2Ranches, Ranchers, and Cowboys Chapter 21Section 3Ranches, Ranchers, and Cowboys
3Objectives Students will be able to… Identify the Texas regions where ranching was a big industry and explain why ranches developed thereDescribe what ranching and cowboy life were likeExplain how cowboys contributed to Texas culture
4Ranching in South Texas During the 1800s the cattle ranches that arose on the open range from Texas to Canada formed the Cattle Kingdom.
5King RanchThe King ranch in south Texas was one of the most important cattle operations in the state.Richard King and Gideon Lewis established the ranch in Nueces County in the early 1850s.King died in 1885, leaving the ranch to his wife.Henrietta King built the ranch into a thriving operation.By 1925 it included more than 1 Million acres of land.
6Ranches in the Panhandle By the early 1800s cattle ranching was a thriving and profitable industry in many parts of Texas. As Plains Indians were removed from West Texas, the Panhandle was opened for ranching. The grass that covered the plains provided plenty of food for the cattle. The region’s flat open land allowed ranchers to keep a close watch on the livestock.
7Although the Panhandle did not have enough water to supply all the ranches, the Ogallala Aquifer lay underneath the region.Ranchers adapted to the environment by using windmills to reach this huge supply of water.The windmill blows against a vane that turns the blades into the breeze. The wind then hits the blades, creating power to operate a pump. This power brings underground water to the surface.
8JA RanchIn the mid-1870s Charles Goodnight and John Adair established one of the first ranches in the Panhandle– The JA Ranch in Palo Duro Canyon.The JA Ranch became large and successful, and by the mid-1880s it covered more than 700,000 acres and supported about 40,000 cattle.This ranch, plus many others in the Panhandle helped bring prosperity to the Panhandle.
9XIT RanchCorporations moved to the Panhandle along with the ranchers. The XIT Ranch was established in 1885 when the state gave the land to the Capitol Freehold Land and Investment Company. In return, the investors agreed to construct a new state capitol building to replace the one that had burned in The new capitol was completed in 1888 and is still the capitol building today.
10Over time, the XIT Ranch became one of the largest and most famous ranches in Texas. The XIT covered about 3 million acres. At its peak, the XIT employed about 150 Cowboys to care for about 150,000 cattle.
11Ranchers and CowboysMost Texas ranches were located far from towns. Ranchers had to rely on their own resources to solve the many challenges they faced. Ranchers could never had succeeded without cowboys, who did countless daily tasks on the ranches.
12Texas cowboys wore clothes and used tools that were suited to the state’s environment. Some cowboys wore traditional cowboy hats. Some wore the vaqueros’ broad felt hat. Many wore sombreros to protect themselves from the harsh sunlight and rain. Texas cowboys relied on leather chaps worn over their pants to protect them from thorny brushes.
13The Closing of the Open Range Chapter 21Section 4
14Objectives Students will be able to… Analyze how barbed wire affected the development of Texas.Explain what contributed to the decline of the Cattle Kingom.
15Fencing the Open RangeFarmers moving into West Texas wanted to fence their land to protect their crops from stray cattle. However, building long fences was difficult because wood was scarce on the open plains. Joseph F. Glidden, an Illinois farmer, answered this challenge. After his wife asked him to create a fence to keep dogs out of her garden, he developed barbed wire in 1873.
16Glidden quickly opened a factory to make his product Glidden quickly opened a factory to make his product. Soon, inexpensive barbed wire was readily available. The sharp wire fences even survived the strong Texas winds. The new invention made large-scale fencing both easy and inexpensive. By the end of the 1800s, there were barbed-wire fences in nearly every Texas county. This marked the end of the open range in Texas.
17The Range WarsWidespread fencing led to conflict in Texas in the early 1880s. Fencing became so extensive that public roads were blocked and mail delivery was interrupted. Ranchers were fencing off water sources that they did not own. This issue became critical when Texas was hit by a drought in 1883 and cattle began to die of thirst. Before long, range wars broke out.
18Under cover of darkness, ranchers snipped the barbed-wire fences Under cover of darkness, ranchers snipped the barbed-wire fences. Other ranchers hired guards to protect their fences, and gunfights sometimes broke out. Fence cutting soon became and important political issue. The Texas legislature made a quick decision to require a gate in every three miles of fence to allow passage for roads and rail-roads. The law also made fence cutting illegal.
19Legacy of the Open Range Toward the end of the 1880s, the open range began to disappear.Many ranchers turned to sheep farming.Severe winters caused the death of thousands of open-range cattle, causing ranchers to go out of business.Years of heavy use had stripped the grass.More railroad lines in Texas were built and ended the need for cattle drives.All of these things led to the end of the open range era.
20Throughout the world, people still associate Texas with cowboys and cattle ranchers. Many Texans still raise and sell cattle. In addition, tourists visit Texas to watch rodeos and tour cattle operations such as King Ranch.