2Nefertiti Fast Facts Family By: Andrea TobingFast FactsFamilyMother: Nefertiti’s mother was Tiy, the Royal Nurse for the pharaoh and his family.Father: Aye/Ay (there were different spellings) was the Grand Vizier of Ancient Egypt.Sibling: Nefertiti had a sister- Mutbenret. There is, however, a theory that Mutbenret was identical to the wife of the pharaoh Horemheb.
3Together they tried to change Egypt’s belief in polytheism. NefertitiThe Great Royal WifeNefertiti’s husband was a pharaoh named Amenhotep IV, who ruled in the 18th Dynasty.Together they tried to change Egypt’s belief in polytheism.Amenhotep believed that the only real god was Aten, the actual sunTo worship him, both Nefertiti and Amenhotep changed their names.Remember: Polytheism is the belief in many gods
4They had six daughters, but no son. NefertitiThe Great Royal WifeNefertiti’s name was Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti and Amenhotep’s name was Akhenaten.They had six daughters, but no son.
5Hieroglyphics Symbols that Ancient Egyptians used Symbols represented different thingsCreated BCEExtinct 394 CE
6Fun Facts! History There were over 700 Hieroglyphics Hieroglyphics was the key to understanding Ancient EgyptIn 1799, Napoleon’s Army found something called the Rosetta StoneThe Rosetta Stone was an artifact that had 3 languages on it: Greek, Demotic, and HieroglyphicsThey all said the same messageSo if you could read one language, you could read the othersIn 1822, a man named Jean Francois Champollion decoded HieroglyphicsFrom him, we know a lot about Ancient EgyptThere were over 700 HieroglyphicsScribes were the people who could write HieroglyphicsThere was a shorter form of Hieroglyphics, called hieraticThey were also called “The words of the Gods”
7Tombs Tombs were for the wealthy Tombs help them pass to the afterlife The tombs have all their belongingsThe Egyptian tombs were in pyramidsThe coffins would be located in the tombs inside the pyramidThey were mummified in the coffins
8TombsSome tombs have not been touched for 3000years Tombs have great leaders in them Their mummified bodies housed in coffins where preserved in the tombs for 1000s of years Romans also used tombs just like the Egyptians to bury the dead Some tombs were raided since these chambers contained expensive belongings from great leaders to be carried to the afterlife Tombs stopped being built during the Renaissance
9The SphinxA sphinx is a mythical creature with the head of a man and a body of a lion. The most famous sphinx is The Great Sphinx. It’s just like every other Ancient Egyptian sphinx, only huge. The Great Sphinx of Giza is believed to be the most immense, surviving stone sculpture of Ancient Egypt. It is the most massive sphinx, out of hundreds, in Egypt.The most famous out of all the sphinxes.The Great Sphinx240 feet (73 m) long, 66 feet (20 m) high, and 20 feet (6 m) wide.Was carved down, not built.
10The Great Sphinx of Giza LimestoneThe Great Sphinx of GizaQuick FactsThe face of The Great Sphinx is believed to be pharaoh Khafre.The Great Sphinx is at least 4500 years old!.Thought to have been painted.The Great Sphinx of Giza is made of limestone bedrock. It was a good material to carve from because it was nice and hard, helping it last for years to come. Even so, The Great Sphinx isn’t exactly what you would call “good as new”. Years of weathering and erosion have taken its toll on the Sphinx. That might explain why it’s missing a nose!
11Egyptian Women: “Mistress of the House” By: Julie Sung 6CJobs:Noblewomen could become priestesses and government officials.Rarely there were women that became pharaohs.Lower class women could become artisans.Peasant women could be nannies for upper class children.Peasant women could also be domestic servants to the upper class and personal attendants to a noblewoman.Daily Life:Few women worked full-time.Women were expected to be a good daughter when young, and a good mother and wife when older.Women were equal to men, but not as powerful.Women had more power and freedom than other women in different times.Women were in charge of household affairs.Noblewomen were highly respected and enjoyed freedom and continuity.
12Egyptian Women Fast Facts Weaving was an important activity for Egyptian women to participate in.Music was an important part of a woman’s religious life.Girls USUALLY got married around the age 12.Women would get custody of her children if she decided to have a divorce.The wife would put 1/3 of the money she made towards her children.Women mostly took care of indoor household activity.Women could remarry when divorced.Woman played harps, lyres, lutes, clapper sticks, hand-held drums, flute-like instruments, and oboe-like instruments.Egyptian Women
13Senet Senet (The game of passing) was played when someone died. The game was played because it was believed it would help the person successfully go to the afterlife.Senet can be seen as a primitive form of chess, since there were 3 rows of 10 squares and figures called spools and cones.The exact rules are unknown; we can only take our best guess from hieroglyphics.Senet was usually played after a pharaoh’s passing.
14Ancient Egyptian Hockey Ancient Egyptian Hockey was played with palm tree branches bent at end.The ball was made from papyrus fibers and two pieces of leather.A referee was used to keep the game going and to keep score.
15Tug of Hoop Two players were required to play Tug of Hoop. The players had curved staffs that they used to try to take the hoop from one another.In order to win this game, it was always crucial that you performed many physical maneuvers.The hoop was also forbidden in the game to fall on the floor!
16EconomyAncient Egyptians used economy to survive.
17Ancient Egyptian Economy Ancient Egyptians used economy to trade food and many types of stuff.They traded stuff so they can survive with food and clothing.Ancient Egyptians also depend there money on a way of trading stuff.They traded stuff like gold, wheat, farms, and many different types of food and clothing.
18Pyramids The Three pyramids are located in ancient Egypt By:Keith MencyThe Three pyramids are located in ancient EgyptToday pyramids teach people how ancient Egypt wasDid you know that there are about 88 pyramids in ancient Egypt
19Pyramids were made By Egyptians, Pyramids were made for Pharaohs and queens Pyramids were made for the Pharaoh and queen to get buried in the pyramid when they dieOnly three pharaohs used there Egyptians to build the three main pyramids
21What is Mummification?Mummification is the process that dries a corpse that could afford to be mummifiedThe process would take 70 days to finishMummification steps:Remove all organsDry all organsRinse the body with wine spicesCover the body with salt for 40 days (to take out all the moisture)Wrap the body with linenWrap the body in bandages from head to toePut the mummy in a sarcophagus (coffin)
22Mummification Details and extra info People used to believe if you would get mummified you would use your coffin in the afterlifeThe people would put the organs of the mummy in canopic jarsThere were four canopic jars and each jar had an egyptian god on it, Imesty protected the liver, Qebehsenuf protected the intestines, Hapy protected the lungs, and Duamatef protected the stomachAll of those gods were the sons of HorusThe poor egyptians were buried in the sand and the rich were buried in tombsBut pharaohs were taken into pyramidsSome great mummy discoveries that people found were:Ginger, Hatshepsut, King Tutankham ( King Tut), and Ramses II
23Egyptian Religion Information Egyptian’s Priests had become more powerful since they communicated with the gods and cared for them. Priests also performed funeral rites and taught at schools. Furthermore, they advised the people on problems as well as supervising the artisans and works.Egyptian’s Religion:The ancient Egyptian religion had guided every aspect of their lives. It was based on polytheism, which means they worshipped many gods and goddesses. The Egyptians worshipped as many as 2,000 gods and goddesses. Some gods like Amon-Ra were worshipped throughout Egypt. Their gods and goddesses are represented as part human, part animal. Think of a person with animal wings or with a jackal head. Egyptians created temples so the gods could dwell within them. Temples are found everywhere in Egypt. Also, Egyptian cities had special temples devoted to their god/goddesses. Their temples were used by men to communicate with the gods.Egyptians saw death as a transitional stage in route to a better life. If they were able to reach the afterlife, they would start a new life and reach their full potential. Egyptians’ bodies were mummified after death and buried with everything necessary to reach the afterlife. This was considered essential to preserve the body.
24Egyptian GodsInteresting Fact: Since the Egyptians, like the Mesopotamians, didn’t know what caused certain things like flooding, they’d blame the gods and tried different ways to make them happy and in return, bless them.The Ancient Egyptian sun god Ra is represented by life and rebirth. They had said that once the sun sets, he dies, but gets “reborn” when it rises again. This widely known god eventually gets “morphed” with Amon, the father of gods. The merge made the two gods into one called Amon-Ra.Osiris is the god of the dead as well as being the ruler of the underworld. He is represented as a mummified man wearing white clothing. He is also the god of resurrection and fertility. Egyptians had believed that he gave them barley which was an important crop.Horus is Osiris and Isis’s son and also the god of the sky. He is represented with a head of a hawk and the body of a man. This probably was to represent his control of the sky and the fact that they are most of the time shown with a human part. He is well-known for being the protector and ruler of Egypt.Iris was a protective goddess, and used powerful magical spells to help Egyptians in need. Isis is also the wife Osiris.Anubis is the god of embalming and the dead. He is represented as a man with a jackal head. Since those are often in the cemeteries, Egyptians believed that he always watched over the dead.The god of wisdom, learning, writing, and also the patron of scribes is called Thoth. The Egyptians thought that this god was the one who had given them the gift of Hieroglyphics, which is their form of writing.Sources: Notes on Religion from 3/21/14WWW2.sptimes.com/Egypt/EgyptCredit.4.3.htmlSlides by Matthew D. Snyder Enjoy
25Egyptian Gods and Goddesses Ancient Egyptians could not explain nature and creation so they used gods and goddesses as their explanation. As polytheists, the Egyptians with several gods and goddesses responsible for different things, such as life and the afterlife.Ra was the Sun god, riding a chariot during the dayGeb , the god of the Earth, caused earthquakes when he laughed.Anubis was the original god of the dead and hasthe head of a jackalLater, Osiris became the god of the deadIsis was the goddess of magic and the sister of Osiris.AnubisImage from:
26More Egyptian Gods and Goddesses Tefnut was Ra’s daughter, the goddess of airShu was a son of Ra, the god of the space between heaven & earthHapi was the god of the Nile River & responsible for annual floodingSet was the god of violence, the desert & of stormsHorus was the sky god, fought Set & lost his left eyeThat left eye is the Egyptian symbol of healing and restorationThe prescription symbol comes from the eye of HorusImage of Eye of Horus RX from
28Battle between Seth and Horus This tale begins when a young boy named Horus avenges a god named Seth who took over a territory which belongs to Horus.When he Egyptians explain these myths to different people at different places, they say the myth in a different story.Studies say that when these myths were told, there were no explanations if the Ancient Egyptians thought that these were humorous or serious.
29Myths of Eye of Horus- The Eye of Horus is lost during the war between Horus and Seth. Horus loses his right eye and a moon god named Thoth restores this lost eye and is was given a name like something wholesome or healthy.- Each piece of the Eye of Horus was given a specific fraction of what it represents such as taste is 1/32 percent.- In other myths, they say that the right eye of Horus was torn out and the solar eclipse was occurring like the sun was momentarily blocked by the sky.
30WARFARE AND CONFLICTBack then Egypt wasn’t that peaceful due to fighting over the Nile river for water.Most Egyptians caused warfare to expand their lands or gain more power.(List of weapons they used in warfare)-clubs-maces-axe-knives-sword-daggers-bows and arrows, and javelins(some weapons Egyptians used)
31The two crowns were united and turned into this> Their was both the upper and lower Egypt had a Conflict between bothThey had different crowns one was red like a bowl and the other was white like a bowling ball pinboth lower and upper kingdom had different customs needs and interestsUntil one day a man named NARMER MENA joined both Egypt's putting together both hats to show how both Egypt's are equal nowThe two crowns were united and turned into this>
32Pharaoh & VizierThe Pharaoh was believed to be a God on earth and had the most power. He was responsible for making laws and keeping order, ensuring that Egypt was not attacked or invaded by enemies and for keeping the Gods happyThe Vizier was the Pharaoh's chief advisor and was sometimes the High Priest. He was responsible for overseeing all official documents to have his seal of approval. He was also responsible for the supply of food, and the Pharaoh's household.
33Nobles & PriestsNobles where wealthy and powerful with lots of land.normally nobles would be born into such large wealth and power but occasionally people traded goods to have surplus of everything so they can sell and have leftovers for themselves.priests were responsible for keeping the gods happy.they spent there time performing rituals and ceremonies for the god in there temple.
34Jewelry- Male and female Egyptians wore jewelry to show their wealth since only the rich were able to afford gold. They also wore gold jewelry to be more attractive to the gods. Some types of gold jewelry the Egyptians wore are rings, earrings, bracelets, decorated buttons, neck collars and pendants.Make Up- both men and women wore make up. Mostly black and green eye shadow. Henna dye was used to color their lips, nails, and skin.Made by: Simone Hodara 6-C
35The richer the people were the nicer material they had Egyptians wore light clothes made from linen (linen is made of flax - a plant)The richer the people were the nicer material they hadEgyptian men wore - a wrap around a skirt that was tied with a belt.The length depended on the fashion of the time.Old Kingdom- Short garmentMiddle Kingdom- Calf length garmentNew Kingdom- Pleated garmentEgyptian women wore –a full length straightdress with one or twoshoulder strapsChildren wore - they did not were clothing until the age of sixMade by: Simone Hodara 6-C
36What was Ancient Egyptian Medicine? Egyptian medicine was thought to be the most successful at the time.Conclusions involved with medicine were thought to be the works of gods, demons, and spirits.Doctors thought these spirits blocked ‘channels’ in the body, creating diseases and tried to unblock them.Doctors knew basic things and gave practical advice, but also gave odd advice that harmed people.For example, some prescriptions contained animal waste.Others were to avoid raw poultry and fish.
37SurgeryAncient Egyptian doctors never did anything deep inside the body.They did it near the surface.When reasonable, the surgery did work most of the time.Amputees (Cut off)Prosthesis (Artificial device)Tools they used:-Saws-Knives
38Treatment/CareEgyptians used magic/alchemy, herbs, and prayers to treat patients.Thought religion would banish all evil demons and spirits causing this.Used resources such as…-HoneyAncient Egyptians used this method to classify each injury…Treatable- Dealt with immediately.Contestable- Observed patient without interfering.Untreatable- Doctor will not be involved.Egyptians also were very hygienic to be healthy and also because of religion.Egyptians didn’t take good care of their teeth, so they usually had…Wire to connect fallen out teeth.They also had ‘braces’ for your feet and such to keep it in place if broken or sprained.
39Ebers PapyrusIs a piece of papyrus including much information in the medical industry from ancient Egypt.Over 700 remedies.Written in about 1500 B.C.E.110 Pages!Greg Moritz Ebers, a German Egyptologist, discovered the document in Thebes (Luxor), Egypt inIs currently in the library of the University of Leipzig in Germany.Written in hieroglyphics, for example…Six vessels reach the soles of our feet.Baldness is caused by four vessels to the head.
40The “After” LifeBy: William ShinClass:6-CDate: 3/24/2014Believed to be a continuation of life after bodily deathWas considered the greatest honor to live on in deathDid not enjoy death, but enjoyed lifeIf living on in death, it would be normal life without the negativity (No death, sicknesses, etc.)
41The Weighing of the Heart Process of weighing one’s heart against the feather of truth /Ma’at on a golden scaleProcess done by God of The Underworld; Osiris, assisted by Inpu, God of DeathThe greatest dishonor; having your heart weigh more than the featherHeart devoured by Amenti, if heavier than Ma’at’s featherSoul cast into an “abyss of non-existence” if the heart is heavier= worst punishment