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By Sarah Nowak and Salina Asfaha. Descendants of the Algonquian hunter-gatherers Archeologists suggest that the Beothuk inhabited Newfoundland long before.

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Presentation on theme: "By Sarah Nowak and Salina Asfaha. Descendants of the Algonquian hunter-gatherers Archeologists suggest that the Beothuk inhabited Newfoundland long before."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Sarah Nowak and Salina Asfaha

2 Descendants of the Algonquian hunter-gatherers Archeologists suggest that the Beothuk inhabited Newfoundland long before European civilization Population was between 500 and 1000 individuals The majority of the Beothuk's that were discovered died of tuberculosis Beothuk became extinct when Shanawithit, the last known Beothuk died in St. John's, 1829

3 Eastern Canada, in Newfoundland The Beothuk wintered at Red Indian Lake at the head of the Exploits River They crossed the Exploits River during their seasonal migration This location also gave the Beothuk easy access to Notre Dame Bay during the summer

4 The Beothuk were a lighter skin colour, than other native people They wore their hair somewhat long and straight. Some had a strand of hair at the back of the head, that was decorated with feathers Major garment, worn by men and women, was a coat or cloak made from several caribou skins sewn together into one large piece Covered their lower torso with a loincloth or wore leggings Footwear consisted of leg-skin boots made from the hide of caribou shanks and moccasins made from three pieces of caribou leather The term “Red Indian” was established from the use of red ochre mixed with oil or grease, to paint their bodies and hair It is assumed that the red ochre suggests a ceremonial or spiritual association

5 Mamateeks (the Beothuk word for house), also known as a wigwam Frequent moves during the different seasons to still have specific resources Shaped like oval cones Made of long poles with sheets of birch bark Opening at the top of the mamateek so that the smoke would escape Fire pit in the centre of the mamateek Moss would cover the mamateek to make it warmer during winter

6 The Beothuk's were fishermen Hunters of the caribou (main Food) Lived off of the land, as did all of the other tribes

7 With the Europeans: Contact between the Beothuk and Europeans led to many misunderstandings, violence, and deaths. The Europeans named the Beothuk’s “Red Indian” due to the red ochre, this term was later applied to all North American Aboriginal Peoples. This unfortunately caused discrimination towards the Aboriginals. Conflict between the Beothuk and Europeans was due to dry fisheries, making the European fishers want more space for their drying racks. The Europeans put their racks on sites favoured by the Beothuk. This led to the unfair war of the Beothuk with only their use of spears, bows and arrows to defend against the Europeans,who used guns. Many Beothuk people were killed.

8 With the Basque: The Basque whalers established summer shore stations on Red Bay on the Strait of Belle Isle and on Saddle Island. Archeology evidence shows that there was no sign of conflict between the Beothuk and the Basques.

9 Worshipped the sun, and the moon. Believed that they sprung from an arrow stuck in the ground. There was a “Great Spirit.” Late arrivals of the white men came from a bad spirit as well as the Mi'kmaq. Hunting would've been considered to be a spiritual activity. Didn't follow a way of “unchanged life.”

10 Vision quest story Reflected on how the boy felt, how long he was there, environment, etc. Typical vision quest story

11 In 1571, a whaling voyage sent 1000 barrels of oil back to Spain. But, in 1600, the whaling ended due to a decline in whale stocks, intensive hunting, and pirating of the Dutch, French, and English. This created a lack of resources for the Beothuk. In 1501, on Gasper Corte Real’s second voyage to Newfoundland, he captured and enslaved 57 Beothuk men and women. Unfortunately, most of the slaves died due to infectious diseases on the voyage to Portugal and the rest after landing.

12 A proclamation was issued in 1769, making it a capital crime to murder any Beothuk, to protect them. Anybody charged with such a crime would be tried in England. By the 17 th century, the Beothuk population was between 500-1000. In 1824, when Newfoundland was declared a colony, only a few Beothuk were left. The last known Beothuk, a woman by the name of Shawnadithit, died in 1829, due to the disease tuberculosis (which was a European disease).



15 Work Cited "Beothuk Housing: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage." Beothuk Housing: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. Marshall, Ingeborg. "Personal Appearance and Items of Clothing." Aboriginal Peoples. 2012. Web. 17 Sept. 2012.. "Post-Contact Beothuk History." Aboriginal Peoples. 2005. Web. 17 Sept. 2012.. "This Archived Web Page Remains Online for Reference, Research or Recordkeeping Purposes. This Page Will Not Be Altered or Updated. Web Pages That Are Archived on the Internet Are Not Subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards. As per the Communications Policy of the Government of Canada, You Can Request Alternate Formats of This Page on the "Contact Us" Page." Culture: Language. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. "Title." Title. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2012.

16 Archaeology. Beothuk People. Web. 17 Sept. 2012.. Reconstructed Beothuk wigwam at Indian Point, Red Indian Lake. Web. 17 Sept. 2012.. Historical Narratives of Early Canada. Web. 17 Sept. 2012.. What happened to the Beothuk Indians? Mysteries of Canada. Web. 1 Jan.. Doing Canadian History. Web. 17 Sept. 2012.. Map showing Little Passage Campsites, Beothuk campsites and sightings and Beothuk burials. Web. 17 Sept. 2012.. List of Images Used

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