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North America Before Columbus 15,000 BCE to 1492CE.

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Presentation on theme: "North America Before Columbus 15,000 BCE to 1492CE."— Presentation transcript:

1 North America Before Columbus 15,000 BCE to 1492CE

2 Why does geography matter?  Use your map, make some assumptions about the people living in the area…explain why.

3 What do you know?  How did people get to North America?

4 The First People in North America  Who were the first? It’s hard to say  12,000 to 16,000 years ago are widely accepted time frames  Recent Evidence suggests people may have been here for 50,000 years

5 Most Accepted Theory to Date  Theory: people from Asia crossed the “Bering Land Bridge” to get to North America  This bridge was “Open” between 25,000 and 11,000 years ago

6 Clovis People  Is the name given to the first peoples to settle North America  Dates from 13,000 to 11,000 for their arrival  Clovis people left behind many artifacts that have been scientifically dated

7 Clovis People Continued…  There are many sites throughout North America Identified as “Clovis sites”  Sites are identified usually by the types of arrowheads found  They lived by hunting big game, most of which is now extinct

8 Pre-Clovis People?  There have been sites found that date earlier than Clovis People—15,000 years ago in South America  Evidence is found in arrowheads that are not as well made as Clovis  They are thought to have survived by hunting, gathering and fishing  Pre-Clovis sites have caused a great deal of controversy

9 Megafuana  This is the name given to the many large animals that went extinct at the end of the last ice age—about 10,000 years ago  These large animals went extinct at the same time humans arrived in North America— coincidence?

10 Mastodon  Similar to Wooly Mammoth, but had different teeth and tusks  Lived in cold forests

11 Wooly Mammoth  Lived in colder climates  Had thick, greasy hair  Probably used tusks to shovel snow off of vegetation  Many frozen specimens have been found  It is rumored that members of the National Geographic's Society once ate preserved mammoth  Some scientists are trying to create one using preserved DNA

12 Saber Tooth Tiger  While it’s in the cat family, it’s not really a tiger  Probably did not run very fast  Most likely a social animal that lived in groups, as do lions and tigers  Could open it’s mouth 120 degree (modern cats can only go 60 degrees)

13 Giant Beaver  Can you imagine the dam a 900 pound beaver could make?

14 Giant Ground Sloth  One of the largest land mammals ever  Could get to 20 feet tall and weighed 8 tons (same as an African Bull Elephant)  Was a vegetarian  Had no real enemies—their huge claws could easily fend off Saber ToothTigers  Human hunters could have easily caused their extinction

15 Glyptodon  Large relative of the armadillo  About the size of a Volkswagen Beetle  They were herbivores that grazed on grasses  It is believed that humans hunted them and used their shells for shelter

16 Hagerman Horse  Related to the African Zebra  Was a grazer, just like modern horses

17 Camelops  You guessed it, it was just like the camels alive today  Many Clovis sites show signs that these animals were frequently butched

18 After Clovis  Prevailing theory is that Clovis People are the ancestors of all Native American groups  The Clovis way of life ended with the extinction of the animals they hunted  Different groups split off from one another, forming their own cultures in different locations throughout North America  Genetic study suggests that all Native American groups can be linked to a single “founding population”

19 It is Worth Noting…  While scientific evidence points in favor of the “Bering Land Bridge” and “Clovis-first” theories, most present-day Native Americans do not accept these theories  Native Americans generally believe that they have always been in North America  Their evidence—all Native American groups have rich oral traditions  There are no known Native American oral histories that refer to ancestors crossing a land bridge or leaving Asia by other means to come to North America

20 Native American Before Columbus  Today there are 562 Federally recognized Native American tribes  There were probably many more before Columbus  We will now look at the major groupings of Native American tribes throughout the United States

21 Each region had different natural resources. Each culture group used the natural resources in its region to meet its needs.

22 Native Americans used natural resources to meet their needs. Natural resources are things in nature that people can use. treeswaterstonesbuffalo

23 Great Plaines Tribes Arapaho Indians Arikara Indians Assiniboine Indians Atsina Indians Brule Indians Cheyenne Indians Chipewyan Indians Cree Indians Crow Indians Dakota Indians Hidatsa Indians Kainah Indians Mandan Indians Oglala Indians Osage Indians Oto Indians Piegan Indians Ponca Indians Quapaw Indians Sarsi Indians Siksika Indians Teton Indians Wichita Indians Yanktonai Indians

24 Iroquois Confederacy  Political alliance formed by five language related tribes in the Northeastern Woodlands  Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca  Alliance formed to ensure protection of tribal lands  U.S. uses similar ideas when creating its own government

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27 Cliff Palace Mesa Verde

28 Kiva Underground ceremonial chambers

29 The Pacific Northwest

30 California  Encompasses the western states.  The Pomo, an Indian tribe, crafted beautiful baskets of all different sizes and for all different occasions.  Lived in communities numbering up to 2,000  More than 100 languages flourished in California before European contact; most are gone today.

31 Cherokee  The Cherokee lived in the mountains and valleys of the southern Appalachian Mountains  Lived in domed houses in villages along riverbanks  They were farmers, hunters, and fishermen  Held festivals to celebrate planting and harvesting of corn  Invented Lacross

32 Algonquin  These are Great Lakes tribes that include Ojibwa, Delaware, Powhatan, and Massachusetts tribes  Lived in wigwams  Wore very little clothes in summer, dressed in animal skins in the winter  They were hunters, gatherers, trappers, and planters  Traveled in birch bark canoes

33 Iroquois  Included Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca tribes  Lived in what is now New York state along the St Lawrence River  They lived in Long Houses that held 30 to 60 people  Wore mostly buckskin clothes  They grew “The Three Sisters”—corn, squash, and beans  They used snowshoes in the winter

34 Seminoles  They settled in the Southeast, mostly in Florida  Their lived in “Chikee” homes, the homes were usually placed in swamplands  They wore clothing woven from Palmetto  They were hunters and gatherers who traveled in dugout canoes

35 Navajo  Included in this group are the Pueblo, Zuni, Rio, and Hopi tribes, as all had similar cultures and beliefs  Lived in what is now New Mexico and Northeastern Arizona  Their homes were called “Hogans”—these were round houses built with forked sticks and covered with brush, packed earth, hides, and whatever they could find  Their clothing was made from rabbit skins and the Yuka plant  They were raiders (they usually stole crops from the Pueblos), gatherers, and hunters, and eventually farmed for themselves  They are well known for their turquoise jewelry

36 Apache  Also lived in what is now New Mexico and Arizona  They were nomads who did not stay in one place for very long  They lived in “Wickiups,” small dome- shaped homes that were not very sturdy, and women made them in a few hours  They wore deerskin clothes  They did not farm, but women gathered plants, mostly yucca and mescaline (tasted like cabbage)  They are known for their well-made and intricate baskets

37 Northwest Coastal Native Americans  Includes tribes such as the Tlingit and Chicook  Lived along the Northwest coast from Alaska to Northern California  The Northwest Coastal Indians wore little clothing. They wore fiber rain capes and skin robes  They lived in large plank houses in groups of 30 or so  The men tattooed their arms and hands for measuring dentalium. Dentalium was a shell that was strung together and used as money  Of all tribal groups, these people enjoyed the most abundant natural resources  They were hunters, gatherers, and fishermen, and they took slaves. Slaves were a sign of wealth. Children were kept close to their camp for fear that they would be stolen by another tribe and become a slave.

38 Plains Native Americans  Group includes Sauk, Fox, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Sioux, Blackfeet, Comanche, and Pawnee tribes  They lived in the area from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from Canada to Mexico  Most lived in Teepee  They wore buffalo skins  They used “Peace Pipes” in ceremonies

39 Inuit  Lived in the Arctic region of North America  Their homes were igloos in the winter and skin, wood, mud, or sod homes in the summer  Their clothing was sealskin in the summer and in the winter they wore caribou skin  They made the most out of very limited resources, particularly of use were all parts of whales and seals  Never in Anger—they were a very peaceful people

40 Map of Pre-Columbus Tribes

41 About Pre-Columbian Native Societies  Native Americans spoke over 300 languages  Many Native societies had urban settlements, farming, architecture, and complex societies  Native Americans domesticated plants that constitute 50-60% of all crops now grown world-wide  Prior to Columbus’ arrival, there were between 10 and 100 million people who live in the Americas


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