“Now stop!” Max said and sent the wild things off to bed without their supper. And Max the king of all wild things was lonely and wanted to be where someone loved him best of all. Then all around from far away across the world he smelled good things to eat so he gave up being king of where the wild things are.
But the wild things cried, “Oh please don’t go—we’ll eat you up —we love you so!” And Max said, “No!” The wild things roared their terrible roars and gnashed their terrible teeth and rolled their terrible eyes and showed their terrible claws but Max stepped into his private boat and waved good-bye
and sailed back over a year and in and out of weeks and through a day…
and into the night of his very own room where he found his supper waiting for him…
Where the Wild Things Are is part of a trilogy centered on children's growth, survival, change and fury…all the stories are variations on the same theme: how children master various feelings - danger, boredom, fear, frustration, jealousy - and manage to come to grips with the realities of their lives “The growth and development of students is a central goal of higher education” (Evans, et. al. p. 2) College students are a diverse (and changing) population Admission counselors are often the first officials that prospective students interact with during their respective college searches Student development theory provides an academic foundation to help us understand “how” and “why” students change by going to college just as Max changed through his experience
Familiarity with student development theories can help admission counselors address common student/family concerns “Undecided” students Adult/Non-Traditional students Underprepared students First generation/minority students Students with disabilities
Familiarity with student development theories can help admission counselors understand the processes of… Moving into college Moving through college Moving out of college …so we can serve as valuable resources to students and their families! “Student affairs practice without a theoretical base is neither effective nor efficient” (Evans, et. al. p. 26)
Cognitive-Developmental Theory Arthur Chickering Typology Theory John Holland Environmental/Interactionist Theory Alexander Astin Transition Theory Nancy Scholssberg
Developing competence means… “A sense of competence [that] stems from the confidence that one can cope with what comes and achieve goals successfully” (Evans, et. al., 2010, p. 67) Forms of competence Intellectual Physical Interpersonal
Intellectual competence “Development of intellectual, cultural, and aesthetic sophistication” (Evans, et. al., 2010, p. 67) Physical competence Nurtured through participation in athletic/recreational activities, attention to wellness, or involvement in artistic and/or manual activities Interpersonal competence Development of communication skills, leadership abilities, and effective collaboration with others
Students mature in the way they communicate and handle emotions such as anxiety, depression, anger, shame, and guilt. Recognition of acceptance of these (and other positive emotions) as well as the ability to appropriately express and control them is central to development along this vector.
Emotional independence Freedom from constant reassurance, affection, and approval from others Instrumental independence Improved self-direction, problem-solving skills, and mobility Interdependence Increase in understanding of the importance interpersonal connections Students often struggle to find a balance between making their own decisions while maintaining positive relationships with their families
Students develop intercultural and interpersonal tolerance through interactions with others who are different than them Students learn to appreciate these differences, though they may not personally approve of them Leads to accepting others for who they are, respect for differences, and appreciation of commonalities
Increased comfort with different aspects of the self… Body and physical appearance Gender and sexual orientation Social and cultural backgrounds …leads to… Increased self-concept, self-esteem, and personal stability Comfort with roles as they relate to others and lifestyle
Students develop clear vocational goals and make meaningful commitments to specific personal interests and activities “Christian vocation includes the use of one's gifts in their profession, family life, church and civic commitments for the sake of the greater common good” (Wikipedia) Students who develop a strong sense of purpose stand by their committments, even in the face of opposition
Progression from rigid, moralistic thinking to the development of a more “humanized” value system Students establish their own personalized system of values while acknowledging and respecting those of others Students develop authenticity when their values and actions become congruent
Institutional size is an important factor to consider in a student’s development “As the number of persons outstrips the opportunities for significant participation and satisfaction, the developmental potential of available settings is attenuated for all” (Chickering & Reisser, 1993, p. 269)
William G. Perry’s Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development Erickson, Marcia, and Josselson
Quality of faculty-student interaction is also important Components of positive faculty-student relationships Accessibility Authenticity Knowledge of students Ability (and willingness) to communicate with students Alternatives at larger schools? “Personal Presidential Cabinet” Academic Advisors Professional staff
Body of knowledge centering around qualitative differences (types) and quantitative differences (traits) among individuals Most useful when working with students who have not decided on a major they’d like to pursue There’s no excuse to tell a student that he/she will “just figure out” what they want to major in! Exploration through a diverse array of courses is only one part of a much more involved process.
The choice of a vocation is an expression of personality Six factor typologies describe both persons and work environments Each individual has his/her own “Holland Code” Each profession has its own “Holland Code”
Realistic = The “Doers” Investigative = The “Thinkers” Artistic = The “Creators” Social = The “Helpers” Enterprising = The “Persuaders” Conventional = The “Organizers”
David A. Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory MBTI, Strong Interest Inventory These tools are not diagnostic! How does your college/university help students through the process of choosing a major? How do you help?
Students learn more the more they are involved in both the academic and social aspects of the collegiate experience An involved student is one who devotes considerable energy to academics, spends much time on campus, participates actively in student organizations and activities, and interacts often with faculty
True involvement requires the investment of energy in academic, relationships and activities related to the campus and the amount of energy invested will vary greatly depending on the student's interests and goals, as well as the student's other commitments The most important institutional resource is student time: the extent to which students can be involved is tempered by how involved they are with family, friends, jobs, and other outside activities
Transition = Any event, or non-event, that results in changed relationships, routines, assumptions, and roles Anticipated transition: Events/transitions that occur predictably Unanticipated transitions: Events/transitions that are not predictable/scheduled Non-event: Events/transitions that are expected to occur but don’t. Personal: Related to individual aspirations Ripple: Felt due to impact of non-event on someone close Resultant: Caused by an event Delayed: Non-event because anticipated transition has not occurred yet
The “4 S’s” Situation: Trigger, timing, control, role changes, duration, previous experience, concurrent stress Self Personal/demographic characteristics: SES, gender, age, health, ethnicity/culture Psychological resources: Values, resilience, commitment Support Types: Intimate, family, friends, institutional Functions: Affect, affirmation, aid, honest feedback Measurement: Stable and changing supports Strategies Modify situation, control meaning, manage stress in aftermath Coping modes: Information seeking, direct action, inhibition of action, intrapsychic behavior
Where is this applicable? Adult learners Students who aren’t admitted to college Students who are having issues adjusting to college
Student development theories were formed based on research done with “traditional” college going population Does not take into account the characteristics and expectations of minority students and older students Developmental theories have few direct links to public policy matters. They assume that students have unimpeded access to a traditional liberal arts education focusing on an individual’s academic, personal, and moral development
Student Choice Construct Examines sequences of student choices which lead to various stages of attainment and have implications for public policy Michael B. Paulsen & Edward P. St. John (2002) Social Class and College Costs: Examining the Financial Nexus between College Choice and Persistence (The Journal of Higher Education)
Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton, & Renn (2010) Student Development in College: Theory, Practice & Research (2 nd edition) NACADA (National Academic Advising Association) http://www.nacada.ksu.edu Andrew P. Mills: What’s So Good About a College Education?
We’re admission counselors…not representatives! We’re not in this for the money! “Student affairs practice without a theoretical base is neither effective nor efficient” (Evans, et. al. p. 26)