Presentation on theme: "North America Before Columbus"— Presentation transcript:
1North America Before Columbus 15,000 BCE to 1492CE
2Why does geography matter? Use your map, make some assumptions about the people living in the area…explain why.
3What do you know?How did people get to North America?
4The First People in North America Who were the first? It’s hard to say12,000 to 16,000 years ago are widely accepted time framesRecent Evidence suggests people may have been here for 50,000 years
5Most Accepted Theory to Date Theory: people from Asia crossed the “Bering Land Bridge” to get to North AmericaThis bridge was “Open” between 25,000 and 11,000 years ago
6Clovis PeopleIs the name given to the first peoples to settle North AmericaDates from 13,000 to 11,000 for their arrivalClovis people left behind many artifacts that have been scientifically dated
7Clovis People Continued… There are many sites throughout North America Identified as “Clovis sites”Sites are identified usually by the types of arrowheads foundThey lived by hunting big game, most of which is now extinct
8Pre-Clovis People?There have been sites found that date earlier than Clovis People—15,000 years ago in South AmericaEvidence is found in arrowheads that are not as well made as ClovisThey are thought to have survived by hunting, gathering and fishingPre-Clovis sites have caused a great deal of controversy
9MegafuanaThis is the name given to the many large animals that went extinct at the end of the last ice age—about 10,000 years agoThese large animals went extinct at the same time humans arrived in North America—coincidence?
10Mastodon Similar to Wooly Mammoth, but had different teeth and tusks Lived in cold forests
11Wooly Mammoth Lived in colder climates Had thick, greasy hair Probably used tusks to shovel snow off of vegetationMany frozen specimens have been foundIt is rumored that members of the National Geographic's Society once ate preserved mammothSome scientists are trying to create one using preserved DNA
12Saber Tooth TigerWhile it’s in the cat family, it’s not really a tigerProbably did not run very fastMost likely a social animal that lived in groups, as do lions and tigersCould open it’s mouth 120 degree (modern cats can only go 60 degrees)
13Giant BeaverCan you imagine the dam a 900 pound beaver could make?
14Giant Ground Sloth One of the largest land mammals ever Could get to 20 feet tall and weighed 8 tons (same as an African Bull Elephant)Was a vegetarianHad no real enemies—their huge claws could easily fend off Saber ToothTigersHuman hunters could have easily caused their extinction
15Glyptodon Large relative of the armadillo About the size of a Volkswagen BeetleThey were herbivores that grazed on grassesIt is believed that humans hunted them and used their shells for shelter
16Hagerman Horse Related to the African Zebra Was a grazer, just like modern horses
17Camelops You guessed it, it was just like the camels alive today Many Clovis sites show signs that these animals were frequently butched
18After ClovisPrevailing theory is that Clovis People are the ancestors of all Native American groupsThe Clovis way of life ended with the extinction of the animals they huntedDifferent groups split off from one another, forming their own cultures in different locations throughout North AmericaGenetic study suggests that all Native American groups can be linked to a single “founding population”
19It is Worth Noting…While scientific evidence points in favor of the “Bering Land Bridge” and “Clovis-first” theories, most present-day Native Americans do not accept these theoriesNative Americans generally believe that they have always been in North AmericaTheir evidence—all Native American groups have rich oral traditionsThere are no known Native American oral histories that refer to ancestors crossing a land bridge or leaving Asia by other means to come to North America
20Native American Before Columbus Today there are 562 Federally recognized Native American tribesThere were probably many more before ColumbusWe will now look at the major groupings of Native American tribes throughout the United States
21Each region had different natural resources. Each culture group used the natural resources in its region to meet its needs.
22Native Americans used natural resources to meet their needs. treeswaterstonesbuffaloNatural resources are things in nature that people can use.
24Iroquois ConfederacyPolitical alliance formed by five language related tribes in the Northeastern WoodlandsMohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, SenecaAlliance formed to ensure protection of tribal landsU.S. uses similar ideas when creating its own government
30California Encompasses the western states. The Pomo, an Indian tribe, crafted beautiful baskets of all different sizes and for all different occasions.Lived in communities numbering up to 2,000More than 100 languages flourished in California before European contact; most are gone today.
31CherokeeThe Cherokee lived in the mountains and valleys of the southern Appalachian MountainsLived in domed houses in villages along riverbanksThey were farmers, hunters, and fishermenHeld festivals to celebrate planting and harvesting of cornInvented Lacross
32AlgonquinThese are Great Lakes tribes that include Ojibwa, Delaware, Powhatan, and Massachusetts tribesLived in wigwamsWore very little clothes in summer, dressed in animal skins in the winterThey were hunters, gatherers, trappers, and plantersTraveled in birch bark canoes
33Iroquois Included Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca tribes Lived in what is now New York state along the St Lawrence RiverThey lived in Long Houses that held 30 to 60 peopleWore mostly buckskin clothesThey grew “The Three Sisters”—corn, squash, and beansThey used snowshoes in the winter
34Seminoles They settled in the Southeast, mostly in Florida Their lived in “Chikee” homes, the homes were usually placed in swamplandsThey wore clothing woven from PalmettoThey were hunters and gatherers who traveled in dugout canoes
35NavajoIncluded in this group are the Pueblo, Zuni, Rio, and Hopi tribes, as all had similar cultures and beliefsLived in what is now New Mexico and Northeastern ArizonaTheir homes were called “Hogans”—these were round houses built with forked sticks and covered with brush, packed earth, hides, and whatever they could findTheir clothing was made from rabbit skins and the Yuka plantThey were raiders (they usually stole crops from the Pueblos), gatherers, and hunters, and eventually farmed for themselvesThey are well known for their turquoise jewelry
36Apache Also lived in what is now New Mexico and Arizona They were nomads who did not stay in one place for very longThey lived in “Wickiups,” small dome-shaped homes that were not very sturdy, and women made them in a few hoursThey wore deerskin clothesThey did not farm, but women gathered plants, mostly yucca and mescaline (tasted like cabbage)They are known for their well-made and intricate baskets
37Northwest Coastal Native Americans Includes tribes such as the Tlingit and ChicookLived along the Northwest coast from Alaska to Northern CaliforniaThe Northwest Coastal Indians wore little clothing. They wore fiber rain capes and skin robesThey lived in large plank houses in groups of 30 or soThe men tattooed their arms and hands for measuring dentalium. Dentalium was a shell that was strung together and used as moneyOf all tribal groups, these people enjoyed the most abundant natural resourcesThey were hunters, gatherers, and fishermen, and they took slaves. Slaves were a sign of wealth. Children were kept close to their camp for fear that they would be stolen by another tribe and become a slave.
38Plains Native Americans Group includes Sauk, Fox, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Sioux, Blackfeet, Comanche, and Pawnee tribesThey lived in the area from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from Canada to MexicoMost lived in TeepeeThey wore buffalo skinsThey used “Peace Pipes” in ceremonies
39Inuit Lived in the Arctic region of North America Their homes were igloos in the winter and skin, wood, mud, or sod homes in the summerTheir clothing was sealskin in the summer and in the winter they wore caribou skinThey made the most out of very limited resources, particularly of use were all parts of whales and sealsNever in Anger—they were a very peaceful people
41About Pre-Columbian Native Societies Native Americans spoke over 300 languagesMany Native societies had urban settlements, farming, architecture, and complex societiesNative Americans domesticated plants that constitute 50-60% of all crops now grown world-widePrior to Columbus’ arrival, there were between 10 and 100 million people who live in the Americas