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Native Americans Artic/Sub-artic Period:5_Mr.Cox Nayab Abid Mack Caplan Angela Rust.

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Presentation on theme: "Native Americans Artic/Sub-artic Period:5_Mr.Cox Nayab Abid Mack Caplan Angela Rust."— Presentation transcript:

1 Native Americans Artic/Sub-artic Period:5_Mr.Cox Nayab Abid Mack Caplan Angela Rust

2 Tribes  Aleut  Alutiiq  Inuit (Eskimo)  Yupik  Alutila  Chippewa  Naskaql

3 Environment  In Northern Hemisphere  50°N and 70°N latitude (depending on load climates)  10456°C 1-3 months of the year

4 Location  The sub-artic people occupied a majority of Canada from Yukon to Newfoundland, including parts of seven provinces and two territories.  Artic- above tree line in Alaska  Artic tundra

5 Population  Sub-Artic human population was one of the lowest in the world  The entire area used to have as low as 60,000 people  Weather changes were extreme and horrible  Animals depended on seasons and were scarce which made it hard on many

6 Adaptations  Used whale bones and animal hides to make tipis  Used animal  Used bird skin

7 Housing  Artic- igloos  Subartic- Lean-to, sod houses, pit houses


9 Language  Algonquian – spoken by the eastern sub-artic groups like the Innu, Atikamek, Cree, and the Salteaux  The languages showed similarities to the Cree language division of Algonquian.  Northern Ojibwa speak Ojibwa which is another Algonquian language  Western sub-artic people speak Athapascan  Most dialects are unique and hard to understand

10 Transportation  Walking-snow boots  Kayaks  Dogsled

11 Food- Subartic  Obtaining food was very important and essential ritual  Usually on foot or on snowshoes; they would hunt, fish, trap and gather wild plants  Fishing-  Winter- ice fishing was popular  Spring- rivers and coastal waters were rich in fish and seafood  Most of the northern fishes and their fish eggs could be eaten  Often hunted moose, caribou, hare, musk oxen,  Bear and elk, as well as waterfowl and fish.  Wild berries they collected included- berries, tripe, dandelions, moss and marigold.  berries were stored in a basket in a pit during the fall  pemmican was a high energy food that could be stored for years


13 Food- Artic  Do not have many plants  Fishing thorough ice holes  seals, walruses, or auks caught by spear hunting.  Sometimes hunt polar bear but is dangerous  hunt whales sometimes


15 Tools  Bows, arrows, traps, snares, dread falls, drift fence, pound  Caught fish with dip and gill nets, spears, traps  Tumpline- fastened around head to help with big loads of meat and fish  Belt looms- weaving  “Sub-arctic Athapascans had distinctive technologies like large metal knives with double curved handles, sleds, chair-style birch bark baby carriers, partially decked- over kayak-canoes, and portable domed caribou-skin tents. “  Some had copper to make knives and arrows, but most people had bones and tides.

16 Artic Beliefs/ Religion Artic Beliefs/ Religion  Believed in animism- all living and non- living things had a spirit  When a spirit died it continued to live in another world  Religious leaders- people who had enough power to control the spirits  Shamans- wore a mask to represent animals in a ritual which helped them communicate with the spirit  Shamans would make recommendations to appease a spirit ~ EX ~ move away or make offerings  Would fine a person for breaking rules and angering spirits  Drum dances in igloos  Dance/song told stories  Throat singing was a competition for the women  Bladder dance


18 Sub- Artic Beliefs/ Religion  “ “ Nanabush and Wisahkecahk were the hero and trickster figures of the Algonquian culture”  The hero was the first person to become powerful  The culture hero also had survival skills, outwitted evil medicines, fought dangerous animals which made the world a safer place  Most people had some medicine power which was enhanced by a body of beliefs  A shaking tent was conducted by medicine people so the spirits of the people or animals are conjured for curing  “The Beaver people of the Peace River region had prophets who were said to have experienced death and flown like swans to a spirit land beyond the sky”  Based on the songs that were brought back from their journey to heaven they made dances.


20 Artic Clothing  Made of animal skin/fur  Wore many layers as protection from cold weather  2 layers of caribou skin, inner fur- facing skin outer fur facing out  wore layers of boots, trousers, hooded parkas, and mittens  Number of layers depended on weather


22 Sub-Artic Clothing  Northern forest- wore soft-tanned hide  moccasins, leggings, shirts, coats~ summer  “A short V-tailed summer slipover caribou skin tunic was worn by the Pacific Athapascans, and was decorated with dyed porcupine quills, dentalium and beads made from seeds.”  Tended to wear lighter clothing  Started a fire whenever they stopped


24 Sources  http://www.thecanadianenc gNm=TCE&Params=A1ART A0009072 http://www.thecanadianenc gNm=TCE&Params=A1ART A0009072 http://www.thecanadianenc gNm=TCE&Params=A1ART A0009072  http://www.american- http://www.american- http://www.american-  ibes_of_the_Arctic_region ibes_of_the_Arctic_region ibes_of_the_Arctic_region  http://www.windows2univer ure.html http://www.windows2univer ure.html http://www.windows2univer ure.html  http://firstpeoplesofcanada. com/fp_groups/fp_subarcti c5.html http://firstpeoplesofcanada. com/fp_groups/fp_subarcti c5.html http://firstpeoplesofcanada. com/fp_groups/fp_subarcti c5.html  mith/noamer_subarctic.html mith/noamer_subarctic.html mith/noamer_subarctic.html  http://www.native- culture.htm http://www.native- culture.htm http://www.native- culture.htm  http://www.u-s- ml http://www.u-s- ml http://www.u-s- ml

25 The end!!!!!!

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