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American Indians in Texas An Overview Click on picture 1 Chris Aigner - 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "American Indians in Texas An Overview Click on picture 1 Chris Aigner - 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Indians in Texas An Overview Click on picture 1 Chris Aigner

2 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The First Americans It is thought that most Native Americans are descended from people that crossed over from Asia to America on a land bridge– the Bering Land bridge. This picture demonstrates the diminishing of the bridge over thousands of years

3 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, Migration Paths As the world's glaciers and ice sheets melted over the following millennia, rising sea level flooded the land bridge.

4 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians,

5 The Plains Culture Area The Great Plains stretches from Canada into Southern Texas. Many Native American groups lived along the edges of the plains to farm and entered the plains to hunt buffalo. With the arrival of the Spanish came the arrival of horses. Many plains Indians became excellent horsemen. Most lived in tepees.

6 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, Some buffalo weighed up to 1,600 pounds and were 6 feet tall at the shoulder and 10 feet long. Indians used a variety of techniques to hunt buffalo.

7 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Comanche Migrated from Wyoming Hunters and gatherers Used the horse for their main source of transportation and food-getting “Well dressed” – The Comanche leaders often wore fine European clothes, with many silver conchos and fine leather boots.

8 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Comanche Lived in tee-pees Good warriors and traders (although, thieves) Often spoke more than one language Click here for more important facts

9 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, Comanche The Comanche lived in bands headed by a peace chief. If you were the best fighter and rider you were the war chief. The Comanche were skilled buffalo hunters. Because of the their skills they soon controlled much of the plains including west and northern Texas.

10 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Tonkawa Lived on the north-central plains and on the southeastern edge of the Edwards Plateau. They depended on the buffalo for food, clothing and shelter. They were considered hunter- gatherers. The Tonkawa were driven from their hunting grounds by the Apache.

11 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Tonkawa “The people of the wolf” –Believed descended from mythical wolf Totemic belief system –each clan had a mythical animal or spirit to guard them Click the picture or the wolf on the next slide for more information.

12 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Tonkawa Tattooed bodies Hill country of central Texas –Shared land with the Karankawa and Coahuiltecan Friendly, but enemies with Comanche and Apache tribes Hunted and gathered food –Fish, deer, blackberries Lived in huts, wickiups and tee- pees wickiups

13 Apache (Plains Group) Lived in the South Texas plains Got their food by hunting- ate buffalo Lived in teepees One chief led the tribe Nomads, made pottery, moved to reservation in early 1900’s Click on picture 13 Lipan Warrior

14 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Apache The Apache culture originated in Canada but migrated to the Great Plains. Two Apache groups settled in Texas. These are the Lipan and Mescalero. Apaches were organized into bands that traveled, hunted and fought together. The Apaches were skilled horsemen and often teamed up when hunting buffalo. Lipan Apaches were also farmers which was very unusual for Apaches.

15 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Apaches Migrated to Texas from Canada “Apache” is probably Zuni which means “enemy”Apache –The Apache and Navajo called themselves the Dine –Dine in Apache or Navajo means "the people” Built wickiups and teepees Semi-sedentary –Farmed and hunted

16 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, Most Lipan Apache men cut their hair very short on the left side but allowed the hair on the right to hang long. They tied feathers and other decorations to their hair. The men had no facial hair and the women wore earrings. Apaches were feared throughout Texas.

17 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Apaches Wore leather boots and wide cloth headbands After the horse, stopped farming to hunt Pushed further south by Comanche –Two groups: Lipan and Mescaleros Sought refuge in Spanish missions but treated like slaves Geronimo- famous leader of the Mescalero ApachesApaches –1870s- led a famous raid in southern New Mexico and far west Texas

18 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, Kiowa The Kiowa were the last plains group to arrive in Texas. They hunted buffalo, and gathered berries, fruits and nuts. They traded with other groups for what they did not have. The hair of the Kiowa men was long but over the right ear it was short. The Kiowa and the Comanche were allies.

19 Caddo (Plains Group) Lived in the coastal plains Got their food by farming-ate fruits, vegetables and grains Lived in Grass Huts made out of wooden frames and dry grasses Worked together as a confederacy Called “mound builders”, made pottery, moved to Oklahoma, Gave Texas its name Caddo Tribal Song click on picture 23 Jumano Tribe Tribute Click on shape

20 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Southeastern Culture Area Caddo-moved into Eastern Texas from Arkansas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. They built permanent villages and became expert farmers. They practiced crop rotation. The Caddo grew beans, corn, squash, sunflower seeds and tobacco. They organized their tribes into three confederacies. The Caddo built mounds and temples for religious events. In addition to a religious and political structure the Caddo had healers and craftspeople.

21 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Caddo Lived in piney areas of East Texas –Grass huts like the Wichitas Farmers –corn, beans, squash and other crops Set fires in the woods to burn away clearings to farm Women would gather wild plant food like acorns, black berries Men would travel in hunting parties for buffalo Buffalo robes

22 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Caddo was a matrilineal society. This means they traced their families through their mother’s side. Their houses were wooden poles covered with grass. Some may have plastered the outside walls with mud. Both men and women tattooed and painted their bodies.

23 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Caddo Texas is a Caddoan word –It means "those who are friends" –The Tejas Caddo tribes were all "friends” Made bows and arrows out of bois de arc wood Made axes to cut down trees Beautiful pottery Click the ax for more information

24 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Wichita Semisedentary lifestyle –farms and villages, but also moved around Fall would migrate west to go on a buffalo hunt In spring lived in grass huts in villages – grew maize, pumpkins, squash, beans and plums

25 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Wichita confederacy included four groups. They settled along the Red River. They lived along creeks and rivers. They grew beans, corn, melons and squash. The Wichita used horses to hunt buffalo and deer. They lived in permanent villages. Like the Caddo, the Wichita tattooed their bodies. Theirs was more extreme.

26 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Wichita Tattoos— “raccoon- eyed people” Wore clothes made of tanned hides Men: shirts, loin cloths and leggings Women: dresses that reached from their chin to their ankles Moccasins Elk teeth were very valuable –trade items with neighboring tribes Click the picture for more info

27 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, Atakapan -between the Caddo and the Gulf of Mexico lived the Atakapan people. They were farmers with corn being their main crop. Not only did they farm but they hunted wild game and alligator. Little is known about their houses but it is thought they lived in huts made from brush.

28 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, Lets Review! 1.Where is it thought that the first humans that came to America came from? 2.Where did the Comanche Indians live? The Wichita? The Caddo? 3.What kind of house did the Comanches live in? The Wichita? The Caddo? 4.Which Native Texans were hunter/ gatherers? 5.Which were farmers? 6.What does “Tejas” mean?

29 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Western Gulf Culture Area Karankawa -hunters and gatherers who lived in the area of Galveston to Corpus Christi. They were nomads. They used dug- out canoes to fish, hunt sea turtles and collect shells. They also hunted deer and small animals. They lived in wigwams.

30 Karankawa (Pueblo Group) Lived in the coastal plains near the Gulf Got their food by fishing-ate fish, shellfish, and small animals Lived in Wood Framed Homes with woven grass walls Had appointed chiefs to lead villages Nomads, made dugout canoes, died out from European diseases Click on picture 30

31 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Karankawa did not need much clothing. Their clothes were made out of deerskin or grass. They painted themselves with bright colors. To keep the insects away they rubbed alligator fat and dirt into their skin. The Karankawa treated their children with kindness. They gave their children two names, one of which only their family knew.

32 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Karankawa Galveston and Corpus Christi area Food= fish, fish, fish! Clothing –Men: breach cloths or nothing at all –Women: grass skirts Lived in wickiups during the winter Got around in canoes –Could hold a family and all their possessions

33 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Karankawa Larger than most Native Americans at 6’ Often unfairly labeled as cannibals Click on the fish for more information on the Karankawa culture

34 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, Coahuiltecan -hunted and gathered food in south Texas. They were nomadic and covered large distances following buffalo, deer and small animals. The Coahuiltecan also fished and hunted for wild plants. Their diets included ants, eggs, lizards, snakes, spiders and worms. They did not build permanent homes. Both men and women wore their hair long. They worked hard but they like to gather for feasting and dancing.

35 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Coahuiltecan Many similar groups of Indians in the same area –called the Coahuiltican Indians out of convenience South Texas, Eastern Mexico Hunters and gatherers until people started to come to America “Dirty and smelly” –Diseases –Became extremely poor

36 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Coahuiltecan Wickiups, sometimes Little clothing, if any Made sandles out of lechuguilla plants Click the cactus for more info.

37 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, The Pueblo Culture Area Jumano-made permanent houses made of adobe. The Jumano lived along the Rio Grande River. They were able to grow corn and other crops because they settled near the river. They also hunted buffalo and gathered wild plants for food. The Jumano lived in large villages. They used bows and arrows and carried heavy clubs into battles.

38 Jumano (Pueblo Group) Lived in the mountains near the Rio Grande River Got their food by farming-ate dried corn, squash and beans Lived in Adobe Pueblos Each village had a leader with its own government Cooked using a hollow gourd, traded with other tribes Click on picture 38

39 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, Jumano West Texas Farmers –grew corn, beans and squash –grew cotton for clothes and blankets Adobe houses

40 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, Jumano Clean and neat Men shaved their heads except for at the top Traders Supposedly naked except for when it was cold- wore blankets

41 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, Lets Review! 1.What did the Tonkawa Indians call themselves? 2.Which Native Texans lived in adobe houses? 3.How did the Karankawa clans get around? 4.Why were the Coahuiltecan clans “dirty and “smelly”? 5.What was Geronimo’s Indian heritage? 6.What type of homes did the Tonkawa, Apache, Karankawa, Coahuiltecan, and Jumano Indians live in?

42 Moore, Edward R & Texarch Assoc., Texas Indians, Before you go to the next slide, see if you can remember where these Native Texans lived! When you get to the next slide, try to guess the names in order before you click.

43 Comanche Caddo

44 American Indians in Texas American Indians are the ancestors of our country and our state. What can we take away from their lives to apply to our own? Think about it! Click on picture 44


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