Presentation on theme: "The Normans came to govern England following one of the most famous battles in English history: the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Four Norman kings presided."— Presentation transcript:
The Normans came to govern England following one of the most famous battles in English history: the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Four Norman kings presided over a period of great change and development for the country.
The battle lasted from about 9 am to dusk. Early efforts of the invaders to break the English battle lines had little effect; therefore, the Normans adopted the tactic of pretending to flee in panic and then turning on their pursuers. The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and an English army under the Anglo- Saxon King Harold II, during the Norman conquest England.
When the Normans had settled in an area they abandoned the motte and bailey forts and built stone castles. They were very strong and almost impossible to capture and destroy, but they took many years to build. They were damp, cold, draughty places. Over time castles grew more comfortable, but they were still chilly places. Only the really rich took baths but not often and not in special bathrooms. Toilets were called garderobes and they were built into the castle walls. Everything dropped down into the moat or a cesspit. The smelly job of cleaning out the cesspit was done by men called gong farmers. Many of them, now almost eight hundred years old, are still standing today.
Fashions came and went during the 500 years of Castle Times. Styles changed more slowly than they do now. During the 11th and 12th centuries men and women wore undertunics beneath an overtunic that had a belt. Men's clothes might have been any length between short and ankle length but women's were always long. As time went by rich people's clothes became tighter and more elaborate. Men wore baggy breeches. Men and women wore cloth stockings to keep their feet warm. No one wore clothes in bed. Women wore veils or cap-shaped hats with a wimple. A wimple is a cloth that covered their necks. As time passed by, women's head accessories got complicated. Some of them looked like animals horns, they also wore coloured eye shadow.
The Normans ate a healthy diet that consisted of dairy products, green vegetables, oatmeal porridge, sometimes meat and honey. Peasants ate dark bread made from rye grain, pottage stew from peas, beans and onions, hunted rabbits, hares, and gathered berries and nuts. Their Norman Lords were rich and could afford to eat meat and preserve it with salt.
There was a range of white and brown breads made from different mixtures of wheat and rye flour. Poor families would normally eat dark, heavy bread made from barley and rye. When grain was in short supply, people would include beans, peas and even acorns in their bread. Peasants were not allowed to bake their bread in their own homes, they had to pay to use the lord’s oven. Because bread was such an important food, there were laws introduced, known as the Bread Laws. Bakers who were found guilty of selling loaves that were underweight, could be locked in the pillory (a wooden framework on a post with holes for the head and hands).
A manuscript from Saint-Evrol depicting King David on the lyre (or harp) in the middle of the back of the initial 'B'. Normandy was the site of several important developments in the history of classical music in the 11th century.
Abbey were centres of musical production and education. At Fécamp under two Italian abbots, William of Volpiano and John of Ravenna, the system of denoting notes by letters was the tradition of singing.
Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻ Āina i ka Pono is roughly translated into English as "The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness." The motto was adopted by the Kingdom of Hawai ʻ i in 1843 and was used in an address by King Kamehameha III at ceremonies following the return of his kingdom from the BrUa Mau ke Ea o ka ʻ Āina i ka Pono is roughly translated into English as "The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness." The motto was adopted by the Kingdom 1843 of Hawaiian and was used in an address by King Kamehameha III at ceremonies following the return of his kingdom from the British.