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This PowerPoint Presentation is ©2011 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved. Robin L. SimmonsRobin L. Simmons This PowerPoint Presentation is ©2011.

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Presentation on theme: "This PowerPoint Presentation is ©2011 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved. Robin L. SimmonsRobin L. Simmons This PowerPoint Presentation is ©2011."— Presentation transcript:

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2 This PowerPoint Presentation is ©2011 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved. Robin L. SimmonsRobin L. Simmons This PowerPoint Presentation is ©2011 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved. Robin L. SimmonsRobin L. Simmons

3 ENC 1101, Freshman Composition I Commas Until You Cry Cry !

4 Blah blah blah [pause =, ] blah blah blah [pause =, ] blah blah blah... Blah blah [pause =, ] blah [pause =, ] blah... No handbook says to use commas where you pause while speaking! X

5 Don’t hook your reader’s eyes with unnecessary commas! When in doubt, leave them out! O u c h ! O u c h !

6 As builders do with skyscrapers, you must create successful sentences by learning when and where to place commas.

7 Each sentence part that follows will – depending on its location – connect with a comma. Each sentence part that follows will will – depending on its location location –connect with a comma.

8 Prepositional Phrase Begins with a preposition, a word that shows location in place or in time. Click here for a complete list. Begins with a preposition, a word that shows location in place or in time. Click here for a complete list.Click here for a complete list.Click here for a complete list. Might include optional description. Might include optional description. Ends with a noun. Ends with a noun. Check out these examples: Check out these examples: That tasty poodle went over my tongue, down my throat, and into my stomach! That tasty poodle went over my tongue, down my throat, and into my stomach!

9 Participle Phrase Begins with a present or past participle. Begins with a present or past participle. A present participle always ends in ing. A present participle always ends in ing. A past participle frequently ends in ed. A past participle frequently ends in ed. An irregular past participle takes a variety of forms. Click here for a complete list. An irregular past participle takes a variety of forms. Click here for a complete list.Click here for a complete list.Click here for a complete list. Might include modifier(s) to finish the thought. Might include modifier(s) to finish the thought. Check out these examples: Check out these examples: Ground like hamburger, boiling in swamp water, seasoned with garlic, the tasty poodle simmered in a pot! Ground like hamburger, boiling in swamp water, seasoned with garlic, the tasty poodle simmered in a pot!

10 Infinitive Phrase Begins with an infinitive [ to + verb ]. Begins with an infinitive [ to + verb ]. Might include modifier(s) to finish the thought. Might include modifier(s) to finish the thought. Here are some examples: Here are some examples: To eat another tasty poodle or to be satisfied with just that one... To eat another tasty poodle or to be satisfied with just that one...

11 AppositiveAppositive An appositive is a noun phrase that renames another noun. An appositive is a noun phrase that renames another noun. An appositive comes either right before or right after the noun it describes. An appositive comes either right before or right after the noun it describes. Check out this example: Check out this example: The poodle, a yapping fur ball, was not as tasty as the human foot I snagged last week. The poodle, a yapping fur ball, was not as tasty as the human foot I snagged last week.

12 Noun of Direct Address A noun of direct address is a name inserted into the sentence to indicate who is receiving the information. A noun of direct address is a name inserted into the sentence to indicate who is receiving the information. Removing the noun of direct address will not change the meaning of the sentence. Removing the noun of direct address will not change the meaning of the sentence. Marvin Marvin Mr. Trump Mr. Trump Dad Dad Sweetheart Sweetheart

13 Burp Compare this sentence … I have already eaten Marvin. I have already eaten Marvin. B u r p !B u r p ! B u r p !

14 … to this sentence. No thank you! I have already eaten, Marvin. No thank you! I have already eaten, Marvin.

15 AdverbAdverb Modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Many end in ly ; many others, however, do not. Many end in ly ; many others, however, do not. In terms of comma placement, worry only about those adverbs that act as transitions between sentences or between paragraphs. In terms of comma placement, worry only about those adverbs that act as transitions between sentences or between paragraphs. Check out these examples: Check out these examples: Unfortunately, poodles give me indigestion. Unfortunately, poodles give me indigestion. That fact, however, will not keep me from eating them. That fact, however, will not keep me from eating them.

16 Subordinate Clause Begins with a subordinate conjunction, such as although, because, if, when, while, etc. Click here for a complete list. Begins with a subordinate conjunction, such as although, because, if, when, while, etc. Click here for a complete list. Click here for a complete list. Click here for a complete list. Includes a subject and a verb. Includes a subject and a verb. Does not, however, express a complete thought. Does not, however, express a complete thought. Check out these examples: Check out these examples: If you ever fall off a boat... If you ever fall off a boat... While I am swimming nearby... While I am swimming nearby...

17 Speaker Tag Introduces a direct quotation. Introduces a direct quotation. Includes a subject and verb. Includes a subject and verb. Check out this example: Check out this example: Then my doctor said, “Poodles are bad for your health!” Then my doctor said, “Poodles are bad for your health!”

18 Comma Tip 1 All introductory elements require a comma when they are connected to a main clause that follows. All introductory elements require a comma when they are connected to a main clause that follows. The pattern looks like this: The pattern looks like this: Introductory element +, + main clause. For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. handout version handout version

19 1. Because she is short Francine loves to go food shopping with Rachel, a tall friend. Strolling down the aisles Francine asks Rachel to grab packages of imported crackers and boxes of high-fiber cereal, items that are always too high to reach.,,

20 2. On top of the computer monitor in the bedroom a collection of stuffed unicorns supervises the work Lori completes at the keyboard below.,

21 3. Akram has a problem hitting the snooze button on his alarm over and over. To get to his first class on time Akram frequently eats a donut in the car, getting crumbs all over the seat of his new vehicle.,

22 4. Pablo walked all the way across campus before he noticed the lightness of his book bag. Suddenly he realized that his heavy chemistry text was on the backseat of his car.,

23 5. In English class no one wants to sit next to Eli because he is always smacking his gum loudly. Moreover he nervously swings his leg, kicking people in the thighs, shins, and ankles.,,

24 Only one more sentence part to learn! Only one more sentence part to learn!

25 Nonessential Clause Begins with who, whoever, whom, whomever, where, wherever, which, or whichever. Begins with who, whoever, whom, whomever, where, wherever, which, or whichever. Contains a subject and a verb. Contains a subject and a verb. Check out this example: Check out this example: I can still eat poodle dinners, which I really enjoy, in moderation. I can still eat poodle dinners, which I really enjoy, in moderation.

26 Comma Tip 2 First part of the sentence +,,,, + interrupterinterrupter rest of the sentence. +,,,, All interrupters require a comma in front and behind when they break the flow of a complete sentence. All interrupters require a comma in front and behind when they break the flow of a complete sentence. The pattern looks like this: The pattern looks like this: For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. handout version handout version

27 1.George used War and Peace a heavy, thick, intimidating book to smash the cockroaches he found crawling on the walls of his college dorm room.,,

28 2. Take this soup bone Joe and give it to the puppy before he starts chewing on our shoes.,,

29 3. "When you get hungry " my mother announced "I want you to try a bowl of this squid eyeball stew.",,

30 4. Mr. Finklestein who assigns more papers than he has time to grade keeps student essays half a semester before returning them.,,

31 5. January the month Julie usually dreads because of its cold, dark mornings was unusually warm this past year.,,

32 Comma Tip 3 Main clause +, + concluding element. All concluding elements require a comma when they are connected at the end of a main clause. All concluding elements require a comma when they are connected at the end of a main clause. The pattern looks like this: The pattern looks like this: For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. handout version handout version

33 1.Jennifer tolerated the family reunion slapping mosquitoes with a paper plate and drinking iced tea to combat the heat.,

34 2.In a panic, Tony searched the interior of his car. He hoped to find his biology lab work under the front seat or among the clutter in the trunk. No concluding element = no comma!

35 3. At Burger King, James tried to keep pace with Theodore who can eat a Whopper in thirty seconds flat.,

36 4.“ Don’t bother to ask Mom ” warned Sue. “ She never extends curfew especially if you tell her that you will be out with a guy. ”,,

37 5.At the West Oaks Mall food court, Aisha winked at Rodney a cute young man in a tight T-shirt.,

38 Comma Tip 4 Complete sentence Complete sentence +, + + and complete sentence. itemitem + Ø+ and and + itemitem itemitemitemitemitemitem +, + ++,+ Follow these rules when you use commas with and. Follow these rules when you use commas with and. For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. handout version handout version

39 1.Tony wanted to order a pizza from Papa John's and some Peking duck from Lam's Garden. item + and + item = no comma!

40 2.Debbie rushed to get the report typed and Martha frantically answered the phones.,

41 3.I don't know when to leave my credit card at home and when to say no to a Big Mac with fries. item + and + item = no comma!

42 4.When Mike took his Toyota to the dealership, the mechanics wanted to put in a new starter, replace his shocks and overhaul the transmission.,

43 5.Because George snores to wake the dead and because Fuzzball, the dog, barks at the slightest sound, Alice never gets a good night's sleep. item + and + item = no comma!

44 Comma Tip 5 The student + ø+ essential clause + ø+ ran to his class. RobertRobert +,+ nonessential clause +,+ ran to his class. Follow these rules when you use commas with nonessential clauses. Follow these rules when you use commas with nonessential clauses. For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. handout version handout version

45 1.People who know their grammar rules shouldn't always correct those of us who don't. Essential clause = no commas!

46 2.My brother James who cannot please Dad has decided to move to Michigan.,,

47 3.The basketball players whom I admire the most play for teams other than the Orlando Magic. Essential clause = no commas!

48 4.The movie Aliens which I have seen twenty-seven times contains too much violence for my nephews to watch.,,

49 5.We watched a crazy kid on a skateboard weave through the heavy traffic on Orange Avenue. The kid who had no fear of death or litigation leaped a curb and crashed into a lawyer walking along the sidewalk.,,

50 Comma Tip 6 coordinate adjective +,+ noncoordinate adjective + ø+ Follow these rules when you use commas with a series of adjectives. Follow these rules when you use commas with a series of adjectives. For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. handout version handout version

51 1.Two cluttered computer tables and an unmade sagging bed fill Antonio's small bedroom.,

52 2.The cute soft frisky ferret will bite your fingers if you try to pick him up.,,

53 3.Michael's faded ragged New York Jets jacket was an inappropriate choice of clothing for his second interview at Sun Trust Bank.,

54 4.The hot spicy appetizing bowl of squid eyeball stew steamed on the clean shiny kitchen counter.,,,

55 5.A strange smell emanated from Barbara's blue disorganized book bag, which lay on the floor beside her desk.,

56 Comma Tip 7 Complete sentence +,+ so so + complete sentence. Complete sentence + ø ø ø ø + so that that + subordinate clause. Follow these rules with so and so that or so [ that implied]. Follow these rules with so and so that or so [ that implied]. For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. For more detailed information, consult the handout version of this slide. handout version handout version

57 1.Robbie bought a small microwave for his first apartment so he could cook popcorn and macaroni and cheese, the only meals he could afford. Implied that after so = no comma!

58 2.Sylvia wore flat shoes on her date with Tony so she wouldn’t intimidate this short young man with her height. Implied that after so = no comma!

59 3.Yuko bought a small aquarium and some goldfish so her apartment wouldn’t feel so lonely. Implied that after so = no comma!

60 4.Patrick always carries an English handbook with him, even to basketball games so that he can check other people’s grammar wherever he goes.,

61 5.Rachel neglected to make her car payment three months in a row so she must hide her Honda Civic in friends’ garages in an attempt to foil the repo man.,

62 The END. The END.


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