Presentation on theme: "Postwar Pessimism The brutal realities of industrialized warfare brought about a shift in beliefs Superiority of Europe World getting better & better."— Presentation transcript:
Postwar Pessimism The brutal realities of industrialized warfare brought about a shift in beliefs Superiority of Europe World getting better & better Limitless improvement of humankind Democracy as ideal government Expressed by artists, writers, theologians
Scientific Revolutions Einstein’s theory of relativity Space Time “Uncertainty Principle” Objectivity no longer a valid principle Freud’s Psychoanalytical Principle Unconscious mental processes & neurosis
Disdain for Realism in Art Rise of avant-garde artists Realism abandoned for an expression of feelings and emotion Picasso Les Demoislles d’Avignon Munch The Scream
Postwar Economics WW1 affected economies all over the world Britain and France owed huge debts to the U.S. Both relied on reparations from Germany to pay these loans Paying these reparations crushed Germany’s economy What country do you think benefitted the most after WW1?
The U.S. emerged from WW1 as the world’s leading economic power. Continued to loan European countries money Had a strong manufacturing base Many new inventions and innovations
The Roaring Twenties New developments led to the “Roaring Twenties” — Telephones — Motion Pictures — Radio shows — Harlem Renaissance — Jazz music — Night clubs — Women “Flappers” — Medical advancements — Penicillin — X-rays
The Roaring Twenties There were reactions against the cultural changes of the 1920’s Prohibition, the 18 th amendment Speakeasies Bootleggers & Mobsters Scopes trial
The wealth created in the 1920’s wasn’t shared evenly. Farmers, miners and suppliers of raw materials suffered. Technology led to overproduction. Beginning in Oct. 1929, investor confidence in the stock market dropped, leading to a market collapse All tried to sell at once and bottom fell out of market = panic selling The crash had a ripple effect on the economy
1920's had been a period of good economic times Tues. Oct. 29th, 1929 - NYC Stock market crashed, causing a depression that would last until 1942
For the poor....... mass consumption was already low (poor could afford to buy little) unemployment rose no gov't assistance at first since people could not buy, productivity was cut back = further unemployment so w/ additional unemployment purchasing power declined again reduced productivity yet again ECONOMIC CYCLE Unemployment Purchasing Power Productivity
The Depression Spreads American banks stopped making loans around the world and began demanding repayment W/O support from the U.S., Germany suffered – it couldn’t make reparation payments to Britain and France
Overall U.S. production plummets U.S. investors have little or no money to invest U.S. investments in Germany decline German war payments to Allies falls off Europeans cannot afford American goods Allies cannot pay debts to the U.S.
Loss of Faith in Democracy As the depression wore on, many lost faith in the ability of democratic governments to solve the problems Misery, despair and hopelessness created fertile ground for extremists who promised radical solutions. Stalin - USSR Mussolini - Italy Hitler - Germany
Total, Centralized State Control Totalitarianism—government that dominates every aspect of life (total control) Totalitarian leader is often dynamic* and persuasive *pertaining to or characterized by energy or effective action; vigorously active or forceful; energetic: the dynamic president of the firm.
Police Terror Government uses police to spy on and intimidate people Normally, the police are expected to respond to criminal activity and protect the citizens. In a totalitarian state, the police serve enforce the central government’s policies.
Indoctrination Government shapes people’s minds through slanted education Control of education is absolutely essential to glorify the leader and his policies and to convince all citizens that their unconditional loyalty and support are required.
Propaganda and Censorship Totalitarian states spread *propaganda. Government controls all mass media, and **crushes opposing views. *biased or incomplete information used to sway people **censorship
Religious or Ethnic Persecution Leaders brand religious, ethnic minorities “enemies of the state.”
Totalitarianism Characteristics Dynamic Leader Unites people Symbolizes government Encourages popular support by force of will Dictatorship & One-Party Rule Exercises absolute authority Dominates the government State Control Of Society Business Labor Education Housing Modern Technology Mass communication to spread propaganda Advanced military weapons Methods of Enforcement Police terror Indoctrination Censorship Persecution State Control of Individuals Demands loyalty Denies basic liberties Expects personal sacrifice for the state Ideology Sets goals of the state Glorified aims of the state Glorified govern
Different Kinds of Totalitarianism Fascism: any centralized, authoritarian government that is not communist, whose policies glorify the state over the individual, and is destructive to basic human rights. Communism: a classless government based on socialism principles, in which all wealth and property is owned by the community as a whole.
Different Kinds of Totalitarianism FascismCommunism Nationalistic GoalsInternational Change Society with defined classesClassless society Popular with business leaders & wealthy land owners Popular with urban and agricultural workers Total devotion to state or leader Use of terror to guard their power Promote extreme programs of social change Promised a strong, stable government under an elite leader
Different Kinds of Totalitarianism Country Dictator in Power Ideology Examples of Terror Tactics Italy Benito Mussolini 1922 Fascist: Fanatic nationalism Black Shirts suppress dissent Soviet Union Joseph Stalin 1924 CommunistGulag labor camps Germany Adolf Hitler 1933 Fascist Nazi: racial policies of hatred Restrictions and terror against Jews
Totalitarian leaders in the 20 th century Adolf Hitler (Germany) 1933-1945 Benito Mussolini (Italy) 1925-1943 Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) 1929- 1953 Kim Il Sung (North Korea) 1948-1994 Saddam Hussein (Iraq) 1979-2003