Environment In Northern Hemisphere 50°N and 70°N latitude (depending on load climates) 10456°C 1-3 months of the year
Location The sub-artic people occupied a majority of Canada from Yukon to Newfoundland, including parts of seven provinces and two territories. Artic- above tree line in Alaska Artic tundra
Population Sub-Artic human population was one of the lowest in the world The entire area used to have as low as 60,000 people Weather changes were extreme and horrible Animals depended on seasons and were scarce which made it hard on many
Adaptations Used whale bones and animal hides to make tipis Used animal Used bird skin
Language Algonquian – spoken by the eastern sub-artic groups like the Innu, Atikamek, Cree, and the Salteaux The languages showed similarities to the Cree language division of Algonquian. Northern Ojibwa speak Ojibwa which is another Algonquian language Western sub-artic people speak Athapascan Most dialects are unique and hard to understand
Food- Subartic Obtaining food was very important and essential ritual Usually on foot or on snowshoes; they would hunt, fish, trap and gather wild plants Fishing- Winter- ice fishing was popular Spring- rivers and coastal waters were rich in fish and seafood Most of the northern fishes and their fish eggs could be eaten Often hunted moose, caribou, hare, musk oxen, Bear and elk, as well as waterfowl and fish. Wild berries they collected included- berries, tripe, dandelions, moss and marigold. berries were stored in a basket in a pit during the fall pemmican was a high energy food that could be stored for years
Food- Artic Do not have many plants Fishing thorough ice holes seals, walruses, or auks caught by spear hunting. Sometimes hunt polar bear but is dangerous hunt whales sometimes
Tools Bows, arrows, traps, snares, dread falls, drift fence, pound Caught fish with dip and gill nets, spears, traps Tumpline- fastened around head to help with big loads of meat and fish Belt looms- weaving “Sub-arctic Athapascans had distinctive technologies like large metal knives with double curved handles, sleds, chair-style birch bark baby carriers, partially decked- over kayak-canoes, and portable domed caribou-skin tents. “ Some had copper to make knives and arrows, but most people had bones and tides.
Artic Beliefs/ Religion Artic Beliefs/ Religion Believed in animism- all living and non- living things had a spirit When a spirit died it continued to live in another world Religious leaders- people who had enough power to control the spirits Shamans- wore a mask to represent animals in a ritual which helped them communicate with the spirit Shamans would make recommendations to appease a spirit ~ EX ~ move away or make offerings Would fine a person for breaking rules and angering spirits Drum dances in igloos Dance/song told stories Throat singing was a competition for the women Bladder dance
Sub- Artic Beliefs/ Religion “ “ Nanabush and Wisahkecahk were the hero and trickster figures of the Algonquian culture” The hero was the first person to become powerful The culture hero also had survival skills, outwitted evil medicines, fought dangerous animals which made the world a safer place Most people had some medicine power which was enhanced by a body of beliefs A shaking tent was conducted by medicine people so the spirits of the people or animals are conjured for curing “The Beaver people of the Peace River region had prophets who were said to have experienced death and flown like swans to a spirit land beyond the sky” Based on the songs that were brought back from their journey to heaven they made dances.
Artic Clothing Made of animal skin/fur Wore many layers as protection from cold weather 2 layers of caribou skin, inner fur- facing skin outer fur facing out wore layers of boots, trousers, hooded parkas, and mittens Number of layers depended on weather
Sub-Artic Clothing Northern forest- wore soft-tanned hide moccasins, leggings, shirts, coats~ summer “A short V-tailed summer slipover caribou skin tunic was worn by the Pacific Athapascans, and was decorated with dyed porcupine quills, dentalium and beads made from seeds.” Tended to wear lighter clothing Started a fire whenever they stopped