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1 Native Americans InuitKwakiutlPuebloLakotaIroquois

2 First Americans Arrive on the Continent For many years, archaeologists thought that people arrived approximately 11,500 years ago. They believed that the first Americans came from Asia over a strip of land called Beringia that once connected Asia and North America. For many years, archaeologists thought that people arrived approximately 11,500 years ago. They believed that the first Americans came from Asia over a strip of land called Beringia that once connected Asia and North America.

3 Cactus Hill Archaeologists have recently found artifacts at Cactus Hill, a site which is about 45 miles south of Richmond, Virginia, on the Nottoway River in southeast Virginia. These artifacts are about 18,000 years old. Now some scientists believe that the first people who reached North America came by boat from Europe, perhaps following a route from Iceland to Greenland to Canada, perhaps coming to the Caribbean first.

4 Recent excavations at a number of sites have provided new evidence and raised new questions about when people first came to the Americas. Stone artifacts, charcoal, and soil, plant and animal remains point to human habitation at Cactus Hill at least 18,000 years ago, during the late Ice Age. It may be that there was no single "First American". The Americas might have been populated as far back as 30, ,000 years ago by diverse people from several continents. Scientists continue to study and argue these points. They don’t agree.

5 ewev_700kW.html ewev_700kW.html Video: First people in the Americas & Cactus Hill ewev_700kW.html

6 Many Native American Nations Many Native American cultures grew, developed and even disappeared in the 12,000 years from the last Ice Age until the present. By the year 1400 AD more than 300 different nations were living in North America. They spoke different languages, lived in different types of homes and had different cultures. Many Native American cultures grew, developed and even disappeared in the 12,000 years from the last Ice Age until the present. By the year 1400 AD more than 300 different nations were living in North America. They spoke different languages, lived in different types of homes and had different cultures. Each tribe or clan adapted to their environment and used the available resources for survival. Each tribe or clan adapted to their environment and used the available resources for survival.

7 Inuit The Inuit inhabited present-day Alaska, Greenland, and northern Canada The Inuit inhabited present-day Alaska, Greenland, and northern Canada They lived in Arctic areas where the temperature is below freezing most of the time. They lived in Arctic areas where the temperature is below freezing most of the time. There were few plants There were few plants and some areas were and some areas were very dry as well as cold. very dry as well as cold.

8 Inuit tribes of Canada Inuit tribes of Canada The Inuit live primarily along the far northern seacoasts of Russia, the United States, Canada, and Greenland. There are more than 100,000 Inuit, most of whom live south of the Arctic Circle. The majority, about 46,000, live in Greenland. There are approximately 30,000 on the Aleutian Islands and in Alaska, 25,000 in Canada, and 1,500 in Siberia.

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10 The Inuit homeland is in one of the world’s regions least hospitable to human habitation. Most of the land is flat, barren tundra where only the top few inches of the frozen earth thaw out during the summer months. The majority of Inuit have always lived near the sea, hunting aquatic mammals such as seals, walrus, and whales.

11 Inuit Hunting Inuit Hunting Inuit people met nearly all their basic needs with materials they obtained through hunting and fishing. That is how they got their food, their clothing and much of their shelter.

12 Inuit Food The Inuit live in a very harsh environment, one in which survival is quite challenging. Few plants grow where they live so most of their food comes from the sea or from hunting. The Inuit live in a very harsh environment, one in which survival is quite challenging. Few plants grow where they live so most of their food comes from the sea or from hunting. Food taken from the sea include seal, fish, whale, and walrus. Food taken from the sea include seal, fish, whale, and walrus. The Inuit hunt polar bear, caribou, musk ox and small game like the Arctic hare The Inuit hunt polar bear, caribou, musk ox and small game like the Arctic hare

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15 Inuit Clothing Seal, polar bear, caribou skin and fur Seal, polar bear, caribou skin and fur Inner and outer clothing Inner and outer clothing Jackets, mittens, trousers, boots Jackets, mittens, trousers, boots

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17 Inuit Shelter (Housing) Sod huts, often partly underground or with underground rooms Sod huts, often partly underground or with underground rooms Skin Tents Skin Tents Igloo Igloo

18 In the winter many Inuit lived in sod homes. They would dig a hole in the ground and pile rocks and sod all around the outside to make walls. Pieces of wood or whalebone were used as a frame for the roof, which the Inuit then covered with sod. In both the tents and the sod houses the Inuit built raised platforms at the back for sleeping.

19 Inuit Sod Hut

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21 The Inuit are famous for their igloos. An igloo is built of blocks of snow shaped into a dome. They were mostly used as temporary shelter during winter hunting trips. The igloo is the one of the Inuit's best inventions. It is warm and easy to construct. A skilled worker can build an igloo in only an hour or two.

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24 Inuit Transportation Transportaion on land was accomplished on foot with sled dogs carrying loads. Transportaion on land was accomplished on foot with sled dogs carrying loads. Transportation on the water was done by kayak and umiak. Transportation on the water was done by kayak and umiak.

25 Traditional Umiaks were paddle craft. The open umiak is significantly larger than the enclosed kayak which was built to carry one or two men while hunting. A large umiak is 6 to 10 meters long and can hold more than 20 people. About seven skins are needed for the cover on a boat of 30 foot (9.1 meter). It has traditionally been used in summer to move people and possessions to seasonal hunting grounds and for hunting whales and walrus.whaleswalrus

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27 Men race in a umiak in Nome, Alaska.

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30 Roles of Men and Women Men hunted, fished, and made tools and houses. Men hunted, fished, and made tools and houses. Women cooked, prepared food, sewed animal skins into clothes and shoes and raised children. Women cooked, prepared food, sewed animal skins into clothes and shoes and raised children.

31 Art and Music The Inuit made beautiful carvings of ivory, soapstone and bone. The Inuit made beautiful carvings of ivory, soapstone and bone. Scrimshaw is a special type of carving on ivory that has darkened crevices. Scrimshaw is a special type of carving on ivory that has darkened crevices.

32 These pieces were often small and easily portable. Why?

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34 1949 Inuit Hunting 1949 Inuit Hunting Inuit Video How to build an igloo - A Boy Among Polar Bears - BBC Following his father's footsteps - A Boy Among Polar Bears - BBC At the snow edge - A Boy Among Polar Bears – BBC Catching Fish for the Winter Inuit Tribe

35 Most Inuit today have settled in villages and live in houses. Many have access to modern technology, however many continue to keep some of the old customs and are proud of the culture of their people.

36 Kwakiutl Homeland is along the Pacific Northwest coast Homeland is along the Pacific Northwest coast Rainy, mild climate Rainy, mild climate

37 The Kwakiutl is a group of Indian tribes living along the Pacific Northwest coast in an area where Kwakiutl have lived for 8,000 years. Food is plentiful in their mild, rainy homeland. They are hunter/ gatherers and get most of their food from the oceans and rivers. oceans and rivers. Their culture is recognized for their artistic totem poles and ritualistic masks.

38 Kwakiutl Food Food is plentiful in the area where the Kwakiutl live. They are hunters and gatherers. Salmon Caribou Shellfish Fish Deer & ElkBear RootsBerries NutsTrade

39 Traditional Kwakiutl Clothing Woven Cedar Bark Woven Cedar Bark Animal Skins Animal Skins

40 Potlatch 1

41 Kwakiutl Shelter (Housing) Plank Houses are made of cedar.

42 Kwakiutl Transportation Dugout canoes made of Cedar Dugout canoes made of Cedar

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45 War Canoes Kwakiutl men used large trunks of cedar trees, burned and dug out the center and made canoes. Some canoes were used by a few people, but the Kwakiutl also built large canoes to follow the path of migrating fish and animals during different seasons of the year. These large canoes, sometimes up to 60 feet long, were used to go far into the ocean. They were callled “war” canoes Kwakiutl men used large trunks of cedar trees, burned and dug out the center and made canoes. Some canoes were used by a few people, but the Kwakiutl also built large canoes to follow the path of migrating fish and animals during different seasons of the year. These large canoes, sometimes up to 60 feet long, were used to go far into the ocean. They were callled “war” canoes

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47 Potlatch Throughout native North America, gift giving is a central feature of social life. In the Pacific Northwest, this tradition is known as the potlatch. Within the tribal groups of these areas, individuals hosting a potlatch give away much, if not all, of their wealth and material goods to show goodwill to the rest of the tribal members and to maintain their social status. Later they go to another potlatch and receive gifts. Participation shows status. Throughout native North America, gift giving is a central feature of social life. In the Pacific Northwest, this tradition is known as the potlatch. Within the tribal groups of these areas, individuals hosting a potlatch give away much, if not all, of their wealth and material goods to show goodwill to the rest of the tribal members and to maintain their social status. Later they go to another potlatch and receive gifts. Participation shows status.

48 Kwakiutl Role of Man and Woman Men hunted, fished, traded, built houses and canoes. Men became incredible carvers and artists. Men hunted, fished, traded, built houses and canoes. Men became incredible carvers and artists. Women gathered food, wove cedar, and raised children. Women gathered food, wove cedar, and raised children.

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51 Kwakiutl Art Because food sources were plentiful, the Kwakiutl culture valued art and clans devoted time to art projects like: Because food sources were plentiful, the Kwakiutl culture valued art and clans devoted time to art projects like: Masks Masks Totem Poles Totem Poles Carvings Carvings

52 The totem pole was an artistic way of representing a family’s history, social standing and important events in a chief or noble's life. feature=related

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55 Pueblo Pueblo tribes inhabited the Southwest in present- day New Mexico and Arizona Pueblo tribes inhabited the Southwest in present- day New Mexico and Arizona They lived in desert areas with little rain and in areas bordering cliffs and mountains They lived in desert areas with little rain and in areas bordering cliffs and mountains

56 The Pueblo are natives of the Southwest deserts, particularly New Mexico. (The Hopi live in Arizona, while the Ysleta del Sur Tigua live in Texas.) Unlike many other Native American tribes, the Pueblo Indians were never forced to leave their homelands and many are still living there today. New MexicoArizonaTexasNew MexicoArizonaTexas

57 Pueblo Shelter The homes of the Pueblo people were called Pueblos. They were made of stone and adobe (mud bricks) The homes of the Pueblo people were called Pueblos. They were made of stone and adobe (mud bricks) Often they had Often they had many levels many levels Many families and Many families and groups were groups were cliff dwellers; cliff dwellers; Pueblos were Pueblos were designed for designed for protection from enemies.

58 Pueblo people lived in adobe houses known as pueblos, which are multi-story house complexes made of adobe (clay and straw baked into hard bricks) and stone. Each adobe unit was home to one family, like a modern apartment. Pueblo people used ladders to reach the upstairs apartments. A Pueblo adobe house can contain dozens of units and was often home to an entire extended clan.

59 Pueblo Village tour Pueblo Village tour

60 Unlike most old-fashioned Indian shelters, traditional Pueblo houses are still used by many people today. In fact, some Pueblo people have been living in the same adobe house complex, such as Sky City, for dozens of generations. Other Pueblo families now live in modern houses or apartment buildings, just like you. Why are Pueblo built on high ground? Why are Pueblo built on high ground?

61 Pueblo Food Pueblo people were Pueblo people were farmers, even though farmers, even though they lived in the in the they lived in the in the basin and range region. basin and range region. They lived in a very They lived in a very dry area and irrigated dry area and irrigated their crops during drought They grew corn, beans, and squash. They grew corn, beans, and squash. They hunted rabbit and antelope and made stew They hunted rabbit and antelope and made stew These farmers also grew cotton – used for weaving These farmers also grew cotton – used for weaving

62 Pueblo Clothing Pueblo men grew cotton and used it for weaving clothes and other fabric Pueblo men grew cotton and used it for weaving clothes and other fabric Their woven cotton is famous Their woven cotton is famous Animal skins (rabbit) were also used for clothing Animal skins (rabbit) were also used for clothing

63 Because they lived in a hot, dry area, often Pueblo men didn't wear much clothing-- only breechcloths or short kilts. Pueblo women wore knee-length cotton dresses called mantas. A manta fastened at a woman's right shoulder, leaving her left shoulder bare. breechcloths Men and women both wore deerskin moccasins on their feet. For dances and special occasions, women painted their moccasins white and wrapped white strips of deerskin called puttee around their shins as leggings. deerskin moccasinsdeerskin moccasins

64 Pueblo Transportation Pueblo nearly always traveled by foot, walking or running. Pueblos used dogs pulling a travois (a kind of drag sled) to help them carry heavy loads. Pueblo nearly always traveled by foot, walking or running. Pueblos used dogs pulling a travois (a kind of drag sled) to help them carry heavy loads.

65 Travois Pulled by a dog (amaetur video)

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68 Pueblo Art, Music and Storytelling Pottery, Baskets and Kachinas

69 There are lots of traditional Pueblo legends and fairy tales. Storytelling is very important in the Pueblo culture. Pueblo artists are famous for their beautiful pottery and heishi jewelry. They also made stone carvings, baskets, and colorful weavings. All of these art forms are still flourishing today. Here is a good site on the art of Pueblo pottery. potteryheishi jewelrystone carvingsbasketsweavingsart of Pueblo pottery heishi jewelrystone carvingsbasketsweavingsart of Pueblo pottery Pueblo pottery Pueblo pottery

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72 Pueblo baskets

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74 Pueblo Roles of Man and Woman Men farmed, hunted, made tools, gathered cotton and wove it into clothing. Men farmed, hunted, made tools, gathered cotton and wove it into clothing. Men also built the pueblos. Men also built the pueblos. Women ground corn, prepared food and taught children. Women ground corn, prepared food and taught children. Women wove baskets Women wove baskets and made beautiful and distintive pottery.

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76 Pueblo is a Spanish word that means “village” The Pueblo nation includes the Tewa, Hopi and Zuni tribes. They are the descendents of the Anasazi – the Ancient Ones – who built the great adobe cities in the Southwest. Around 750 a huge city was built by the Anasazi in what is now New Mexico. What happened to that city? It was abandoned. Perhaps climate changes in the 1300’s and long periods without rain forced the people to move away. The Pueblo nation includes the Tewa, Hopi and Zuni tribes. They are the descendents of the Anasazi – the Ancient Ones – who built the great adobe cities in the Southwest. Around 750 a huge city was built by the Anasazi in what is now New Mexico. What happened to that city? It was abandoned. Perhaps climate changes in the 1300’s and long periods without rain forced the people to move away.

77 Some Pueblo people still live traditional lives in the American Southwest. Many of them still farm, weave baskets, make beautiful rugs, silver jewelry and fine pottery. Some of their homes, like the Taos Pueblo in New Mexico, were built about 1,000 years ago. Some Pueblo people still live traditional lives in the American Southwest. Many of them still farm, weave baskets, make beautiful rugs, silver jewelry and fine pottery. Some of their homes, like the Taos Pueblo in New Mexico, were built about 1,000 years ago. The Pueblo live along side the Navajo in Arizona, Utah and New Mexico. The Navajo and the Pueblo are alike in many ways. The Pueblo live along side the Navajo in Arizona, Utah and New Mexico. The Navajo and the Pueblo are alike in many ways.

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79 Lakota Lakota people lived in the Great Plains, an area characterized by dry grasslands. Lakota people lived in the Great Plains, an area characterized by dry grasslands.

80 What is the difference between the Lakota, the Dakota and the Sioux? There is no real difference. "Lakota" and "Dakota" are different pronunciations of the same tribal name, which means "the allies.“ "Sioux," on the other hand, is not a Lakota name. It comes from the Ojibway name for the tribe, which means "little snakes." Many Lakotas use the word Sioux to refer to themselves when they're speaking English, however. Most prefer the name Lakota. Ojibway

81 Lakota Food Lakota Women Speak about the Buffalo Lakota Women Speak about the Buffalo Lakota Women Speak about the Buffalo Lakota depended on the buffalo (bison) for everything, including food. Lakota depended on the buffalo (bison) for everything, including food. The Lakota were nomadic — they followed herds of buffalo The Lakota were nomadic — they followed herds of buffalo They also hunted elk, antelope and other animals. They also hunted elk, antelope and other animals. The Lakota are hunter-gatherers.

82 The Lakota Way 1The Lakota Way 1 Lakota Song Lakota Song

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84 Lakota Clothing Lakota clothing was mostly made of buffalo hides and deer skin; it was very decorated and sewn with sinew (animal tendon) Lakota clothing was mostly made of buffalo hides and deer skin; it was very decorated and sewn with sinew (animal tendon)

85 Lakota warriors and chiefs were well-known for their impressive feathered warbonnets, but they didn't wear them in everyday life; they were for special occasions. Each feather in the war bonnet was earned through some act of bravery. Only the greatest chiefs had a long headdress. Both Lakota men and women wore their hair long, cutting it only when they were in mourning. impressive feathered warbonnetsimpressive feathered warbonnets

86 Lakota Shelter Lakota tepees were made of buffalo hides. Lakota tepees were made of buffalo hides. Teepees could be taken down and moved to a new location as the tribe followed the buffalo herds. Teepees could be taken down and moved to a new location as the tribe followed the buffalo herds. The Lakota were nomads and needed portable shelter. The Lakota were nomads and needed portable shelter.

87 Lakota Transportation Lakota transportation changed after Spanish brought horses to North America. Lakota transportation changed after Spanish brought horses to North America. Dogs and horses pulled a travois (type of sled) Dogs and horses pulled a travois (type of sled)

88 Photos & Music: Plains Indians and Horses Photos & Music: Plains Indians and Horses Plains Indians Plains Indians

89 The Lakota Indians of the northern plains have been called a “horse nation” because they have strong ties, culturally and historically, with the animals. The Lakota originally lived by the Great Lakes. The establishment of settlements caused them to migrate west from the Great Lakes region. They later called themselves the Lakota, and were also called Sioux. They were introduced to horse culture by the Cheyenne.Great LakesCheyenne After their adoption of the horse, their society centered on the buffalo hunt with the horse.horsebuffalo

90 Lakota Role of Man and Woman Women made tepees and butchered buffalo Women made tepees and butchered buffalo Women cooked and cared for children Women cooked and cared for children Men hunted and protected the tribe Men hunted and protected the tribe

91 Lakota Art and Music Lakota decorated their clothing and headdresses with beads, feathers, bones and sinew. Lakota decorated their clothing and headdresses with beads, feathers, bones and sinew. Drums and pipes were played Drums and pipes were played

92 Lakota baskets were utilitarian in design. They were small bowl-like containers, usually lidded and intended to store dried berries, herbs, medicines and powders. Made of dried pine needles stitched together by sinew from deer or bison, baskets were left flexible and porous or were coated with pitch to make them waterproof. Lakota baskets were utilitarian in design. They were small bowl-like containers, usually lidded and intended to store dried berries, herbs, medicines and powders. Made of dried pine needles stitched together by sinew from deer or bison, baskets were left flexible and porous or were coated with pitch to make them waterproof.

93 Lakota basket

94 The Lakota weren’t the only people living in the Great Plains. The Lakota weren’t the only people living in the Great Plains. There were Cheyenne, Arapaho, Blackfeet, Comanche and Pawnee. All had many things in common, but one of the biggest was the importance of the buffalo. There were Cheyenne, Arapaho, Blackfeet, Comanche and Pawnee. All had many things in common, but one of the biggest was the importance of the buffalo. The Plains Indians depended on these huge shaggy beasts for almost everything. The Plains Indians depended on these huge shaggy beasts for almost everything. Buffalo Hunt: Dances With Wolves Buffalo Hunt: Dances With Wolves

95 The bison provided meat, leather, sinew for bows, grease, dried dung for fires, and even the hooves could be boiled for glue. When times were bad, bison were consumed down to the last bit of marrow. marrow

96 Buffalo Hunt - photos

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100 The Iroquois People

101 The Iroquois homeland is in northeast United States, the Eastern Woodland. This region is heavily forested and gets plenty of rain and snow.

102 The Iroquois nation was in the area that is now New York.

103 Iroquois Indians Iroquois Indians Iroquois Indians : History

104 Iroquios The Iroquois Indians originally lived near Lake Ontario and along the Mohawk River in New York State. The Iroquois Indians originally lived near Lake Ontario and along the Mohawk River in New York State. Five tribes, the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas, banded together to form a confederacy, the Iroquios Nation. Later a sixth tribe, the Tuscarora, joined. Five tribes, the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas, banded together to form a confederacy, the Iroquios Nation. Later a sixth tribe, the Tuscarora, joined.

105 The Iroquois confederacy created the Great Law of Peace which explained how to settle diputes. It brought peace and prosperity to the Iroquois for hundreds of years. That peace was shattered when settlers came from Europe.

106 Iroquois Shelter The Iroquois live in longhouses made of wood, bark, animal skins. The Iroquois live in longhouses made of wood, bark, animal skins. They are up to 100 feet long and four or five families shared one longhouse. They are up to 100 feet long and four or five families shared one longhouse. There was a shared fire in the center for cooking– sometimes There was a shared fire in the center for cooking– sometimes a row of center fires a row of center fires and a hole in ceiling and a hole in ceiling for smoke to escape. for smoke to escape.

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108 The Iroquois lived in villages protected by fences of sharpened logs.

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110 Iroquois Food The Iroquois were farmers. They grew corn, squash, beans, which they called the three sisters. They also grew pumpkins. The Iroquois were farmers. They grew corn, squash, beans, which they called the three sisters. They also grew pumpkins. The Iroquois were also hunter/gatherers, often collecting nuts, berries and wild roots for food. The Iroquois were also hunter/gatherers, often collecting nuts, berries and wild roots for food. They also fished, often using canoes. They also fished, often using canoes. They hunted deer, bear, small game like rabbits, squirrels, and turkeys. They hunted deer, bear, small game like rabbits, squirrels, and turkeys.

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112 Iroquois Clothing Most Iroquois clothing was made from deerskin. Most Iroquois clothing was made from deerskin. They needed warm clothing for the cold winters in the northeast. They needed warm clothing for the cold winters in the northeast. They wore long fringed They wore long fringed skirts, breech cloths, skirts, breech cloths, moccasins, leggings. moccasins, leggings. Clothing was often decorated with beads, feathers and sinew. feathers and sinew.

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114 The Iroquois Indians used the pelts of animals for their clothing. In the winter, the men wore shirts, leggings, and moccasins made of buckskin, made from the skins of animals, mainly deer. The Iroquois Indians used the pelts of animals for their clothing. In the winter, the men wore shirts, leggings, and moccasins made of buckskin, made from the skins of animals, mainly deer. The women wore skirts they had woven from the wild grasses, covered with furs, with leggings underneath. The women wore skirts they had woven from the wild grasses, covered with furs, with leggings underneath. In the summer, the men wore a breechcloth, a short piece of buckskin that hung from the front to the back. In the summer, the men wore a breechcloth, a short piece of buckskin that hung from the front to the back. The women wore their grass dresses, and the children wore nothing at all in the summer. The women wore their grass dresses, and the children wore nothing at all in the summer.

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116 Iroquois Transportation Iroquois made canoes covered with waterproof elm or birch bark. Iroquois made canoes covered with waterproof elm or birch bark.

117 Role of Man and Woman Women were the head of the family and owned the land. Women were the head of the family and owned the land. Women held a powerful position in the Iroquois tribe. They owned longhouses, controlled the land, and chose the chief. When a man married, he lived moved to the longhouse of his wife and lived with his wife's clan. Women held a powerful position in the Iroquois tribe. They owned longhouses, controlled the land, and chose the chief. When a man married, he lived moved to the longhouse of his wife and lived with his wife's clan. Children belonged to their mother's clan. Children belonged to their mother's clan. Men were hunters and fishers and built the longhouses. They also made canoes and tools. They protected the family and clan. Men were hunters and fishers and built the longhouses. They also made canoes and tools. They protected the family and clan.

118 Iroquois Women While Iroquois sachems (chiefs-leaders) were men, women nominated them for their leadership positions and made sure they fulfilled their responsibilities While Iroquois sachems (chiefs-leaders) were men, women nominated them for their leadership positions and made sure they fulfilled their responsibilities Women belonged to Medicine Societies and they participated in political ceremonies. Women belonged to Medicine Societies and they participated in political ceremonies. The Iroquois were an agricultural people and it was the women who owned the land and tended the crops. The Iroquois were an agricultural people and it was the women who owned the land and tended the crops.

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120 Iroquois Art and Music Art and music were important in Iroquois culture, particularly basket weaving, Art and music were important in Iroquois culture, particularly basket weaving, pottery and beadwork. pottery and beadwork.

121 Baskets Hand woven baskets are an important part of Iroquois culture and tradition. In fact, during a marriage ceremony, it is mandatory for the husband and the wife to exchange baskets with one another. Pottery Pots with a round bottom, made from clay, which have geometric designs on them, are a typical Iroquois art. They were used by Iroquois people to cook food. Baskets Hand woven baskets are an important part of Iroquois culture and tradition. In fact, during a marriage ceremony, it is mandatory for the husband and the wife to exchange baskets with one another. Pottery Pots with a round bottom, made from clay, which have geometric designs on them, are a typical Iroquois art. They were used by Iroquois people to cook food.

122 Iroquois use beads for creating some stunning designs on the clothes and jewelery that they wear. Earrings made from glass beads, which are threaded on a porcupine's quill, have always been very popular in this culture. The Iroquois painted on surfaces and animal hides, till about the year It was only in the year 1821, that they began painting on canvas and paper.

123 Lacrosse was started by the Iroquois. In wintertime, Iroquois people used laced snowshoes and sleds to travel through the snow.

124 Hiawatha who lived around 1550, was a leader of the Onondaga and Mohawk nations of the Iroquios.

125 Native American History

126 Homelands of the 5 American Indian tribes we’re studying this year.

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128 The European settlers treated the Native Americans harshly. Their land was taken away from them and they were forced to move from their native lands to Indian reservations. Some were forced to send their children away to schools run by white authorities. The young people often lost the chance to learn about their own culture and traditions. Today, there are schools on the reservations, and many of the Native American people have moved from the reservations and into American cities to find work to support their families. Native Americans live both on reservations and in the cities and towns of our country. They are US citizens and also members of their tribes. Native Americans have had to fight for their rights to teach their children about the traditions of the tribes, to hunt and fish, and to open new businesses on the reservations. Slowly things are changing. Now Native Americans pass down their traditions, such as native dances, to their children. Although poverty continues to be a major problem for Native Americans both on and off reservations, there is gradual improvement.

129 Native Americans Today


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