Presentation on theme: "EVERYTHING EGYPT 6CASTALDO 2014 By: Andrea Tobing Fast Facts Family Mother: Nefertiti’s mother was Tiy, the Royal Nurse for the pharaoh and his family."— Presentation transcript:
By: Andrea Tobing Fast Facts Family Mother: Nefertiti’s mother was Tiy, the Royal Nurse for the pharaoh and his family. Father: Aye/Ay (there were different spellings) was the Grand Vizier of Ancient Egypt. Sibling: Nefertiti had a sister- Mutbenret. There is, however, a theory that Mutbenret was identical to the wife of the pharaoh Horemheb.
The Great Royal Wife Nefertiti’s husband was a pharaoh named Amenhotep IV, who ruled in the 18th Dynasty. Together they tried to change Egypt’s belief in polytheism. Amenhotep believed that the only real god was Aten, the actual sun To worship him, both Nefertiti and Amenhotep changed their names. Remember: Polytheism is the belief in many gods
The Great Royal Wife Nefertiti’s name was Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti and Amenhotep’s name was Akhenaten. They had six daughters, but no son.
Hieroglyphics Symbols that Ancient Egyptians used Symbols represented different things Created 3500 BCE Extinct 394 CE
History Hieroglyphics was the key to understanding Ancient Egypt In 1799, Napoleon’s Army found something called the Rosetta Stone The Rosetta Stone was an artifact that had 3 languages on it: Greek, Demotic, and Hieroglyphics They all said the same message So if you could read one language, you could read the others o In 1822, a man named Jean Francois Champollion decoded Hieroglyphics o From him, we know a lot about Ancient Egypt Fun Facts!
The Sphinx A sphinx is a mythical creature with the head of a man and a body of a lion. The most famous sphinx is The Great Sphinx. It’s just like every other Ancient Egyptian sphinx, only huge. The Great Sphinx of Giza is believed to be the most immense, surviving stone sculpture of Ancient Egypt. It is the most massive sphinx, out of hundreds, in Egypt. The Great Sphinx The most famous out of all the sphinxes. 240 feet (73 m) long, 66 feet (20 m) high, and 20 feet (6 m) wide. Was carved down, not built.
The Great Sphinx of Giza is made of limestone bedrock. It was a good material to carve from because it was nice and hard, helping it last for years to come. Even so, The Great Sphinx isn’t exactly what you would call “good as new”. Years of weathering and erosion have taken its toll on the Sphinx. That might explain why it’s missing a nose! Limestone The Great Sphinx of Giza Quick Facts The face of The Great Sphinx is believed to be pharaoh Khafre. The Great Sphinx is at least 4500 years old!. Thought to have been painted.
Egyptian Women: “Mistress of the House” Jobs: Noblewomen could become priestesses and government officials. Rarely there were women that became pharaohs. Lower class women could become artisans. Peasant women could be nannies for upper class children. Peasant women could also be domestic servants to the upper class and personal attendants to a noblewoman. Daily Life: Few women worked full-time. Women were expected to be a good daughter when young, and a good mother and wife when older. Women were equal to men, but not as powerful. Women had more power and freedom than other women in different times. Women were in charge of household affairs. Noblewomen were highly respected and enjoyed freedom and continuity. By: Julie Sung 6C
Egyptian Women Fast Facts Weaving was an important activity for Egyptian women to participate in. Music was an important part of a woman’s religious life. Girls USUALLY got married around the age 12. Women would get custody of her children if she decided to have a divorce. The wife would put 1/3 of the money she made towards her children. Women mostly took care of indoor household activity. Women could remarry when divorced. Woman played harps, lyres, lutes, clapper sticks, hand-held drums, flute-like instruments, and oboe-like instruments.
Senet Senet (The game of passing) was played when someone died. The game was played because it was believed it would help the person successfully go to the afterlife. Senet can be seen as a primitive form of chess, since there were 3 rows of 10 squares and figures called spools and cones. The exact rules are unknown; we can only take our best guess from hieroglyphics. Senet was usually played after a pharaoh’s passing.
Ancient Egyptian Hockey Ancient Egyptian Hockey was played with palm tree branches bent at end. The ball was made from papyrus fibers and two pieces of leather. A referee was used to keep the game going and to keep score.
Tug of Hoop Two players were required to play Tug of Hoop. The players had curved staffs that they used to try to take the hoop from one another. In order to win this game, it was always crucial that you performed many physical maneuvers. The hoop was also forbidden in the game to fall on the floor!
Pyramids The Three pyramids are located in ancient Egypt Today pyramids teach people how ancient Egypt was Did you know that there are about 88 pyramids in ancient Egypt By:Keith Mency
Pyramids were made By Egyptians, Pyramids were made for Pharaohs and queens Pyramids were made for the Pharaoh and queen to get buried in the pyramid when they die Only three pharaohs used there Egyptians to build the three main pyramids
What is Mummification? Mummification is the process that dries a corpse that could afford to be mummified The process would take 70 days to finish Mummification steps: Remove all organs Dry all organs Rinse the body with wine spices Cover the body with salt for 40 days (to take out all the moisture) Wrap the body with linen Wrap the body in bandages from head to toe Put the mummy in a sarcophagus (coffin)
Mummification Details and extra info People used to believe if you would get mummified you would use your coffin in the afterlife The people would put the organs of the mummy in canopic jars There were four canopic jars and each jar had an egyptian god on it, Imesty protected the liver, Qebehsenuf protected the intestines, Hapy protected the lungs, and Duamatef protected the stomach All of those gods were the sons of Horus The poor egyptians were buried in the sand and the rich were buried in tombs But pharaohs were taken into pyramids Some great mummy discoveries that people found were: Ginger, Hatshepsut, King Tutankham ( King Tut), and Ramses II
Egyptian Religion Information Egyptian’s Religion: The ancient Egyptian religion had guided every aspect of their lives. It was based on polytheism, which means they worshipped many gods and goddesses. The Egyptians worshipped as many as 2,000 gods and goddesses. Some gods like Amon-Ra were worshipped throughout Egypt. Their gods and goddesses are represented as part human, part animal. Think of a person with animal wings or with a jackal head. Egyptians created temples so the gods could dwell within them. Temples are found everywhere in Egypt. Also, Egyptian cities had special temples devoted to their god/goddesses. Their temples were used by men to communicate with the gods. Egyptian’s Priests had become more powerful since they communicated with the gods and cared for them. Priests also performed funeral rites and taught at schools. Furthermore, they advised the people on problems as well as supervising the artisans and works. Egyptians saw death as a transitional stage in route to a better life. If they were able to reach the afterlife, they would start a new life and reach their full potential. Egyptians’ bodies were mummified after death and buried with everything necessary to reach the afterlife. This was considered essential to preserve the body.
Egyptian Gods The Ancient Egyptian sun god Ra is represented by life and rebirth. They had said that once the sun sets, he dies, but gets “reborn” when it rises again. This widely known god eventually gets “morphed” with Amon, the father of gods. The merge made the two gods into one called Amon-Ra. The god of wisdom, learning, writing, and also the patron of scribes is called Thoth. The Egyptians thought that this god was the one who had given them the gift of Hieroglyphics, which is their form of writing. Interesting Fact: Since the Egyptians, like the Mesopotamians, didn’t know what caused certain things like flooding, they’d blame the gods and tried different ways to make them happy and in return, bless them. Horus is Osiris and Isis’s son and also the god of the sky. He is represented with a head of a hawk and the body of a man. This probably was to represent his control of the sky and the fact that they are most of the time shown with a human part. He is well- known for being the protector and ruler of Egypt. Iris was a protective goddess, and used powerful magical spells to help Egyptians in need. Isis is also the wife Osiris. Sources: Notes on Religion from 3/21/14 WWW2.sptimes.com/Egypt/EgyptCredit.4. 3.html http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/gods/explor e/main.html Slides by Matthew D. Snyder Enjoy Osiris is the god of the dead as well as being the ruler of the underworld. He is represented as a mummified man wearing white clothing. He is also the god of resurrection and fertility. Egyptians had believed that he gave them barley which was an important crop. Anubis is the god of embalming and the dead. He is represented as a man with a jackal head. Since those are often in the cemeteries, Egyptians believed that he always watched over the dead.
Ancient Egyptians could not explain nature and creation so they used gods and goddesses as their explanation. As polytheists, the Egyptians with several gods and goddesses responsible for different things, such as life and the afterlife. Ra was the Sun god, riding a chariot during the day Geb, the god of the Earth, caused earthquakes when he laughed. Anubis was the original god of the dead and has the head of a jackal Later, Osiris became the god of the dead Isis was the goddess of magic and the sister of Osiris. Anubis Image from: http://ancientegyp tonline.co.uk/imag es/Anubis4.jpg http://ancientegyp tonline.co.uk/imag es/Anubis4.jpg
Tefnut was Ra’s daughter, the goddess of air Shu was a son of Ra, the god of the space between heaven & earth Hapi was the god of the Nile River & responsible for annual flooding Set was the god of violence, the desert & of storms Horus was the sky god, fought Set & lost his left eye That left eye is the Egyptian symbol of healing and restoration The prescription symbol comes from the eye of Horus Image of Eye of Horus RX from http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_d3Tzjzhz9V8/TM uQSjxB9LI/AAAAAAAABlY/S56QmiuF44g/s 400/Eye_of_Horus_Prescription.png http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_d3Tzjzhz9V8/TM uQSjxB9LI/AAAAAAAABlY/S56QmiuF44g/s 400/Eye_of_Horus_Prescription.png
WARFARE AND CONFLICT Back then Egypt wasn’t that peaceful due to fighting over the Nile river for water. Most Egyptians caused warfare to expand their lands or gain more power. (List of weapons they used in warfare) -clubs -maces -axe -knives -sword -daggers -bows and arrows, and javelins (some weapons Egyptians used)
Their was both the upper and lower Egypt had a Conflict between both They had different crowns one was red like a bowl and the other was white like a bowling ball pin both lower and upper kingdom had different customs needs and interests Until one day a man named NARMER MENA joined both Egypt's putting together both hats to show how both Egypt's are equal now The two crowns were united and turned into this>
Pharaoh & Vizier The Pharaoh was believed to be a God on earth and had the most power. He was responsible for making laws and keeping order, ensuring that Egypt was not attacked or invaded by enemies and for keeping the Gods happy The Vizier was the Pharaoh's chief advisor and was sometimes the High Priest. He was responsible for overseeing all official documents to have his seal of approval. He was also responsible for the supply of food, and the Pharaoh's household.
Nobles & Priests Nobles where wealthy and powerful with lots of land.normally nobles would be born into such large wealth and power but occasionally people traded goods to have surplus of everything so they can sell and have leftovers for themselves. priests were responsible for keeping the gods happy.they spent there time performing rituals and ceremonies for the god in there temple.
Jewelry- Male and female Egyptians wore jewelry to show their wealth since only the rich were able to afford gold. They also wore gold jewelry to be more attractive to the gods. Some types of gold jewelry the Egyptians wore are rings, earrings, bracelets, decorated buttons, neck collars and pendants. Make Up- both men and women wore make up. Mostly black and green eye shadow. Henna dye was used to color their lips, nails, and skin. Made by: Simone Hodara 6-C
Egyptians wore light clothes made from linen (linen is made of flax - a plant) The richer the people were the nicer material they had Egyptian men wore - a wrap around a skirt that was tied with a belt. The length depended on the fashion of the time. Old Kingdom- Short garment Middle Kingdom- Calf length garment New Kingdom- Pleated garment Egyptian women wore – a full length straight dress with one or two shoulder straps Children wore - they did not were clothing until the age of six Made by: Simone Hodara 6-C
W HAT WAS A NCIENT E GYPTIAN M EDICINE ? Egyptian medicine was thought to be the most successful at the time. Conclusions involved with medicine were thought to be the works of gods, demons, and spirits. Doctors thought these spirits blocked ‘channels’ in the body, creating diseases and tried to unblock them. Doctors knew basic things and gave practical advice, but also gave odd advice that harmed people. For example, some prescriptions contained animal waste. Others were to avoid raw poultry and fish.
S URGERY Ancient Egyptian doctors never did anything deep inside the body. They did it near the surface. When reasonable, the surgery did work most of the time. Amputees (Cut off) Prosthesis (Artificial device) Tools they used: -Saws -Knives
T REATMENT /C ARE Egyptians used magic/alchemy, herbs, and prayers to treat patients. Thought religion would banish all evil demons and spirits causing this. Used resources such as… -Honey Ancient Egyptians used this method to classify each injury… Treatable- Dealt with immediately. Contestable- Observed patient without interfering. Untreatable- Doctor will not be involved. Egyptians also were very hygienic to be healthy and also because of religion. Egyptians didn’t take good care of their teeth, so they usually had… Wire to connect fallen out teeth. They also had ‘braces’ for your feet and such to keep it in place if broken or sprained.
E BERS P APYRUS Is a piece of papyrus including much information in the medical industry from ancient Egypt. Over 700 remedies. Written in about 1500 B.C.E. 110 Pages! Greg Moritz Ebers, a German Egyptologist, discovered the document in Thebes (Luxor), Egypt in 1873-1874. Is currently in the library of the University of Leipzig in Germany. Written in hieroglyphics, for example… Six vessels reach the soles of our feet. Baldness is caused by four vessels to the head.
The “After” Life Believed to be a continuation of life after bodily death Was considered the greatest honor to live on in death Did not enjoy death, but enjoyed life If living on in death, it would be normal life without the negativity (No death, sicknesses, etc.) By: William Shin Class:6-C Date: 3/24/2014
The Weighing of the Heart Process of weighing one’s heart against the feather of truth /Ma’at on a golden scale Process done by God of The Underworld; Osiris, assisted by Inpu, God of Death The greatest dishonor; having your heart weigh more than the feather Heart devoured by Amenti, if heavier than Ma’at’s feather Soul cast into an “abyss of non-existence” if the heart is heavier= worst punishment