People wanted to visit the Holy Land, Rome or the tombs of Earl martyred Saints.Also, the places visited by Christ and the Apostles. Was a major expression of faith. Pilgrimages were highly illegal. Chaucer wrote about them (Cantubury Tales) and Erasmus and Martin Luther spoke out against them.
Comes from the Latin Cathedra, which means chair. Officially the church of the bishop of a diocese. Incorrectly known as a big church. Before the 12 th Century, cathedrals were made in the Romanesque style. In 1124, Abbot Sugar developed a higher, lighter wall design that used stained glass windows to create a rainbow of light inside. Became known as Gothic Architecture.
Theologians used reason to investigate the teachings of the Church. Saint Anslem defined theology as “faith seeking understanding”. His use of philosophical tools to understand and organize Christian teachings became known as scholasticism. St. Thomas Aquinas was the most renowned theologian of this time. He wrote “Summa Theolgica” which used reason to prove the existence of God.
Islam controlled much of the Holy Land. Charlemagne forged a peace with the Muslims so that Christians could visit the Holy Land. In 1071, Seljuk Turks conquered the Holy Land and prevented Christians from living in or visiting the Holy Land. When they began attacking Constantinople, the Emperor sent word to the Pope to send Western Christians to come to the aid of fellow Christians.
Pope Urban II convened a council in Clermont in 1095 to address the issues of the Eastern Church and the Holy Land. He asked the nobility of Europe to take up the cross, not to aid the Eastern Christians, but to free the Holy Land. Used the cry “Deus Vult”, or “God wills it” as the battle cry.
Urban sold the Crusades on the nobility of Europe by promising: 1.) that it was the will of God to free the Holy Land; 2.) that fighters would receive “remission of sins” by joining; and 3.) that fighters would receive gifts for joining. About 150,000 pledged to fight (only about 40,000 showed up). Fighters wore a red cross on their chest (crociati), and thus they were called crusaders.
Urban appoints a French Bishop to lead. The First Crusade was from 1096-1099 and resulted in the recapture of Jerusalem. Second Crusade commenced in 1147 after the Turks reclaimed some of the land lost in the 1 st Crusade. A monk, Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, preached in favor of the 2nd Crusade. Conflicts between the French and German leaders made the 2 nd Crusade a dismal failure.