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Nativism Post WWI America wants to pull out of European affairs Americans also feel that Europeans can never really be full Americans 1921 immigration.

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Presentation on theme: "Nativism Post WWI America wants to pull out of European affairs Americans also feel that Europeans can never really be full Americans 1921 immigration."— Presentation transcript:


2 Nativism Post WWI America wants to pull out of European affairs Americans also feel that Europeans can never really be full Americans 1921 immigration is limited to 350,000 1924 164,000 Restrictions aimed at different ethnic groups such as southern and eastern Europeans

3 Suffrage Women win the right to vote in 1920 Focus on women not voting instead of women who did Women voted the same as men in national elections but did make a difference in local elections Given minor roles in major parties

4 Effects of Women’s Suffrage Polling places were moved out of saloons into neutral public places Serve on juries Sheppard-Towner Act (1921): Federal money for prenatal and infant care Cable Act (1922): Women who married foreigners kept their citizenship

5 The Great Migration Jobs for African Americans in the south were low paying and few Racial discrimination and violence kept African Americans second class citizens in the South Northern factories expanded due to the war and were losing workers to the Army As a result of the discrimination and availability of jobs 500,000 African Americans moved North Great Migration

6 Life in the North North did offer more opportunity but discrimination was still prevalent – White workers saw them as a threat to their employment and wages Race riots in East St. Louis (1917), Washington D.C. (1919) and Chicago (1919) – In Chicago a young African American boy swam into the white part of the beach accidentally(defacto- segragation). A white man threw a rock at him and he drowned. African Americans started attacking whites in the end 40 people were dead, hundreds injured and thousands homeless.

7 The Harlem Renissance Harlem located in New York, New York had an African American population of 14,000 in 1914 by 1930 it had 200,000 Jazz flourished in the night clubs – Bessie Smith, Ma Rainey, Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong Writing and the arts also flourished – Countee Cullen, Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes

8 The Jazz Age Jazz spreads beyond African American culture and into the mainstream The phonograph allowed music to be played anywhere. Young adults had dance marathons – Last one standing wins Youths also entertained themselves with: – Flag pole sitting (literally) – Goldfish eating – Talking on the phone – Driving their dates in cars

9 Immoral Youths Here are some of the ways young adults challenged society in the 1920’s – Dated without chaperones – Went out on dates away from the home – Danced while their bodies touched – Women wore dress that exposed their arms, and knees – Wore makeup Women had to adhere to a double standard as society told them to grasp onto new ideas it also told them to stay with the old

10 Flappers Flapper: A woman who grasped onto the new changes of the jazz age Wore shorter more revealing dresses, used makeup and had bobbed hair The flappers is the mascot of the Jazz Age

11 Women in the 1920’s While the Jazz Age did allow women more freedom it was short lived Women held jobs but not trained above entry level – Most employers believed white women would quit after they married or had a child. Some were even fired African American women stayed on due to economic reasons Many women also felt the pull of traditional life to marry and take care of their children

12 Technology and Women Technological advances dramatically affected women’s lives. – Cars allowed for easier errand running – Cheaper electrical products and installment buying allowed women to buy: Sewing machines Vacuum cleaners Other time saving devices While electrical appliances did help women with housework it also put more pressure on them as well. – “By their floors ye shall judge them” – “It is written that floors are like unto a mirror reflecting the character of the housewife.”

13 America at Leisure Average factory work week was 50 hours People looked for ways to spend their leisure time Radios 1922 500 radio stations around the country Broadcast games, shows, music, news NBC used small stations that broadcast the same material and the nation was now enjoying the same shows, jokes and music

14 Leisure time Movies Large luxurious movie theaters began to show movies Some even had iced air Talkies arrived in 1927 By 1930 patrons bought 100 million movie tickets

15 National Heroes Sports athletes became national heroes as a result of radios and news reels Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey Charles Lindbergh the first man to fly solo across the Atlantic became an instant national hero

16 National Products Chain super markets sold name brand merchandise – Kleenex First Fast food chain appeared in the 1920’s – A&W National advertising changed the way Americans referred to items – Kleenex instead of facial tissue – Victrolas instead of phonographs Advertisers sell to desire instead of need

17 The Model T Ford had a dream of making cars ordinary people could afford – Accomplished with the moving assembly line Ford had a 60% market share in the automobile industry General Motors surpassed Ford by making cars in different colors and styles – He then started producing the model A in different colors

18 The car The car allowed people to individually travel instead of waiting for a train Cars stimulated the construction, rubber, gasoline, tourism, and petroleum industries Cars also changed the semipublic life of the front porch – People walking by or in a carriage could talk to those on their front porch but the car eliminated the opportunity – Frank Lloyd Wright now designs homes without front porches that are away from the street with discreet entrances

19 Prohibition 1919 the 18 th amendment passed making it illegal to make, sell, transport, import or export any intoxicating beverage. Many believed this would fix America’s social problems Allowed for some of the most violent times in American History Many people openly defied the laws at speakeasies Illegal backdoor taverns and clubs Others bootlegged alcohol from Mexico or Canada Men like Al Capone become rich from the sale of illegal beverages Others bootlegged which is the making of illegal spirits

20 Morality in Pop Culture To bring larger crowds film makers started to make films more risqué However a movement started to control the industry The movie industry then self censored itself limiting nudity, sex, and crime By 1929 there were 300 laws limiting and regulating dance halls Couples needed to be 6 inches apart No moonlight dances with the lights dimmed

21 Ku Klux Klan Klan membership soared in the 1920’s 3-5 million members Persecuted groups: African Americans Catholics Jews Violators of prohibition People who were grasping onto new ideas They were for the white, American born Protestant

22 The Decline of the Klan The decline of the Klan happened suddenly and dramatically due to its violent nature David Stephenson, the Grand Dragon of Indiana violently raped and beat a white women She died of her wounds Stephenson then revealed the extent of the Klan influence and corruption in government Stephenson was punishing those he felt betrayed him by not dropping the charges

23 1920’s Decade of the Republicans Warren G. Harding won Election in 1920 – Ran on the slogan “Return to normalcy” Calvin (Closed Lip Cal) Coolidge took over after he died in 1923 and won elections in 1924. – A lady once bet President Coolidge that she could make him say more than three words. His response, “You lose.” Herbert Hoover won election in 1928 as Coolidge would not run for another term

24 Warren G. Harding Considered to be a “amiable second rater” Coolidge appointed unqualified friends to key posts – They brought scandal to the administration Tea Pot Dome was the most scandalous of Harding scandals (Harding not a scandaler) – Secretary of the interior Alfred B. Fall leased government oil reserves in Elk Hill California and Tea Pot Dome Wyoming. – In return Fall received $300,000 in “loans” Later convicted and went to jail

25 Closed Lip Cal Easily won the Election in 1924 – American Public did not associate him with the Harding administrations scandals Supported big business in America – “The chief business of the American people is business” – Raised tariffs Refused to help the average American even in natural disasters

26 Election 1928 Al Smith Herbert Hoover Democrat New York Catholic Wanted to stop prohibition Pro worker Self educated after 8 th grade Product of Tammany Hall Fiery campaigner Republican Iowa Quaker Pro prohibition Pro Business Stanford education Popular with female voters Dull but polished campaigner

27 Why Hoover Won On the radio he sounded moderate, sensible and trustworthy Smith had a thick New York accent Anti-Catholic propaganda worked in his favor Widespread yet false beilief that the economy was strong

28 Economy of the Late 1920’s Herbert Hoover proclaimed, “poverty will be banished from the nation.” All stocks in 1925 were $27 billion by 1929 $87 billion Real wages increased 40% with unemployment below 4% John J. Raskob, “Everybody ought to be rich” Employers used Welfare capitalism raising wages and benefits to stave off union organization

29 Trouble on the Horizon 200 companies controlled 49% of American Industry 0.1% of the wealthiest families owned 34% of the countries savings 80% of all families had no savings In these families children even had to work Installment or credit buying became popular Cars, radios, electrical appliances were bough with credit In the past Americans avoided buying things they could not pay for

30 The Stock Market Pre World War I only the wealthy dealt in the stock market Speculation by average Americans became a common practice Buying stock in the hopes the price will rise and then selling for a profit People also begin to buy on Margin Paying only a fraction of stocks price in hopes that it would go up making enough money from the sale to pay back the loan and make money

31 Goods and Farmers Consumer goods production outpaced consumption in the 1920’s The auto industry along with the industries that supported it started to slump in 1925 Farmers never shared in the prosperity of the 1920’s Loans on land and machinery went bad with a drop in crop prices 6,000 rural banks failed due unpaid loans

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