people on institutions, economics, and attitudes.

88 In which case did the U.S. Supreme Court conclude that state governments could regulate railroad and grain elevator companies? A.Baker v. Carr B.Munn v. Illinois C.Commonwealth v. Hunt D.Plessy v. Ferguson E.Muller v. Oregon

89 Answer: (B) Munn v. Illinois Explanation: In the 1876 Munn case the Supreme Court supported the position of the Grange which held that business interests used for public good could be regulated by state governments. The case proved important to the growth of government regulation of businesses, including railroads.

90 Baker v. Carr, (1962) A landmark United States Supreme Court case that retreated from the Court's political question doctrine, deciding that reapportionment (attempts to change the way voting districts are delineated) issues present justifiable questions, thus enabling federal courts to intervene in and to decide reapportionment cases. The defendants unsuccessfully argued that reapportionment of legislative districts is a "political question," and hence not a question that may be resolved by federal courts.

91 Commonwealth v. Hunt The MASSACHUSETTES Supreme Court established that trade unions were not necessarily criminal or conspiring organizations if they did not advocate violence or illegal activities in their attempts to gain recognition through striking. This legalized the existence of trade organizations, though trade unions would continue to be harassed legally through anti-trust suits and injunctions.

92 Muller v. Oregon (1908) In Justice David Josiah Brewer's unanimous opinion in Muller, the Court upheld the Oregon regulation making it illegal for a female employee to work more than ten hours in a single day. The Court did not overrule Lochner 1905 (HOWEVER - a New York law restricting the weekly working hours of bakers was invalidated), but instead distinguished it on the basis of "the difference between the sexes." The child-bearing physiology and social role of women provided a strong state interest in reducing their working hours. "That woman's physical structure and the performance of maternal functions place her at a disadvantage in the struggle for subsistence is obvious. This is especially true when the burdens of motherhood are upon her. Even when they are not, by abundant testimony of the medical fraternity continuance for a long time on her feet at work, repeating this from day to day, tends to injurious effects upon the body, and as healthy mothers are essential to vigorous offspring, the physical well-being of woman becomes an object of public interest and care in order to preserve the strength and vigor of the race." 208 U.S. at 412.

93 The dramatic increase in numbers of printed periodicals (newspapers and magazines) in the period between 1828 and 1860 was partly a result of A.improvements in education making literacy almost universal B.changes in the printing process which allowed photographs to be included in periodicals C.the rapid increase in population as economic conditions drastically improved D.the transportation revolution which led to more rapid movement of information E.the impact of the Second Great Awakening

94 Answer: (D) the transportation revolution which led to more rapid movement of information Explanation: Publications--local, regional, and even national--exploded in numbers in the 19th century. By 1828, New York City alone produced 161 newspapers. The speed by which information could be disseminated increased as improvements in transportation developed. In addition, political parties and candidates could broaden their appeal by gaining exposure beyond a limited geographic area.

95 The Three Mile Island incident of 1979 A.resulted in a loss of power to most of the state of Pennsylvania B.demonstrated the potential danger of a nuclear power plant meltdown C. made clear that foreign oil was not sufficient to supply American energy needs D.led to an increase in terrorist attacks on power- generating facilities E.caused the U.S. to cease all nuclear power plant usage

96 Answer: (B) demonstrated the potential danger of a nuclear power plant meltdown Explanation: The release of radioactive gas and a near meltdown of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant resulted in the evacuation of over 100,000 residents of the nearby area. Consequences were that Americans became overly fearful of nuclear power, the cost of constructing new plants became impossible to justify, and the US became increasingly vulnerable to the whims of OPEC

97 Which of the following provisions is not an example of the Constitution modifying the Articles of Confederation? A.Congress has the power to control interstate commerce B.amending the Constitution requires 2/3 vote of Congress and 3/4 approval of states C.passage of legislation requires a majority vote in both houses of Congress plus the president's signature D.two houses of Congress, one based on population and one giving equal votes to each state, hold legislative power E.only the Congress, not the states, is allowed to declare war

98 Answer: (E) only the Congress, not the states, is allowed to declare war Explanation: The Constitution sought to create "a more perfect Union" and many of its provisions drastically modified the Articles of Confederation, adopted by the Second Continental Congress. Under the Articles, Congress had no effective control of interstate commerce, amending the Articles required a unanimous vote of the states, legislation required nine of the 13 states approving, and there was one house of Congress with each state equally represented. The Articles did reserve the right to declare war for Congress, which is also one of its powers under the Constitution, but did provide that " no State shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be actually invaded by enemies."

99 Which of the following was not true of protective tariffs in the first half of the 19th century? A.they resulted in revenue for the federal government, often funding internal improvements B.they were generally favored by New England C.they were generally opposed in the South D.they resulted in lower prices for consumers E.they were resented by European product manufacturers

100 Answer: (D) they resulted in lower prices for consumers Explanation: Protective tariffs increased the prices of European imports, thus making home- grown manufactured goods more competitive. This supported the expansion of manufacturing interests, particularly in the New England states, but increased prices for consumers.

101 Nearing defeat in the Korean War, North Korea launched a successful counterattack on the United Nations forces in 1950 Immediately following A.President Truman's removal of Douglas MacArthur B.the entrance of China into the war C.the withdrawal of most of the American troops D.promises from the Soviet Union of nuclear weapons E.the withdrawal of Japanese troops

102 Answer: (B) the entrance of China into the war Explanation: United Nations forces had successfully pushed North Korean troops north of the 38th parallel in Then China added 200,000 ground troops in support of North Korea. A force of 30,000 U.N. troops was surrounded at Chosin Reservoir but managed to escape. The combined Chinese and North Korean forces quickly recovered North Korean territory, though the war continued until the signing of the armistice in 1953.

103 The chief reason for legislators from northern states favoring the passage of the Missouri Compromise was that it A.prohibited slavery's expansion in the Louisiana Territory lands north of 36° 30' latitude, with the exception of Missouri B.quieted residents of Maine who had been clamoring for statehood C.added Missouri to the U.S. as a slave state D.finally settled the slavery question in the U.S. E.ended slavery in the border states of Maryland, Delaware and Kentucky

104 Answer: (A) prohibited slavery's expansion in the Louisiana Territory lands north of 36° 30' latitude Explanation: The Missouri Compromise prevented slavery's expansion into the territories north of the 36° 30' line, but allowed Missouri, north of the line, to enter as a slave state. To maintain the balance in the Senate between slave and free states, Maine was separated from Massachusetts and became its own state. Far from settling the controversy, the Missouri Compromise postponed legislative solutions to the 1850s. Jefferson, in referring to the Missouri discussion, described it as being "a fire bell in the night, [it] awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the Union."

105 After Mo. comp

106 During the Progressive Era, the Prohibition movement was supported by all but which of the following? A.the Anti-Saloon League B.several Protestant denominations, including Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians C.the Women's Christian Temperance Union D.German and Irish immigrants E.prominent female reformers such as Susan B. Anthony and Frances Willard

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108 Answer: (D) German and Irish immigrants Explanation: Prohibitionists, who sought to limit the sale and consumption of alcohol, gained their widest political support during the Progressive Era and in 1919 persuaded enough states to approve the 18th Amendment, the only amendment that was later repealed. The Anti- Saloon League, many mainline Protestant denominations, the WCTU, and women reformers, including leading suffragists, supported Prohibition. German and Irish immigrants, mostly Roman Catholic, generally opposed Prohibition.

109 One of the truly national forms of architecture that developed in all regions of the country in the early 19th century, this style often featured porticos, pilasters (shallow rectangular columns projecting from a wall), and friezes and reflected a growing pride in democracy. A.Georgian B.Prairie School C.Baroque D.Egyptian Revival E.Greek Revival

110 Georgian Architechture

111 Prairie Style (Frank Lloyd Wright)

112 If it ain’t Baroque

113 Egyptian Revival

114 Greek Revival

115 Jackson’s Hermitage

116 “Here With The Breeze” Tara

117 Answer: (E) Greek Revival Explanation: The Greek Revival style was used extensively in both public buildings and homes throughout the U.S. in the first half of the 19th century. Strongly encouraged by Thomas Jefferson, who chose Benjamin Latrobe to design the U.S. Capitol, it often featured exterior columns like those in Greek temples. It often mixed American motifs with the classical Greek elements. Latrobe, for example, used tobacco leaves and corn cobs in his Capitol details.

118 The U.S. committed to giving the Philippine Islands their independence A.following Emilio Aguinaldo's uprising after the Spanish-American War B.with the passage of the 1916 Jones Act C.with the Platt Amendment D.in the 1898 Treaty of Paris E.with the Teller Amendment

119 Answer: (B) with the passage of the 1916 Jones Act Explanation: The Treaty of Paris transferred control of the Philippine Islands from Spain to the U.S., although many in America opposed the continued U.S. presence there. The Jones (or Philippine Autonomy) Act of 1916 declared the intention of the U.S. to give the Philippines their freedom, though no date was specified. Their independence was achieved with the surrender of the Japanese in 1945.

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121 What is not true of the presidential election of 1960? A.John F. Kennedy won the national popular vote by less than 1/10 of one percent B.Richard Nixon's background as a Quaker proved controversial C.televised debates provided an important advantage for Kennedy D.when Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested during the campaign, Kennedy attempted to get him released, while Nixon refused to become involved E.Kennedy chose a vice-presidential running-mate from the South, while Nixon chose a running-mate from New England

122 Answer: (B) Richard Nixon's background as a Quaker proved controversial Explanation: While Kennedy had to explain to Protestant voters that his Roman Catholic faith would not impact his presidency, Nixon's religious background was not an issue. The 1960 election's popular vote margin (118,000) was the smallest in the 20th century (Al Gore won over 500,000 more votes in the 2000 election but George Bush was awarded Florida's electoral votes and the presidency by a Supreme Court decision). The series of televised presidential debates were seen as significant pluses for Kennedy, as was his support for King after his arrest. Lyndon Johnson of Texas and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. of Massachusetts were the Democratic and Republican vice- presidential candidates.

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124 Alfred T. Mahan's influential 1890 book asserted that A.the great empires of history had great navies B.infantry was more important in wartime than ships C.establishing naval bases around the world was unimportant D.the U.S. should not establish a colonial empire E.war with Spain in the Caribbean was unwise

125 (A) the great empires of history had great navies Explanation: Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, in In it, he reviewed military history and concluded that great navies were essential for success. His writings had tremendous impact on the U.S., which developed a battleship fleet partly because of his ideas, as well as other nations, particularly Japan.

126 Which of the following statements are true about Indians living in North America before Spanish explorers reached the continent? I. Tribes in the Southwest developed elaborate canal systems to sustain agriculture II. Several written languages were developed III. Mississippi River Valley residents built huge temple mounds and a city near present-day St. Louis that may have had 40,000 residents IV. Horses enabled hunters to range far from their tribe in search of food V. The buffalo was a major source of food and clothing for Plains Indians A.I, II, and V B.I, III, and V C.III, IV, and V D.I, III, and IV E.All of the statements are true

127 Answer: (B) I, III, and V Explanation: The Hohokan people of the Southwest used a sophisticated system of canals to bring water to their crops. Cahokia, where huge mounds were built, was a city that may have been larger in population than London, England in 1250 AD. Several Plains Indian tribes were dependent on the buffalo for their survival. No evidence of written Indian language exists until Sequoyah, a Cherokee, created his syllabary in Horses, which eventually became very important to Indian life, were brought by the Spanish.

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129 Which of the following is not part of the Bill of Rights? A."the privilege of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it...“ B."excessive bail shall not be required...nor cruel and unusal punishments inflicted...“ C."no soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner...“ D."Congress shall make no law...abridging the freedom of speech...“ E."no person...shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself..."

130 Answer: (A) "the privilege of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it..." Explanation: Habeas corpus, literally "you shall have the body," is protected in Article I, Section 9 of the Constitution. It requires an authority such as a jailer to allow an individual to have a formal hearing to be informed of an alleged crime and not be unlawfully detained. B is part of the 8th, C the 3rd, D the 1st, and E the 5th Amendments, all part of the Bill of Rights.

131 The following quote is from which American educator? “The reason that the present school cannot organize itself as a natural social unit is because…common and productive activity is absent…When the school introduces and trains each child of society into membership with such a little community, saturating him with the spirit of service, and providing him with the instruments of effective self direction, we…shall have the deepest and best guarantee of a larger society which is worthy, lovely, and harmonious.” A.James Conant B.Horace Mann C.John Dewey D.Charles Eliot E.Theodore Sizer

132 Answer: (C) John Dewey Explanation: John Dewey, American educator and philosopher, emphasized the importance of relevant education for students. He opposed rote memorization and encouraged teachers to place students at the center of the curriculum. Dewey viewed education as a critical element in democracy and established what became known as the progressive education movement. He wrote "Education is a social process. Education is growth. Education is not a preparation for life; education is life itself.“ Horace Mann was more concerned about removing sectarian dogma from schools, and public supported, content rich schools taught by trained teachers at “Normal” schools

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134 One purpose of the previous World War I poster was to A.cut into the profits being made by American farmers trying to take advantage of the increased demand for food B.give ordinary citizens the opportunity to participate in the war effort C.sell Liberty Bonds D.allow American agricultural goods to compete against German goods on the world market E.discourage American families from eating foreign-grown vegetables

135 Answer: (B) give ordinary citizens the opportunity to participate in the war effort Explanation: The Victory Gardens encouraged by the Committee of Public Information in this poster provided Americans with a chance to feel part of the war effort, in addition to reducing domestic demand for agricultural products. Victory Gardens were also encouraged during World War II.

136 France signed an alliance with the United States and participated openly in the American Revolutionary War following A.a demonstration of American strength in winning a major battle B.the issuance of the Declaration of Independence C.the diplomatic mission of Thomas Jefferson D.Spain's concluding a treaty with the United States E.growing opposition to the war in Great Britain by Whigs

137 Answer: (A) a demonstration of American strength in winning a major battle Explanation: The American victory at Saratoga in 1778 resulted in the surrender of 5800 British troops under the command of Gen. Burgoyne. This was the largest surrender in British history and convinced the French who had previously resisted Benjamin Franklin's requests to provide money, soldiers, and naval support to the American cause which proved crucial to the eventual victory at Yorktown in 1781.

138 According to British economist John Maynard Keynes, who has had a major impact on U.S. economic policies since the 1930s, which of the following is true? A.an increase in tariff rates is useful in overcoming a depression B.a balanced budget is the key to economic stability and prosperity C.the best cure for a depression is a reduction in the national debt D.the primary problem of the Great Depression was excessive government spending E.budget deficits can lead to an expanding economy

139 Answer: (E) budget deficits can lead to an expanding economy Explanation: British economic theorist John Maynard Keynes was an advocate of government spending as a source of economic growth. He advocated governmental deficit financing (spending more in a budget year than collected revenue). While not publicly embracing Keynsian ideas, Franklin Roosevelt created a number of new federal jobs, particularly in the Second New Deal. Despite frequent calls for fiscal responsibility and a balanced budget from politicians in both the Republican and Democratic parties, in practice virtually all administrations have used deficit financing. In 1965 economist Milton Friedman was quoted as saying "We are all Keynsian now" and in 1971 Republican President Richard Nixon remarked "I am now a Keynesian in economics" as he took the U.S. off the gold standard.

140 At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, the North had all of the following advantages except: A.more railroad mileage B.more industry C.unity of opinion concerning war aims D.an established government E.superior naval resources

141 Answer: (C) unity of opinion concerning war aims Explanation: The North had overwhelming advantages at the start of the Civil War, including a larger free population, more railroads, greater industrial capacity, a government that was recognized by foreign nations, and a navy. The South, at the same time, had much greater unity among its white population in support of its war aims which helped it to endure across five Aprils ( ).

142 President Bill Clinton A.was successful in his campaign to end discrimination against homosexuals in the military B.was openly criticized by his vice-president, Al Gore, who condemned his interaction with Monica Lewinsky as not just inappropriate, but immoral C.strongly supported the passage of the North America Free Trade Agreement D.became the only president in American history to be impeached and convicted E.admitted to having extramarital affairs with Jennifer Flowers, Paula Jones, and Monica Lewinsky

143 Answer: (C) strongly supported the passage of the North America Free Trade Agreement Explanation: Clinton's early efforts to end anti-gay discrimination in the armed forces failed. Al Gore did not comment on Clinton's behavior which led to impeachment, only the second for a president in American history. While impeached by the House of Representatives, he was not convicted by the Senate. Clinton never admitted directly to having affairs with a series of women. He did push for passage of the North America Free Trade Agreement in 1993.

144 "But I take higher ground. I hold that in the present state of civilization, where two races of different origin, and distinguished by color, and other physical differences, as well as intellectual, are brought together, the relation now existing in the slaveholding States between the two, is, instead of an evil, a good - a positive good. " A.Thomas Jefferson B.William Lloyd Garrison C.Robert E. Lee D.Jefferson Davis E.John C. Calhoun Who is the author of the following quote:

145 Answer: (E) John C. Calhoun Explanation: Calhoun, who served as Andrew Jackson's first vice-president, was a staunch defender of slavery. Rather than apologizing for it, he asserted in an 1837 speech to the U.S. Senate, that without slavery, white supremacy would be at risk. Southern slavery, he added "exempts us from the disorder and dangers resulting from this conflict[of whites and free blacks]."

146 A fundamentalist in the 1920s would believe all but which of the following? A.the words of the Bible were inspired by God B.Jesus was the son of Virgin Mary C.the world was created in six days in 4004 B.C. D.the first five books of the Bible were written over many years by many different authors E.Jesus rose from the dead following his crucifixion

147 Answer: (D) the first five books of the Bible were written over many years by many different authors Explanation: Fundamentalism became a powerful force in American Protestantism in the first two decades of the 20th Century. Fundamentalists believed in the deity of Jesus, the virgin birth, the Atonement at the Crucifixion, the resurrection of Jesus, and the inerrancy of the Bible, among other tenets of Christianity. Other Christians rejected this approach as narrow and anti-science and interpreted the Bible, particularly Genesis in a figurative way. The most famous forum for fundamentalism came at the 1925 Scopes Trial in which William Jennings Bryan was cross-examined by Clarence Darrow on his literal interpretation of the Bible. Fundamentalists of the 1920s believed (as modern fundamentalists still do) that the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible, were all written by Moses.

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149 All of the following were goals of MOST Progressives except A.the end of corruption in municipal governments B.making government more efficient C.end of child labor D.a rejection of capitalism and the adoption of socialism E.protecting the interests of consumers

150 Answer: (D) a rejection of capitalism and the adoption of socialism Explanation: While some Progressives were sympathetic with aspects of socialism, most rejected it as being too extreme. Progressives sought to use government and social action to reform society. Political corruption, political bosses, child labor, poor working conditions, and unsafe foods and drugs were all targets of Progressive reformers.

151 "Under a government which imprisons unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison.…Cast your whole vote, not a strip of paper merely, but your whole influence...If a thousand men were not to pay their tax bills this year, that would not be a violent and bloody measure, as it would be to pay them, and enable the State to commit violence and shed innocent blood." These sentiments from Henry David Thoreau’s essay “Civil Disobedience” profoundly influenced which pair below? A.Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas B.Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman C.John C. Calhoun and Jefferson Davis D.Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. E.W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington

152 Answer: (D) Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. Explanation: Thoreau refused to pay his taxes in Concord, Massachusetts because of his opposition to the Mexican-American War, inspiring America's most famous single night in jail. Gandhi and King utilized Thoreau's ideas in crafting their successful campaigns of civil disobedience by opposing political authority and oppression in India and the southern U.S. in the 20th Century.

153 While the U.S. remained neutral, Americans volunteered for the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in 1936 to support the Republican side in which nation's civil war? A.Manchuria B.Ethiopia C.Palestine D.Spain E.Ireland

154 Answer: (D) Spain Explanation: Americans numbered about 450 out of the 3,000 volunteers in the International Brigade which fought against the forces of Francisco Franco beginning in Communist and liberal groups in the U.S. provided support to the Brigade and Paul Robeson visited the troops and gave a concert. Franco's forces, aided by Germany and Italy, defeated the Republicans in 1938.

155 The U.S., along with the other Western powers, refused to become involved in which African nation's civil war in 1994 between Hutu and Tutsi forces that resulted in over 800,000 deaths? A.Somalia B.Sudan C.Rwanda D.Congo E.Zimbabwe [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

156 Answer: (C) Rwanda Explanation: Civil war broke out in Rwanda between Hutu and Tutsi armed forces and common people following the plane crash of Rwanda's president in Despite repeated requests for peacekeeping assistance from Western powers, including the U.S. and France, no major outside help came for the few United Nations troops sent as peacekeepers. The resulting violence took 800,000 lives. In a famous press conference exchange about what constituted genocide, a U.S. State Department official refused to label the Rwanda situation genocidal, instead stating that "acts of genocide" had taken place.

157 Which of the following is not true about the growth of American railroads prior to the Civil War? A.the early standarization of track widths allowed rapid expansion and the use of imported British locomotives B.the need for accurate clocks and timekeeping became more important as rail routes developed C.transporting goods on canals was still cheaper in many cases than on railroads D.by 1850, the U.S. had more miles of track than all of Europe combined E.most engines were fueled by wood, an inexpensive energy source [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

158 Answer: (A) the early standarization of track widths allowed rapid expansion and the use of imported British locomotives Explanation: One of the obstacles to expansion of American railroads in the second quarter of the 19th century was the lack of standardized track width, which did not become established until after the Civil War. Before then, as many as 20 different widths were used in addition to the eventually adopted standard of four feet eight and one-half inches. Railroad schedules required accuracy in timekeeping and helped spur the adoption of time zones. While transporting goods on railroads was much cheaper than roads in most cases, canals remained cheaper in many markets, though railroads had the advantage of being able to run year-round. The growth in railroad mileage was massive, particularly in the 1840s and 1850s. Abundant and cheap wood, rather than coal, fueled most American steam engines, unlike the British railroads.

159 Which of the following is not true about Thanksgiving? A.Thanksgiving did not actually become a national holiday until 1941 B.the 1621 feast of Separatists at Plymouth Plantation included a Patuxet Indian named Squanto C.Abraham Lincoln made the last Thursday in November the national day of Thanksgiving in 1863 D.George Washington was the first president to issue a national proclamation of Thanksgiving E.it is almost certain that the 1621 Plymouth Thanksgiving menu included sweet potatoes [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

160 Answer: (E) it is almost certain that the 1621 Plymouth Thanksgiving menu included sweet potatoes Explanation: While cranberries, a native American fruit, may have been on the 1621 menu, sweet potatoes, a New World crop Columbus introduced to Europe following his visits, almost certainly were not, as they were not in the Wampanoag diet and potatoes, both the white and sweet varieties, did not become a staple crop in western Europe until the 18th century. We know the Wampanoag Indians who shared the meal with the Plymouth settlers brought deer, so venison was undoubtedly consumed. As for turkeys, a definite maybe.

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162 Which of the following is not accurate about the 1783 Newburgh Conspiracy? A.it was mainly the result of American Revolutionary War veterans not being paid by Congress B.Britain had already removed all of its troops from the colonies so there was no danger of war resuming C.the conspiracy collapsed because of respect for General Washington among the Continental Army officers D.Alexander Hamilton and others hoped to use pressure on Congress to create a stronger federal government that included a tax on imports E.it occurred in Newburgh, New York about 60 miles outside New York City. [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

163 Answer: (B) Britain had already removed all of its troops from the colonies so there was no danger of war resuming Explanation: Although the British had surrendered at Yorktown in 1781 and peace negotiations were continuing in Paris, British troops still occupied New York City. A group of Continental Army officers, many of whom had not been paid for months, hatched a plan to force Congress to pay their wages. Alexander Hamilton quietly supported their efforts, as he saw it as a way to have Congress enact tariff duties, which he felt were vital for the new nation's economic success. Washington read a speech to the officers in Newburgh, New York which was not persuasive. But after he took out a letter and had to put on glasses to read it, he said "Gentlemen, you will permit me to put on my spectacles, for I have not only grown gray but almost blind in the service of my country." This apparently reminded the officers of Washington's leadership and personal sacrifices during the war and the conspiracy died. The back-pay issue was not resolved by Congress for many years.

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165 President Wilson sent General John Pershing across the Mexican border in pursuit of which Mexican rebel leader? A.Pancho Villa B.Francisco Madero C.Victoriano Huerta D.Venustiano Carranza E.Porfirio Diaz [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

166 Answer: (A) Pancho Villa Explanation: Villa expected support from the U.S. in his struggle for power with Mexico's president Venustiano Carranza. When Pres. Wilson did not offer help, Villa launched a series of raids across the U.S. border into New Mexico in 1916, killing 18 and burning a town in one attack. Wilson dispatched Pershing to capture Villa, who successfully eluded the U.S. Army. Villa was assassinated in 1923.

167 Which of the following American presidents had absolutely no military experience before taking office? A.Andrew Jackson B.William Henry Harrison C.Zachary Taylor D.Theodore Roosevelt E.Woodrow Wilson [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

168 Answer: (E) Woodrow Wilson Explanation: Jackson, elected in 1828, fought in the Creek War and the War of Harrison, elected in 1840, was the victorious general at the Battle of Tippecanoe against the Shawnee Confederacy in 1811 and also served in the War of Taylor, elected in 1848, was a general in the Mexican-American War. Roosevelt, who took office in 1901, led a group of Rough-Riders into battle in Cuba during the Spanish-American War. Wilson, a history professor and later president of Princeton University, had no military experience upon his election in 1912, though he served as commander-of-chief of American forces during World War I from

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170 Which Spanish conquistador explored the American Southwest in search of the Seven Cities of Cibola and may have ventured as far north as Kansas in 1542? A.Hernando de Soto B.Ponce de Leon C.Francisco Coronado D.Hernan Cortes E.Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

171 Answer: (C) Francisco Coronado Explanation: Coronado and his group of about 300 Spanish soldiers and four Franciscan priests ventured north from Mexico, reached the Grand Canyon, and encountered a number of Indian tribes while searching for the mythical Seven Cities of Cibola in a expedition.

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173 Which famous Depression-era American novel depicted the journey of the Joad family from Oklahoma to the Central Valley of California? A.Tender is the Night by F. Scott Fitzgerald B.Babbitt by Sinclair Lewis C.A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway D.Sister Carrie by Theodore Dreiser E.The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

174 Answer: (E) The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck Explanation: Steinbeck's novel was met with severe criticism when it was published in 1939 for its sympathetic portrayal of Tom Joad, a young father who supports farm workers in opposition to the agricultural owners of California. It later won both the Nobel and the Pulitzer Prize for literature and became a feature film starring Henry Fonda.

175

176 Significant domestic anti-war sentiment developed in which of the following American wars? I. War of 1812 II. Mexican-American War III. World War II IV. Korean War V. Vietnam War A.I, II, and III B.I, II and C.II, IV, and V D.I, III, and V E.all of the above [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

177 Answer: (B) I, II and V Explanation: New England was the center of anti-war agitation during the War of 1812 as the residents felt the brunt of the trade embargo with Great Britain. Some Federalists plotted at the 1814 Hartford Convention to secede from the U.S. and join Canada. During the Mexican-American War, New England again had the largest group opposing the war, as abolitionists and other northerners saw the attack on Mexico as a means of adding slave territory to the U.S. While in its early years, the Vietnam War enjoyed the support of a cross-section of Americans, by 1965 a significant anti-war element emerged, particularly on college campuses. World War II and the Korean War were generally supported by the American public.

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179 Which of the following was not one of the issues that caused the War Hawks to recommend war with Great Britain in the years leading up to the War of 1812? A.the forced impressment of American sailors on to British ships B.desire for Canadian land C.a dispute over the Oregon border D.British military support for Indian tribes in the Ohio River Valley E.the Chesapeake-Leopard incident [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

180 Answer: (C) a dispute over the Oregon border Explanation: The War Hawks, mostly Democrat-Republicans from the south and west in the U.S. House of Representatives, urged President Madison to make war with Great Britain for a variety of reasons, including the impressment of American sailors, desire for Canadian lands, military aid to the Shawnee Confederation by the British, and the Chesapeake-Leopard incident, in which the British Leopard fired on the U.S. frigate Chesapeake off the Atlantic coast in The Oregon boundary dispute arose during the 1840s and was settled by the Oregon Treaty of 1846.

181 Which of the following 1960s Supreme Court decisions affirmed the principle of "one person, one vote" and required states to reapportion districts so that rural districts with small population did not exert more power than urban districts with larger population? A.Tinker v. Des Moines B.Miranda v. Arizona C.Baker v. Carr D.Gideon v. Wainwright E.Loving v. Virginia [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

182 Answer: (C) Baker v. Carr Explanation: The 1962 Baker v. Carr decision ruled that reapportionment was a judicial, not merely a political matter and that courts could intervene to insure a fair distribution of voters within a state. Before this decision, rural (and often more conservative) districts wielded more political influence than more heavily populated urban districts. The decision still permitted the type of gerrymandering present in the map above, in which districts are drawn in such a way to protect incumbents. As long as the number of voters is roughly equal in districts, this practice has not been successfully challenged in federal courts.

183 An example of a "gerrymandered" district, Illinois, 2005

184 Which American wrote: "I have sworn upon the altar of God, eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man." A.Elijah P. Lovejoy B.Thomas Paine C.John Adams D.Thomas Jefferson E.George Washington [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

185 Answer: (D) Thomas Jefferson Explanation: This quote of Jefferson's, which circles his statue in the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C., is from a letter to Benjamin Rush in Jefferson explains his belief that the First Amendment separates church and state and forbids the establishment of a state religion, which is the "tyranny over the mind of man" that Jefferson opposes. Obviously he was NOT referring to SLAVERY!

186

187 Which of the following World War II-era (December 1941-August 1945) events did not occur in California? A.the establishment of the Manzanar camp for interned Japanese-Americans B.the Zoot Suit riots in which Mexican-Americans were beaten by soldiers on leave C.a Japanese submarine shelling a pier north of Santa Barbara in 1942 D.a 1943 riot in a federally-sponsored housing project left 35 blacks and 9 whites dead E.the movie "Casablanca" starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman was produced in Hollywood [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

188 Answer: (D) a 1943 riot in a federally-sponsored housing project left 35 blacks and 9 whites dead Explanation: The 1943 race riots occurred in Detroit, Michigan and lasted for three days. Racial tension between blacks and whites led to violence. Early in June 1943, 25,000 Packard plant workers, who produced engines for bombers and PT boats, stopped work in protest of the promotion of three blacks. Police were accused of harassing and arresting blacks while ignoring the illegal actions of whites. Federal troops finally were called in to quell the rioting. All of the other events took place in California during World War II.

189 While better known for his patent of the cotton gin, Eli Whitney also promoted the process of interchangeable parts in the manufacture of what items? A.Shoes B.Muskets C.Clocks D.Locomotives E.Steam engines [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

190 Answer:(B) muskets Explanation: Whitney, who was plagued by a number of lawsuits in his efforts to manufacture cotton gins, won a government contract to produce muskets in While Whitney did not invent the concept of interchangeable parts nor even completely achieve it in his gun factory which finally met the government's order in 1809, he did contribute to the American industrial revolution with his methods of specialized divisions of labor.

191 Which of the following headlines would not have been published during the administration of the 43rd U.S. president, George W. Bush? A."Hurricane Katrina Devastates New Orleans“ B."World Trade Center, Pentagon Attacked by Hijacked Planes“ C."Iraq Invades Kuwait“ D."No Child Left Behind Signed Into Law“ E."John Roberts Succeeds William Rehnquist as Chief Justice" [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

192 Answer:(C) "Iraq Invades Kuwait" Explanation: The 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait was a cause of the first Gulf War, conducted during the administration of George H.W. Bush, the 41st president. All of the other headlines could have been seen from during George W. Bush's two terms in office.

193 What a GREAT idea!!!

194 Which American religious group expected the Second Coming of Christ on several dates in the 1840s and whose followers became the core of the Seventh Day Adventist denomination? A.Mormons B.Millerites C.Shakers D.Christian Scientists E.Congregationalists [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

195 Answer: (B) Millerites Explanation: While founder William Miller resisted his follower's requests to identify the specific date of the Second Coming of Christ, he finally predicted October 22, 1844 as the date. After what became known as the Great Disappointment to Miller's followers as life continued normally on that day, they split into several groups, one of which formed the Seventh-Day Adventist Church.

196 While the U.S. remained neutral, Americans volunteered for the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in 1936 to support the Republican side in which nation's civil war? A.Manchuria B.Ethiopia C.Palestine D.Spain E.Ireland [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

197 Answer: (D) Spain Explanation: Americans numbered about 450 out of the 3,000 volunteers in the International Brigade which fought against the forces of Francisco Franco beginning in Communist and liberal groups in the U.S. provided support to the Brigade and Paul Robeson visited the troops and gave a concert. Franco's forces, aided by Germany and Italy, defeated the Republicans in 1938.

198 Which of the following is true of women in Iroquois society? A.they controlled all aspects of tribal life B.they sometimes became chiefs C.they served as religious priests D.their main responsibilities were hunting and fishing E.the elder women selected the male chief [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

199 Answer: (E) the elder women selected the male chief Explanation: In the matrilineal system of Iroquois government, women played an important role in the political and social life of the tribe. Clan mothers selected the representatives to speak at tribal meetings. Property passed from mother to daughter, and women had the responsibility of nominating the male chiefs and also removing them if duties were not correctly performed. Women participated in tribal discussions and were consulted in all matters of importance to the community and the Iroquois Confederacy.

200 Which of the following groups was the first to be the target of immigration restriction by federal congressional legislation? A.Norwegians and Swedes B.Mexicans C.Italians D.Chinese E.Africans [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

201 Answer: (D) Chinese Explanation: The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act implemented the first governmental restriction on immigration from a nation or region and prevented virtually all new immigration from China for a period of ten years. It was not until the 1920s that a system of quotas was established according to nationality. The Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed in 1943 by the Magnuson Act which allowed a total of 105 Chinese immigrants per year.

202 The Gospel of Wealth A.was developed and promoted in an essay by John D. Rockefeller B.directly and immediately provided handouts to homeless individuals C.encouraged wealthy individuals to contribute to the betterment of others D.was the impetus for the Social Gospel movement E.reflected closely the values expressed in the New Testament [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

203 Answer: (C) encouraged wealthy individuals to contribute to the betterment of others Explanation: In contrast to the Social Gospel which was based on the New Testament and sought to promote social justice for the poor, the Gospel of Wealth advocated that rich Americans distribute their money to the needy in ways that made sure it would not be wasted. In The Gospel of Wealth, Andrew Carnegie wrote "we shall have an ideal state, in which the surplus wealth of the few will become, in the best sense, the property of the many, because administered for the common good, and this wealth, passing through the hands of the few, can be made a much more potent force for the elevation of our race than if it had been distributed in small sums to the people themselves."

204 The “Breakers” Newport R.I.

205 Both the "South Carolina Exposition and Protest" and the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were concerned with A.the Alien and Sedition Acts B.tariff policies C.the concept of states' rights D.the spread of slavery into the territories E.the conflict between Andrew Jackson and his first vice-president, John C. Calhoun [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

206 Answer: (C) the concept of states' rights Explanation: States' rights is based on the concept of nullifcation, the idea that a state can choose to disobey a federal law it finds unconstitutional, which was first developed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison during the crisis caused by the passage of the Federalist Party-sponsored Alien and Sedition Acts. John C. Calhoun built on this argument in his "South Carolina Exposition and Protest" in the struggle that developed between South Carolina and the federal government over tariffs and state vs. federal powers. When the southern states seceded to form the Confederacy in 1861, the sentiments of nullification and states' rights provided the ideological framework for the new government.

207

208 "Under a government which imprisons unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison.…Cast your whole vote, not a strip of paper merely, but your whole influence...If a thousand men were not to pay their tax bills this year, that would not be a violent and bloody measure, as it would be to pay them, and enable the State to commit violence and shed innocent blood." These sentiments from Henry David Thoreau’s essay “Civil Disobedience” profoundly influenced which pair below? A.Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas B.Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman C.John C. Calhoun and Jefferson Davis D.Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. E.W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

209 Answer: (D) Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. Explanation: Thoreau refused to pay his taxes in Concord, Massachusetts because of his opposition to the Mexican-American War, inspiring America's most famous single night in jail. Gandhi and King utilized Thoreau's ideas in crafting their successful campaigns of civil disobedience by opposing political authority and oppression in India and the southern U.S. in the 20th Century.

210 Reconstruction policies between 1867 and 1876 followed most closely the wishes of A.President Abraham Lincoln B.President Andrew Johnson C.Southern plantation owners D.Northern Democrats in Congress E.Northern Republicans in Congress [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

211

212 Answer: (E) Northern Republicans in Congress Explanation: Northern Republicans, particularly the group labeled the Radical Republicans, exerted the most influence on Reconstruction policies following the end of the Civil War. Lincoln's assassination in April 1865 was probably the worst possible scenario for the post-war Southern WHITES, as he had proposed a much more lenient set of policies than the Radicals, who wished to not only see the Republican Party succeed in southern states (as did Lincoln), but to punish the former Confederates for slavery and the Civil War.

213 Which of the following statements about the 1968 Chicago Democratic Convention are accurate? I. Anti-war activists, including the Youth International Party (Yippies), assembled in Chicago to protest Vietnam War policies. II. Protestors and members of the media were attacked by members of the Chicago police during demonstrations. III. Vice-president Hubert Humphrey received the Democratic nomination. IV. Mayor Richard Daley urged police officers to use restraint in their dealings with protestors in Grant and Lincoln Park A.I, II, and III only B.I, II, and IV only C.I and II only D.I, III, and IV only E.all of the statements are true

214 Answer: (A) I, II, and III only Explanation: The eventful spring of 1968 witnessed President Lyndon Johnson announcing his decision not to seek re- election, the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert Kennedy, and Vietnam War protestors assembling in Chicago to protest governmental policies during the Democratic Convention. Violent clashes between protestors and the police escalated during the Convention week and Mayor Daley was criticized from the Convention's podium for his forces using "Gestapo tactics" by Senator Abraham Ribicoff. Many members of the media covering the protests were treated for injuries suffered as a result of police beatings. Humphrey received the nomination but lost to Richard Nixon in the November general election.

215 "The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider, or some loathsome insect over the fire, abhors you, and is dreadfully provoked" is from "Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God," a sermon delivered by which of the following? A.Cotton Mather B.Jonathan Edwards C.George Whitefield D.Charles G. Finney E.Dwight L. Moody

216 Answer: (B) Jonathan Edwards Explanation: Edwards was perhaps the most famous preacher of the 18th century Great Awakening which split Puritans into Old and New Light factions and spurred religious revivals throughout the American colonies. Edwards' imagery of hell was alleged to be so effective that parishoners held onto the pew in front of them to prevent their falling into hell's fires. In contrast to the emotional, overwrought preaching style characteristic of later revivalists, Edwards dispassionately read his long sermons while staring at the bell rope at the back of the church.

217 Which of the following was not part of the background of President Herbert Hoover, who served from 1929 to 1933? A.worked as a mining engineer throughout the world, including Australia and China B.administered the U.S. Food Administration during World War I C.served as Secretary of Commerce for Presidents Harding and Coolidge D.elected governor of California E.coordinated assistance efforts after the Great Mississippi River Flood of 1927

218 Answer: (D) governor of California Explanation: Hoover, the first president born west of the Mississippi River (in Iowa) attended Stanford University, obtained a degree in mining, and began a successful career as a mining engineer. Woodrow Wilson asked him to head the Food Administration during World War I for which he received high praise for his administrative skills, and both Republican presidents Harding and Coolidge included him in their cabinets as Secretary of Commerce. When the 1927 flood occurred, the governors of several affected states asked Hoover to coordinate the relief efforts. His first and only elected position was president of the U.S. and he served only one term.

219 "Call me Ishmael" is the opening line of what famous example of 19th century American Romantic literature? A.The Legend of Sleepy Hollow by Washington Irving B.Moby-Dick by Herman Melville\ C.Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper D.The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe E.The dying need but little, dear by Emily Dickinson

220 Answer: (B) Moby-Dick by Herman Melville Explanation: While critically panned by many when published in 1851, Moby-Dick by Herman Melville has been since viewed as one of the greatest novels in world literature. It depicts the search for a great white whale by Captain Ahab. Melville writes: "The White Whale swam before him as the monomaniac incarnation of all those malicious agencies which some deep men feel eating in them, till they are left living on with half a heart and half a lung."

221 Which of the following New Deal critics developed a very popular Share Our Wealth plan during the Great Depression using the slogan "Every man a king but no one wears a crown?" A.Dr. Francis Townsend B.Father Charles Coughlin C.John L. Lewis D.Huey Long E.Norman Thomas

222 Answer: (D) Huey Long Explanation: Huey Long served as both governor and senator from Louisiana and built a following with his populist message of taxing the rich and providing $5000 for every family. Share Our Wealth clubs were set up across the nation and Franklin Roosevelt saw Long as a political threat in the 1936 presidential election. Long was assassinated, however, in September 1935.

223 The incident between Congressman Preston Brooks and Senator Charles Sumner in 1856 proved that A.slavery would result in war if compromises were not enacted between the North and South B.sectional violence had spread to the Kansas territory C.sectional violence had spread to the floor of Congress D.the violence that occurred during Bleeding Kansas would be repeated in other territories E.the Constitution was not meant to include African-American slaves

224 Answer: (C) sectional violence had spread to the floor of Congress Brooks was removed from office in a Congressional Censure, but was re-elected by his south Carolina constituents and sent back to Congress. They also sent him thicker, bigger canes in the hope that next time…

225 When the Soviets and East Germans blockaded highway, river, and rail traffic into Berlin in 1948, the United States and its Allies A.initiated the Marshall Plan B.built the Berlin Wall C.airlifted supplies into West Berlin D.allowed for Soviet control of Hungary in exchange for a promise of lifting the blockade E.refused to act

226 Answer: (C) airlifted supplies into West Berlin Explanation: The Berlin Airlift provided a dramatic response to the Soviet and East German attempt to force the Allies to abandon West Berlin. Over 200,000 flights brought 13,000 tons of food and supplies to Berlin each day for nearly a year. The Soviets abandoned the blockade in May 1949.

227

228 Who drew this? What theme?

229 The disputed presidential election in 1876 between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden was decided by A.an electoral commission B.the Supreme Court C.the House of Representatives D.the Electoral College E.the Freedmens [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

230 Answer: (A) an electoral commission Explanation: Several Southern states had disputed electoral results. An electoral commission was appointed to select the president. The commission divided 8-7 to give all 20 disputed votes, and hence the election, to Republican Hayes, who trailed Democratic candidate Tilden considerably in the popular vote. Along with the Republican victory, troops were removed from the South in what is often referred to as the Compromise of 1877 and seen as the end of Reconstruction.

231 Arrange the following in correct time order: I. the restoration of the English monarchy II. the Puritans' Great Migration III. the Separatists arrival at Plymouth IV. the Protestant Reformation A.I, II, III, IV B.IV, III, II, I C.III, IV, I, II D.IV, II, III, I E.IV, I, III [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

232 Answer: (B) IV, III, II, I A.Explanation: The Protestant Reformation began with Martin Luther's nailing of the 95 Theses to the Wittenberg church door in The Separatists (or Pilgrims) arrived at Plymouth at 1620 following a brief time in Holland. The Puritan Great Migration occurred during the 1630s as Puritans fled England under the reign of Charles I who was executed for treason in Charles II became king in 1661 in the restoration of the monarchy.

233 For the first time in its history, NATO forces were sent into combat in 1994 in what region of the world? A.Afghanistan B.Somalia C.Libya D.Bosnia E.Kuwait [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

234 Answer: (D) Bosnia Explanation: NATO planes shot down four Bosnian Serb planes while enforcing a United Nations no-fly zone over Bosnia in This marked the first use of NATO air forces since its creation in 1949.

235 Which of the following sectors of the American economy did not experience growth during the 1920s? A.automobile manufacturing B.the steel industry C.home appliances D.the oil industry E.farming [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

236 Answer: (E) farming Explanation: American farmers, who had generally prospered with the increase in demand for agricultural products in the years during and immediately after World War I, saw their farm income drop by two-thirds from 1920 to 1930.

237 The British military strategy in the critical American Revolution year of 1777 was to A.build military strength in southern colonies B.isolate New England from the rest of the colonies C.occupy the city of Boston D.control all of the major cities of the colonies E.capture the Continental Congress [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

238 Answer: (B) isolate New England from the rest of the colonies Explanation: Following the defeat of Hessian and British forces at Trenton and Princeton, in 1777 the British sought to pursue a strategy of isolating New England, seen as the hotbed of colonial opposition, from the rest of the colonies. The plan failed with the surrender of over 5800 of General Burgoyne's troops at Saratoga in New York.

239 Arrange the following in correct time order: I. the restoration of the English monarchy II. the Puritans' Great Migration III. the Separatists arrival at Plymouth IV. the Protestant Reformation A.I, II, III, IV B.IV, III, II, I C.III, IV, I, II D.IV, II, III, I E.II, IV, I, III [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

240 Answer: (B) IV, III, II, I Explanation: The Protestant Reformation began with Martin Luther's nailing of the 95 Theses to the Wittenberg church door in The Separatists (or Pilgrims) arrived at Plymouth at 1620 following a brief time in Holland. The Puritan Great Migration occurred during the 1630s as Puritans fled England under the reign of Charles I who was executed for treason in Charles II became king in 1661 in the restoration of the monarchy.

241

242 President Nixon resigned in August 1974 after A.Vice-President Ford requested him to do so B.the Supreme Court ruled 8-0 against him in U.S. v. Nixon C.White House Counsel John Dean admitted illegal actions when interviewed by the Senate Watergate Committee D.the House of Representatives voted to impeach him on 11 charges E.he lost the support from Senate Republicans that he needed to avoid Watergate-related impeachment convictions [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

243 Answer: (E) he lost the support from Senate Republicans that he needed to avoid Watergate-related impeachment convictions Explanation: President Nixon sought to avoid the political fallout from the Watergate scandal, despite the resignation of his closest aides, transcripts of White House conversations, and widespread calls for his resignation from the media and Democrats. On August 5, 1974, formerly supportive Republican members of Congress announced they would vote for impeachment. On August 9th Nixon became the first president to resign from office. New President Gerald Ford later pardoned Nixon for any Watergate crimes, stating "Our long national nightmare is over."

244 The principles of the women's rights movement developed at the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention were expressed in a document patterned after A.the Magna Carta B.Common Sense C.the Declaration of Independence D.the Bill of Rights E.the French Declaration of the Rights of Man [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

245 Answer: (C) the Declaration of Independence Explanation: At the Seneca Falls Convention, women and men gathered together for the first time to demand the right to vote for women. Elizabeth Cady Stanton read the Declaration of Sentiments, modeled after the Declaration of Independence, which included "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal," along with a list of abuses in which "man" was substituted for King George.

246 Which of the following was not an example of the increasing tension between rural and urban America in the 1920s? A.the Scopes "Monkey" Trial B.the rise of the Ku Klux Klan C.the 18th Amendment D.the Sacco-Vanzetti case E.fundamentalism vs. modernism struggles [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

247 Answer: (D) the Sacco-Vanzetti case Explanation: The trial of John Scopes in Dayton, Tennessee pitted rural fundamentalists against urban modernists. The KKK experienced a 1920s revival and was a growing force in rural America. The 18th Amendment, outlawing the purchase, sale, and transportation of liquor was particularly resented in rural areas. Sacco and Vanzetti were convicted and executed for killing a paymaster in Massachusetts, causing international protests, but had little impact in rural parts of the U.S.

248 In which of the following did the U.S. and Great Britain agree to limit naval armaments on the Great Lakes? A.Rush-Bagot Agreement B.Webster-Ashburton Treaty C.Oregon Treaty D.Convention of 1818 E.Jay Treaty [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

249 Answer: (A) Rush-Bagot Agreement Explanation: The Rush-Bagot Agreement, signed by the U.S. and Great Britain in 1817, demilitarized the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain and helped improve relations between the U.S. and Great Britain. It led to the establishment of a demilitarized border between Canada and the U.S. which is 5527 miles long.

250 During the 1968 Tet Offensive A.North Vietnamese and Vietcong forces launched major attacks on U.S. and South Vietnamese positions throughout South Vietnam B.U.S. warships were allegedly fired upon in the Gulf of Tonkin C.South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem was assassinated in Saigon D.B-52 bombers launched a massive air attack on Hanoi and Haiphong in North Vietnam E.American forces secretly invaded Cambodia [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

251 Answer: (A) North Vietnamese and Vietcong forces launched major attacks on U.S. and South Vietnamese positions throughout South Vietnam Explanation: The January 1968 Tet Offensive of North Vietnamese forces caught American military leaders by surprise, as targets were attacked throughout South Vietnam. In Saigon, the American Embassy was temporarily overrun by enemy troops. American public support for the war dropped following Tet and by March 31st, President Lyndon Johnson announced that he would not seek re-election to the presidency.

252 ["In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to 'preserve, protect, and defend' it. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature." In which speech and when did Abraham Lincoln make the statement? question here] A.Lincoln-Douglas debate—1858 B.Cooper Union speech C.1st Inaugural Address-1861 D.Gettysburg Address—1863 E.2nd Inaugural Address [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

253 Answer: (C) 1st Inaugural Address-1861 Explanation: In his March 1861 Inaugural Address, Lincoln faced the difficult task of dealing with the Southern states which had seceded. While he could not ignore their challenge to the Union and the Constitution, he also did not want to adopt a belligerent tone that might push the border states into a state of rebellion.

254 In which of the following rulings did the Supreme Court declare that states could not tax federal institutions, specifically the Bank of the U.S.? A.Marbury v. Madison B.McCullough v. Maryland C.Cohens v. Virginia D.Dartmouth College v. Woodward E.Gibbons v. Ogden [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

255 Answer: (B) McCullough v. Maryland Explanation: In the 1819 case, the state of Maryland sought to tax the Bank of the U.S. Chief Justice John Marshall wrote the opinion ruling that "the power to tax was the power to destroy," forbidding a state from taxing a federal institution. This decision strengthened the implied powers of Congress and the federal government.

256 Which of the following was not a belief of the Puritans who settled in New England in the 1630s and 1640s? A.predestination--God chose those who were destined for heaven before they were even born B.the Bible should be read by everyone, so education was essential C.worship should be plain (no musical instruments), as should churches (no stained glass) D.the individual congregation chooses its own ministers and recognizes no other religious authority E.the confessional booth was a necessary element of each Puritan church [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

257 Answer: (E) the confessional booth was a necessary element of each Puritan church Explanation: Confession of sins to a priest and the confessional booth were two of the elements of Roman Catholic worship that were rejected by Protestant leaders in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Puritans who emigrated to New England felt that the Church of England was becoming too much like the Catholic Church which Henry VIII had rejected during the English Reformation. Puritans did believe, however, in predestination, universal education, plain worship, and the autonomy of individual congregations.

258 Which of the following were part of the Great Society programs of the Lyndon B. Johnson presidential administration? I. Food Stamp Act II. Head Start III. Medicare IV. Civil Rights Act of 1965 V. Elementary and Secondary Education Act A.I, III, and V only B.I, II, III, and IV only C.I and III only D.II, III, IV and V only E.all were Great Society programs [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

259 Answer: (E) all were Great Society programs Explanation: In a speech in May 1964, Johnson stated "We are going to assemble the best thought and broadest knowledge from all over the world to find these answers. I intend to establish working groups to prepare a series of conferences and meetings—on the cities, on natural beauty, on the quality of education, and on other emerging challenges. From these studies, we will begin to set our course toward the Great Society.” Great Society programs sought to eliminate poverty and racial injustice.

260 Which of the following was an element of the Commerce Compromise at the 1787 Constitutional Convention that would have been promoted by delegates from New England states? A.no taxes on exports B.federal tariffs to restrict the importation of European products C.2/3 vote rather than a simple majority needed to pass commerce bills in Congress D.slaves counted for 3/5 of white citizens for the purpose of representation in the House of Representatives E.no congressional interference with slavery for 20 years [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

261 Answer: (B) federal tariffs to restrict the importation of European products Explanation: New England, the center of American manufacturing, strongly favored protective tariffs to keep out European goods and produce revenue for the federal government. Southern states favored (A) no taxes on exports and (C) a 2/3 vote for the passage of any commerce bill. Southerners would have also favored (D) slaves being counted for the purpose of representation and (E) no interference with slavery for 20 years, both elements of the Three-Fifths Compromise.

262 At which of the following conferences did Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill support self- determination, a new permanent system of general security (a new League of Nations), and the right of people to regain governments abolished by dictators? A.San Francisco Conference B.Yalta Conference C.Atlantic Conference D.Casablanca Conference E.Potsdam Conference [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

263 Answer: (C) Atlantic Conference Explanation: Held in August 1941 before the U.S. entry into World War II, the Atlantic Conference produced the bilateral Atlantic Charter which basically set international diplomacy standards for the post- war world, including the creation of an organization that would become the United Nations at the San Francisco Conference in 1945.

264 The “clear and present danger” doctrine for the boundaries of permissible speech was established in this Supreme Court case dealing with the distribution of anti-draft flyers during World War I A.Tinker v. Des Moines B.Schenck v. U.S. C.U.S. v. Debs D.Feiner v. New York E.U.S. v. Spirit of ’76 [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

265 Answer: (B) Schenck v. U.S. Explanation: In upholding a 10-year jail sentence for the distribution of ant-war pamphlets, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote ''The question in every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent. It is a question of proximity and degree.''

266 Which of the following groups supported gradually eroding slavery's presence in the U.S. and encouraged a back-to-Africa program? A.Republican Party B.American Anti-Slavery Society C.American Colonization Society D.Free Soil Party E.Liberty Party [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

267 Answer: (C) American Colonization Society Explanation: The American Colonization Society, co- founded by Henry Clay, included Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe as strong supporters, pursued a gradualistic approach to ending slavery in the U.S., and helped establish the nation of Liberia as a home for repatriated slaves. Its influence waned in the 1830s as more strident abolitionist groups arose, though Abraham Lincoln was still referring to African colonization as an option in Perhaps as many as 13,000 ex-slaves settled in Liberia.

268 Which of the following European nations established a 17th century colonial presence on the north rim of South America, in the Caribbean, and in the American colonies of Delaware and New York? A.the Netherlands B.France C.Portugal D.Spain E.Sweden [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

269 Answer: (A) the Netherlands Explanation: The Dutch, perhaps the preeminent commercial power in Europe in the 17th century, established several colonies throughout the New World, usually focusing on trade as the chief economic activity. Their presence in the American colonies was never large-scale, with perhaps 1500 Dutch residents in New York in 1664 when the British took control.

270 Which of the following New Deal legislative enactments guaranteed savings deposits to prevent bank failures? A.Glass-Steagall Act B.Wagner Act C.National Industrial Recovery Act D.Public Works Administration Act E.Emergency Relief Appropriation Act [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

271 Answer: (A) Glass-Steagall Act Explanation: The Glass-Steagall Act, or Banking Act of 1933, created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and introduced other banking reforms intended to control speculation. The Glass-Steagall Act was repealed in 1999.

272 Which of the following statements is true concerning the 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act? A.it was used by the federal government to effectively crush monopolies B.it led to the federal government’s control of the utilities C.it was effective against all trusts except the railroads D.it resulted in greater harmony between businesses and the federal government E.it had little immediate impact on big business corporations [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

273 Answer: (E) It had little immediate impact on big business corporations Explanation: Due to the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the phrase “combinations in restraint of trade,” it had little immediate effect. The Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) was able to target monopolists more effectively.

274 Anti-slavery groups in the 1830s and 1840s could often find support from which of the following? I. Second Great Awakening evangelicals such as Charles G. Finney II. women's rights advocates such as Angelina Grimke III. Democratic Party politicians such as Andrew Jackson IV. the Whig Party A.I and II only B.II and IV only C.I, II, and III only D.I, II, and IV only E.all were supportive of anti-slavery groups [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

275 Answer: (D) I, II, and IV only Explanation: Charles Finney founded Oberlin College which was a center of abolitionism. Women's rights leaders recognized that the slaves and women had similar issues with oppressive white males. The Whig Party provided a base for anti-slavery politicians and offshoots formed the Republican Party. Democratic Party leaders such as Jackson did not generally support anti-slavery groups.

276 While it may have been diplomatically significant and inspirational to slaves, free blacks, and abolitionists, the Emancipation Proclamation can be seen as being morally flawed because A.it was ignored by everyone involved B.it did not free slaves in the border states of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware C.Lincoln signed it only to prevent the imminent collapse of Union forces following Antietam D.Jefferson Davis announced that all free blacks in the North were now slaves E.Democratic politicians opposed it [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

277 Answer: (B) it did not free slaves in the border states of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware Explanation: Lincoln, while seeing both the domestic and international advantages of announcing the end of slavery in the South, needed to avoid offending the border states, so he exempted their slaveholders from the decree, which took effect on January 1, "I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game," he commented. "Kentucky gone, we can not hold Missouri, nor, as I think, Maryland. These all against us, and the job on our hands is too large for us. We would as well consent to separation at once, including the surrender of this capital." Lincoln hoped the border states would renounce slavery voluntarily.

278 Which explorer is incorrectly matched with the region he explored? A.Cabrillo—California B.Pizarro—Peru C.DeSoto—Florida D.Balboa—Cuba E.Coronado--New Mexico [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

279 Answer: (D) Balboa--Cuba Explanation: Vasco Nuñez de Balboa is best known for his exploration of the isthmus of Panama. He is the first European to have seen the Pacific Ocean from the New World.

280 Notice how “Caucasian” they made her to get sympathy

281 Which anti-slavery theme did Harriet Beecher-Stowe exploit A.Democracy would be harmed B.Breaking apart families C.Brutality of the whip D.constitutionality E.Economic harm to the North [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

282 Answer – B) Breaking apart families Although the 2 nd Middle Passage to the Deep South as the soil in the Old South wore out – families were “usually” kept together to increase control.

283 Which of the following Supreme Court cases determined that in most cases a confession was inadmissable in court if it was obtained before a suspect had been read his or her constitutional rights? A.Baker v. Carr B.Miranda v. Arizona C.Gideon v. Wainwright D.Tinker v. Des Moines E.Loving v. Virginia [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

284 Answer: (B) Miranda v. Arizona Explanation: In 1963 Ernesto Miranda was convicted of rape based on a confession after he had been arrested for robbery. The Supreme Court overturned an Arizona court's ruling which had upheld his conviction. Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote "The person in custody must, prior to interrogation, be clearly informed that he has the right to remain silent, and that anything he says will be used against him in the court of law; he must be clearly informed that he has the right to consult with a lawyer and to have the lawyer with him during interrogation, and that, if he is indigent, a lawyer will be appointed to represent him..."

285 One of the advantages of the South at the start of the Civil War was A.a diversified economy with a strong manufacturing base B.a comprehensive railroad system C.a well-trained and experienced group of military officers D.a large navy E.a larger population than the North [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

286 Answer: (C) a well-trained and experienced group of military officers Explanation: The Confederacy was able to draw on a large number of officers who had been trained at West Point and who had served in the Mexican-American War. Robert E. Lee was asked by President Lincoln to command the Union forces in Lee declined, as his home state of Virginia had seceded and he chose not to prosecute war against it.

287 Which of the following events from the 1850s is not in the correct chronological order? A.publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin B.execution of John Brown C.Kansas-Nebraska Act D.Dred Scott decision E.Lincoln-Douglas debates [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

288 Answer: (B) execution of John Brown Explanation: The correct order of events is (A) publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin--1852, (C) Kansas-Nebraska Act--1854, (D) Dred Scott decision--1857, (E) Lincoln-Douglas debates--1858, (B) execution of John Brown

289 Which of the following environmental catastrophes involved nuclear power? A.Three-Mile Island B.the Exxon Valdez incident C.Love Canal D.the 1971 Santa Barbara spill E.the 1969 Cuyahoga River fire [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

290 Answer: (A) Three-Mile Island Explanation: Three-Mile Island refers to a Pennsylvania nuclear power plant partial core meltdown in The Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground in Alaska in 1989, spilling millions of gallons of oil into the Gulf of Alaska. Love Canal, a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, was built near a toxic waste dump. Serious health problems for residents resulted in the relocation of hundreds of families. An oil spill bespoiled California beaches off Santa Barabara in 1971.

291 “When a nation is at war many things that might be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its effort that their utterance will not be endured so long as men fight and that no Court could regard them as protected by any constitutional right.” This statement was made by…in which Supreme Court decision? A.John Marshall // Cherokee Nation vs Georgia B.Roger Taney // Dred Scott vs Sanford C.Antonin Scalia // Griswold vs Connecticut D.Oliver Wendell Holmes // Schenck vs U.S. E.Earl Warren // Gideon vs Wainwright [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

292 Answer: D) Oliver Wendell Holmes // Schenck vs U.S. Explanation: Holmes delivered the majority opinion in the Schenck case, in which he also presented the "clear and present danger" doctrine.

293 Samuel Gompers attempted to win gains for labor by A.uniting skilled and unskilled workers into one big union B.organizing industrial or vertical unions C.campaigning actively for the election of AFL members D.organizing skilled craft unions E.urging civil disobedience as a means to win public support [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

294 Answer: D) organizing skilled craft unions Explanation: Unlike the earlier Knights of Labor which welcomed skilled and non-skilled members, the AF of L focused on skilled craft members. Gompers was its president from its founding in 1885 until his death in Gompers emphasized economic gains for workers, including higher wages, shorter hours, and safe working conditions.

295

296 Which of the following is not true of the Iran- Contra scandal of the Reagan administration A.Oliver North testified about his involvement before Congressional hearings B.weapons were sold to Iran with the profits going to the pro-American Contras in Nicaragua C.it was illegal for aid to be given to the Contras without Congressional approval D.the goal was to foment ill-feelings between Iran and Iraq E.Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger was convicted of lying about the scandal and sentenced to prison, but was pardoned by President George H.W. Bush [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

297 Answer: (D) the goal was to foment ill- feelings between Iran and Iraq Explanation: The goal of the complicated Iran- Contra arms-for-hostages scheme was to obtain funds to aid the anti-communist Contras in Nicaragua without congressional knowledge.

298 In the 1869 Black Friday or Gould-Fisk scandal A.railroad companies were involved in illegally creating monopolies B.two speculators attempted to use their influence with the Grant administration to control the gold market in the United States C.Southern scalawags used Reconstruction funds for their own enrichment D.Indian agents in the Black Hills of South Dakota overcharged for supplies delivered to Sioux Indians E.the New York Stock Exchange collapsed [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

299 Answer: (B) two speculators attempted to use their influence with the Grant administration to control the gold market in the United States Explanation: Jay Gould and James Fisk almost accomplished their goal of controlling much of the gold in the United States by recruiting Grant's brother-in-law and convincing President Grant not to sell government gold. When Grant became aware of the scam, he sold millions of dollars of gold to lower the price. The result was a financial panic that tarnished the Grant administration.

300 Which of the following were sources of the new imperialist American ideology of the 1890s? I. Social Darwinism II. The belief in the inherent superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race III. A new manifest destiny strain, suggesting that every nation should be English in language, religion, and customs IV. The idea that as the American frontier closed, interests would turn outward to foreign frontiers A.none of the above B.II, III, and IV only C.I and IV only D.I, III, and IV only E.all of the above [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

301 Answer: (E) all of the above Explanation: The 1890s witnessed a new form of manifest destiny, with Latin America and the Pacific as areas of focus. Social Darwinism suggested that as in nature, in society, only the strong survive. The superiority of white-skinned people, particularly Anglo-Saxons, was also a factor, characterized in Rudyard Kipling's poem "The White Man's Burden." Frederick Jackson Turner's thesis that the close of the American frontier would lead to looking for further areas of expansion was also part of the 1890s ideology.

302 Which of the following were results of the 1773 Boston Tea Party? I. Quebec Act passed, expanding colony of Quebec and challenging claims of Massachusetts Bay to Ohio River Valley lands II. town meetings were restricted III. port of Boston closed IV. new Quartering Act passed, allowing easier access to colonial homes by British soldiers A.all of the choices above B.I, II, and III only C.I, II, and IV only D.II, III, and IV only E.none of the above [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

303 (A) all of the above Explanation: he explanation should have been reworded to read: Angered by the destruction of the chests of tea and the challenge to British authority that the Boston Tea Party represented, Parliament passed a series of laws known as the Coercive or Intolerable Acts, all of which provided even more reason for resentment among those chafing at the colonies' treatment by Great Britain. The Quebec Act, passed by Parliament soon after the Coercive Acts, also caused resentment in Massachusetts as it extended the borders of Quebec and challenged land claims in the Ohio River Valley.

304 Which of the following does not describe the depression beginning in 1929? A.decline in international trade B.decline in the purchasing power of the American people C.inability to produce goods to supply demand D.decline in agricultural prices E.rise in unemployment [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

305 Answer: (C) inability to produce goods to supply demand Explanation: American industry had significant production capacity in 1929, but the Depression's economic effects significantly reduced the demand for products. As wages fell and unemployment increased, consumers purchased fewer goods, leading to higher inventories, price drops, and even more unemployment.

306 In the 1972 Furman v. Georgia decision, the Supreme Court ruled that to be constitutional, the death penalty needed to A.be administered by lethal injection B.not be arbitrary and inconsistent C.decided by a 12-0 jury decision D.appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court E.applied to those with a normal or higher IQ [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

307 Answer: (B) not be arbitrary and inconsistent Explanation: The Supreme Court determined in the Furman decision that arbitrary and inconsistent administration of the death penalty violated the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendment protections of the Constitution. This led many states to alter their procedures for death penalty cases.

308 The purpose of the 1964 Freedom Summer in Mississippi was to A.protest the escalation of the Vietnam War B.help and encourage African-Americans to become registered voters C.force the Interstate Commerce Commission to declare segregated transportation facilities unconstitutional D.persuade the state legislature to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment E.desegregate schools [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

309 Answer: (B) help and encourage African- Americans to become registered voters Explanation: Freedom Summer, also known as the Mississippi Summer Project, sought to register as many black voters as possible in a state where very few had registered previously. Fierce resistance to the over 1000 volunteers who poured into Mississippi resulted in violence and the deaths of four civil rights workers. While a small percentage of Mississippi's black citizens registered to vote, the campaign brought national attention to the segregation practices of the South.

310 In the Scottsboro Boys case of the 1930s A.white boys were accused of raping two white women B.the defendants were found guilty by all-white juries C.all nine defendants were eventually executed D.a gang fight occurred between whites and blacks E.the U.S. Supreme Court intervened to stay the executions of the boys [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

311 Answer: (B) the defendants were found guilty by all-white juries Explanation: The nine Scottsboro boys were African-Americans accused of raping two white women in Alabama in They were convicted by all-white juries and sentenced to death, though eventually all were released from prison.

312 Which of the following are true of writs of habeas corpus I. According to the Constitution, they cannot be suspended except in cases of rebellion or invasion II. President Lincoln temporarily suspended them during the Civil War III. They prevent cruel or unusual punishment IV. They require a court to determine if a person is being detained lawfully A.all of the above B.I, II, and III only C.I, II, and IV only D.II and IV only E.I and II only [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

313 Answer: (C) I, II, and IV only Explanation: A writ of habeas corpus guarantees that an individual may not be unlawfully detained and that an imprisoning authority such as a jailer must deliver a person to a court to determine if this has taken place. The Constitution gives Congress the right to suspend it in time of war and President Lincoln did just that in 1861 because of concern over unrest in Maryland.

314 President Richard Nixon A.was impeached by the House of Representatives for obstruction of justice and abuse of power B.resigned to allow Vice-President Spiro Agnew to take over the reins of power C.apologized to the American people for his decisions and declared he was wrong to abuse power D.resigned from office before the House could impeach him, which it was likely to do E.gained increasing support from the Republican Party and the American public as he released information about his involvement [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

315 Answer: (D) resigned from office before the House could impeach him, which it was likely to do Explanation: After the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the 1974 U.S. v. Richard M. Nixon decision that the White House tapes needed to be turned over to the Special Prosecutor, members of Nixon's Republican Party convinced him to resign rather than fight impeachment hearings. Nixon became the first president to resign from office.

316 According to the 19th century cult of domesticity A.men and women entered marriage as equal partners in terms of duties and responsibilities B.men's first responsibility were as husbands, not as wage-earning providers C.women were encouraged to work outside the home D.religion was of little importance to a woman fulfilling her role E.the home was the proper sphere for women, who were expected to be virtuous and submissive [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

317 Answer: (E) the home was the proper sphere for women, who were expected to be virtuous and submissive. Explanation: The cult of domesticity reasoned that women should be pious, subservient to their husbands, and focused on the home in their activities.

318 [Enter question here] A.[Option 1] B.[Option 2] C.[Option 3] D.[Option 4] E.[Option 5] [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

319 [Enter question here] A.[Option 1] B.[Option 2] C.[Option 3] D.[Option 4] E.[Option 5] [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

320 [Enter question here] A.[Option 1] B.[Option 2] C.[Option 3] D.[Option 4] E.[Option 5] [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

321 [Enter question here] A.[Option 1] B.[Option 2] C.[Option 3] D.[Option 4] E.[Option 5] [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

322 [Enter question here] A.[Option 1] B.[Option 2] C.[Option 3] D.[Option 4] E.[Option 5] [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

323 [Enter question here] A.[Option 1] B.[Option 2] C.[Option 3] D.[Option 4] E.[Option 5] [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

324 [Enter question here] A.[Option 1] B.[Option 2] C.[Option 3] D.[Option 4] E.[Option 5] [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

325 [Enter question here] A.[Option 1] B.[Option 2] C.[Option 3] D.[Option 4] E.[Option 5] [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]

326 [Enter question here] A.[Option 1] B.[Option 2] C.[Option 3] D.[Option 4] E.[Option 5]

327 [Enter question here] A.[Option 1] B.[Option 2] C.[Option 3] D.[Option 4] E.[Option 5]

328 [Enter question here] A.[Option 1] B.[Option 2] C.[Option 3] D.[Option 4] E.[Option 5]


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