Presentation on theme: "China. Where is China in the world? What continent is China on? Which ocean borders China? Which countries border China?"— Presentation transcript:
Where is China in the world? What continent is China on? Which ocean borders China? Which countries border China?
In ancient times… China was isolated from the rest of the world. Why?
Himalaya Mountains (India) Barren plains (west) Pacific Ocean (east) If you were going to settle in China where do you think the best place would be to settle? (Think of where other societies have first settled)
Importance of rivers… Huang Ho – “Yellow River” Yellow silt Very fertile when irrigated Was carried onto fields when the rivers flooded Chang Jiang – “Long River” Cuts deep gorges through mountains Served as transportation route Water, drinking, washing, irrigation
Unpredictability of floods: Egyptian people would experience floods once a year (the Nile) Chinese had to deal with floods unexpectedly with summer rains Dams, canals, and irrigation systems to control water flow
Discovery of the Shang Dynasty “Dragon bones” Writing Used in Medicine Later discovered as Dinosaurs In search for dragon bones found a settlement that was believed to be the capital of the Shang dynasty
Development of Writing
Shang dynasty was earliest dynasty in China to communicate with writing 4500 characters have been found Approx can be translated to current characters Bones told stories about past rulers Historians believe Drawings of owned objects Pictographs Later written language was standardized so that all Chinese people could understand
Make your own pictographs Create and draw at least four pictographs for four different words on the back of your handout. Then create at least two new words/pictographs by combining two of your original pictographs. Do not label your combined pictographs and trade papers with someone else. See if they can guess what word you are displaying in your combined pictographs.
Learn Mandarin! Learn Mandarin!
Government Shang territory was ruled by a king all decisions made by him believed to rule by the mandate of heaven or divine right (descendant of Shang Ti) Supreme God Shang Ti, sun and moon guided all kings decisions
Decisions were also made using oracle bones Piece of ox bone or tortoise shell would be written on, then heated, causing the bone to crack The cracks on the bone were read by the king and could be read as yes, no, lucky, or unlucky If king was irresponsible nobles would withdraw their support
Social Organization King: Was also the religious leader Nobles: Were the warrior leaders Commoners: Craftspeople Created very fine bronze work and delicate carvings from marble and jade Made weapons, tools, jewellery, and pottery Weavers made fine silk cloth that the nobles wore
Merchants: Used rice or cowrie shells to pay for goods and services Metal coins invented in 5 th c. BCE. First coins were long, thin and shaped like knives Later coins were round with a hole punched in the middle, was strung around belt or string around neck
Farmers: Largest group in society Grew food for all members of society Often poorly treated, rented land from nobles, did not own it At times of war became soldiers for king Had to work on buildings of the kingdom **Building a new capital city took 10,000 men 20 years to build**
Slaves: Also worked on kings buildings Owned by noblemen and kings Prisoners of war, working under the threat of death Used as human sacrifices and buried in king’s tomb or within the foundation of a building as it was being built
Create your own unique representation of the Shang hierarchy. Include all five levels within the society and use pictures or symbols to represent each group. You must also label each section. /10 (5 marks for representing each area, 2 marks for creativity, 2 marks for neatness and 1 mark for it being on time (handed in tomorrow).
Religious Beliefs Believed in the spirit world and an afterlife Worshipped deities Most important god- Tien Practiced ancestral worship (see video) Filial piety- younger family members were respectful of elder members of the family and community
Commoners did not believe in same gods as the nobles worshipped gods that controlled the earth and crops People consulted sorcerers (also known as a wu) provided spells to protect people from evil spirits could also provide the help of friendly spirits could also work magic on nature (e.x. wu danced under sun until he/she began to sweat. Sweat of the wu was supposed to bring on badly needed rain for crops)
The Burial of the King When a ruler died a pit was dug with ramps leading downwards (see page 112 in text) Accompanied in death by all things he may need in the afterlife (weapons, ornaments, bronze ceremonial vessels, horses, chariots, and dogs) Humans were sacrificed so they could continue to serve the ruler **In one tomb 247 servants were found**
The Military Shang military often involved in battles with people living along the Chang Jiang River (see page 105) Nobles were the warriors and led the armies Armed with bronze axes and daggers Rode into battle on chariots Troops were farmers and were called to serve whenever king needed them Foot soldiers fought at close range using spears and knives Military leaders were not always men
Noblewoman- Lady Hao, was the third wife of the last Shang ruler waged several military campaigns When she died, she was buried in a large tomb surrounded by treasures of bronze and jade
What they ate: Millet- kind of cereal, barley and wheat were also grown (also grown by Egypt) Peasants grew beans and many other vegetables in their own gardens Ate fish from rivers- carp Hunted animals such as deer and bears Used onions and garlic to add flavor Domesticated pigs, goats, sheep, water buffalo, an some fowl similar to chickens
Often experienced famine or starvation due to droughts or flooding Sometimes impossible to produce food Had to turn to whatever they could find Included insects which eventually became a part of their diet Used chopsticks for eating Food was usually boiled, steamed, or stir fried
Tea People from China have been drinking tea for centuries (so have people from India and Japan) According to Chinese mythology an ancient emperor was sitting beneath a wild tea tree while his servant was boiling the drinking water. A leaf fell into the water and the emperor decided to have a taste. Was originally very bitter, used for digestive problems Later people began adding flavourings like ginger or orange By the T’ang dynasty tea was China’s national drink Became a valuable trading product (English)
What They Wore Made clothing from animal skins (like many other cultures) Men - long, belted tunics with a jacket over top - style was same throughout classes - type of fabric and amount/type of decoration displayed social ranking Women- plain jackets and belted skirts over simple tunic dresses Peasants- wore similar styles to nobility but was made out of rougher materials (hemp or banana leaf)
Wool is used as padding in outerwear and was woven into thick fabrics People that worked in the fields had to adapt their clothing so they could work Also used hats or kerchiefs on their head until more elaborate hairstyles became popular Men wore hair in a heavy roll with a short pig tail hanging down the back
Women’s hairstyles were more elaborate Held in place with jade, bone, and ivory combs or hairpins Women also wore necklaces and pendants shaped like birds-phoenix or hawk or animals- like a tiger or an elephant Peasants wore straw sandals Wealthy wore fine cloth slippers
Silk Sericulture originated in China in about 5000 and became an important art and industry For centuries only the ruler and his close family could wear silk Eventually other members of society wore silk Was also used for strings on instruments, fishing line, and bowstring Highly valued- during Han dynasty silk was worth as much as gold Became sought after item by 1000 BCE and was very important to the economy- those who revealed the secrets of sericulture were punished to death
“Silk Road”- route taken by traders going to and from China (and India) to trade silk and many other products (mainly silk and porcelain) Very difficult route as traders faced storms, robbers, famine, dying animals, and hostile rulers So why make the journey? Traders could make 100 to 1000 times what they paid by selling the silk they bought
Housing Commoners lived in homes made from wooden pillars, walls made of twigs plastered with clay, and thatched roofs Homes were built around a central courtyard with some homes built on parallel streets In the winter farmers lived in small villages in simple one- room huts with dirt floors, mud walls, and thatched roofs In the summer farmers moved to their fields where they lived in bamboo huts Many Shang cities had earth walls built around them to protect them from attack
The Fall of the Shang Dynasty Dynasty ruled for more than five centuries Last Shang ruler had a cruel wife - Ta Chi who was known for the torture she inflicted on those who did not show her proper respect People began to revolt due to the poor treatment and it has been said that the king set fire to his palace and committed suicide
The First Emperor of China Qin Shi Huang Di (CHIN- shih- hwong- dee) had longest lasting effect on China because of the changes he made Rule from 221 BCE- 206 BCE, beginning when he was 13 yrs old He unified the country and declared himself the first emperor of China China was named after his dynasty Ch’in He set standards for writing, weights and measures, money, and law and the entire country abided by these rules
Most of the emperor’s rules worked well to unify the country but people feared him He did not support the teachings of Confucius and he burned many books as well as people who supported Confucianism If a man disagreed with an emperor he was killed and so was his family Who was Confucius? What did he believe/preach? Why do you think Qin Shi Huang Di did not approve of his ideas?
Confucius Spoke of a philosophy of living that involved doing what was best for everyone not just yourself (very similar to Golden Rule) Confucianism involved strong family loyalty, ancestor worship, and respect for elders. Supported idea of powerful emperor but wanted to lessen the emperor’s power to encourage people to be honest and tp believe that change was possible Many rulers did not approve of Confucius’ ideas so he was not welcome in many areas in China When he died many people started to follow his teachings, creating temples in his name
Contributions of Qin Shi Huang Di Qin Shi Huang Di had many things built during his reign: Grand Canal, Great Wall, and the Terra Cotta Soldiers of Xi’an
The Grand Canal Worlds largest and oldest human made canal system 1795 km long and has 60 bridges Took approximately 100 years to build Runs from Hangzhou, southwest of Shanghai, north to Tianjin and then to Beijing Runs along the most fertile and heavily populated areas Was used as a transportation route for trade and goods unifying the country Still serves as a transportation for goods today
The Great Wall One of the few objects that can be seen from space One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World UNESCO World Heritage Site Chinese say it looks like a giant dragon as it winds across deserts, mountains, and grasslands, stretching approximately 6700 km from East to West Walls are about 12 m high Hundreds of watchtowers
Built more than 2000 years ago so some parts are ruins Giant defense project All rival kings had built walls around their territories but when Qin Shi Huang Di unified China these walls were joined to form one Took about a million people to build (out of a population of 5 million) Many workers died and are enclosed within the wall
Terra Cotta Soldiers of Xi’an Discovered in 1974 when farmers were trying to sink a well Bronze weapons and pieces of terra cotta were the first things found 2000 life size statues of soldiers have been found Also found life size statues of horses, chariots, wagons, and lots of weapons (bows, arrows, and spears) All of these were part of the burial grounds of Qin Shi Huang Di
Underground pit was full of statues of people and animals to go to the next life with him Burial ground employed at least 720,000 people and took about 39 years to build Many laborers died during the building of the tomb It has also been said that many were killed when the project was finished so they would not be able to come back and rob the tomb
Contributions China Has Made to the World! Paper Enabled them to keep records of the property they owned and communicate ideas Before paper and printing was invented pictographs were written on silk cloth Eventually it was found that old rags, hemp, and tree bark could be made into paper Starch was added to make paper stronger Egyptians started using Chinese paper in the 9 th c.
Printing Used pear or jujube wood and cut the wood to the size of two book pages Carved the design into the wood so that the area that was to be printed was raised Printer brushed wood with ink on the characters then pressed onto a piece of paper
Porcelain Invented during the T’ang dynasty Added a mineral called feldspar to the clay which made the finished product a lot stronger Used today in expensive dishes called china, and in industrial products such as electrical insulators
Gunpowder and Fireworks Gunpowder was initially used as entertainment in the form of fireworks In the 7 th c. the Chinese had learned to combine potassium nitrate with charcoal to make an explosive Did not use technique for war until 11 th c. The Europeans were not aware of this invention until the 1300’s
“Fun” Fact for the Day! Footbinding Was a custom applied to girls of the wealthy class Involved binding strips of linen around very young girls’ feet causing the feet to become crescent or lotus- shaped Tiny bound feet were a sing of beauty and reminded women that they were not free Mothers began binding feet at 3yrs old Goal was to have feet shorter than 10 cm 1 st toe was usually broken Women with bound feet were often unable to work More popular in the north than in the south because wet rice fields in south