Presentation on theme: "Inuit Kwakiutl Pueblo Lakota Iroquois"— Presentation transcript:
1Inuit Kwakiutl Pueblo Lakota Iroquois Native AmericansInuitKwakiutlPuebloLakotaIroquois
2First Americans Arrive on the Continent For many years, archaeologists thought that people arrived approximately 11,500 years ago. They believed that the first Americans came from Asia over a strip of land called Beringia that once connected Asia and North America.
3Cactus HillArchaeologists have recently found artifacts at Cactus Hill, a site which is about 45 miles south of Richmond, Virginia, on the Nottoway River in southeast Virginia. These artifacts are about 18,000 years old. Now some scientists believe that the first people who reached North America came by boat from Europe, perhaps following a route from Iceland to Greenland to Canada, perhaps coming to the Caribbean first.
4Recent excavations at a number of sites have provided new evidence and raised new questions about when people first came to the Americas. Stone artifacts, charcoal, and soil, plant and animal remains point to human habitation at Cactus Hill at least 18,000 years ago, during the late Ice Age. It may be that there was no single "First American". The Americas might have been populated as far back as 30,000-40,000 years ago by diverse people from several continents. Scientists continue to study and argue these points. They don’t agree.
5http://www. archaeologychannel. org/content/video/iceagenewev_700kW Video: First people in the Americas & Cactus Hill
6Many Native American Nations Many Native American cultures grew, developed and even disappeared in the 12,000 years from the last Ice Age until the present. By the year 1400 AD more than 300 different nations were living in North America. They spoke different languages, lived in different types of homes and had different cultures.Each tribe or clan adapted to their environment and used the available resources for survival.
7InuitThe Inuit inhabited present-day Alaska, Greenland, and northern CanadaThey lived in Arctic areas where the temperature is below freezing most of the time.There were few plantsand some areas werevery dry as well as cold.
8Inuit tribes of CanadaThe Inuit live primarily along the far northern seacoasts of Russia, the United States, Canada, and Greenland. There are more than 100,000 Inuit, most of whom live south of the Arctic Circle.The majority, about 46,000, live in Greenland. There are approximately 30,000 on the Aleutian Islands and in Alaska, 25,000 in Canada, and 1,500 in Siberia.
10The Inuit homeland is in one of the world’s regions least hospitable to human habitation. Most of the land is flat, barren tundra where only the top few inches of the frozen earth thaw out during the summer months.The majority of Inuit have always lived near the sea, hunting aquatic mammals such as seals, walrus, and whales.
11and much of their shelter. Inuit HuntingInuit people met nearly all their basic needs with materials they obtained through hunting and fishing. That is how they got their food, their clothingand much of their shelter.
12Inuit FoodThe Inuit live in a very harsh environment, one in which survival is quite challenging. Few plants grow where they live so most of their food comes from the sea or from hunting.Food taken from the sea include seal, fish, whale, and walrus.The Inuit hunt polar bear, caribou, musk ox and small game like the Arctic hare
17Inuit Shelter (Housing) Sod huts, often partly underground or with underground roomsSkin TentsIgloo
18In the winter many Inuit lived in sod homes In the winter many Inuit lived in sod homes. They would dig a hole in the ground and pile rocks and sod all around the outside to make walls. Pieces of wood or whalebone were used as a frame for the roof, which the Inuit then covered with sod. In both the tents and the sod houses the Inuit built raised platforms at the back for sleeping.
21The Inuit are famous for their igloos The Inuit are famous for their igloos. An igloo is built of blocks of snow shaped into a dome. They were mostly used as temporary shelter during winter hunting trips. The igloo is the one of the Inuit's best inventions. It is warm and easy to construct. A skilled worker can build an igloo in only an hour or two.
24Inuit TransportationTransportaion on land was accomplished on foot with sled dogs carrying loads.Transportation on the water was done by kayak and umiak.
25Traditional Umiaks were paddle craft Traditional Umiaks were paddle craft. The open umiak is significantly larger than the enclosed kayak which was built to carry one or two men while hunting. A large umiak is 6 to 10 meters long and can hold more than 20 people. About seven skins are needed for the cover on a boat of 30 foot (9.1 meter). It has traditionally been used in summer to move people and possessions to seasonal hunting grounds and for hunting whales and walrus.
341949 Inuit HuntingInuit VideoHow to build an igloo - A Boy Among Polar Bears - BBCFollowing his father's footsteps - A Boy Among Polar Bears - BBCAt the snow edge - A Boy Among Polar Bears – BBCCatching Fish for the WinterInuit Tribe
35Most Inuit today have settled in villages and live in houses Most Inuit today have settled in villages and live in houses. Many have access to modern technology, however many continue to keep some of the old customs and are proud of the culture of their people.
36Kwakiutl Homeland is along the Pacific Northwest coast Rainy, mild climate
37The Kwakiutl is a group of Indian tribes living along the Pacific Northwest coast in an area where Kwakiutl have lived for 8,000 years. Food is plentiful in their mild, rainy homeland. They are hunter/gatherers and get mostof their food from theoceans and rivers.Their culture isrecognized for theirartistic totem polesand ritualistic masks.
38Kwakiutl Food Food is plentiful in the area where the Kwakiutl live. They are hunters and gatherers.Salmon CaribouShellfish FishDeer & Elk BearRoots BerriesNuts Trade
39Traditional Kwakiutl Clothing Woven Cedar BarkAnimal Skins
45War CanoesKwakiutl men used large trunks of cedar trees, burned and dug out the center and made canoes. Some canoes were used by a few people, but the Kwakiutl also built large canoes to follow the path of migrating fish and animals during different seasons of the year. These large canoes, sometimes up to 60 feet long, were used to go far into the ocean. They were callled “war” canoes
47Potlatch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N_gYjQw9Bf4 Throughout native North America, gift giving is a central feature of social life. In the Pacific Northwest, this tradition is known as the potlatch. Within the tribal groups of these areas, individuals hosting a potlatch give away much, if not all, of their wealth and material goods to show goodwill to the rest of the tribal members and to maintain their social status. Later they go to another potlatch and receive gifts. Participation shows status.
48Kwakiutl Role of Man and Woman Men hunted, fished, traded, built houses and canoes. Men became incredible carvers and artists.Women gathered food, wove cedar, and raised children.
55PuebloPueblo tribes inhabited the Southwest in present-day New Mexico and ArizonaThey lived in desert areas with little rain and in areas bordering cliffs and mountains
56The Pueblo are natives of the Southwest deserts, particularly New Mexico. (The Hopi live in Arizona, while the Ysleta del Sur Tigua live in Texas.) Unlike many other Native American tribes, the Pueblo Indians were never forced to leave their homelands and many are still living there today.
57Pueblo ShelterThe homes of the Pueblo people were called Pueblos. They were made of stone and adobe (mud bricks)Often they hadmany levelsMany families andgroups werecliff dwellers;Pueblos weredesigned forprotection fromenemies.
58Pueblo people lived in adobe houses known as pueblos, which are multi-story house complexes made of adobe (clay and straw baked into hard bricks) and stone. Each adobe unit was home to one family, like a modern apartment. Pueblo people used ladders to reach the upstairs apartments. A Pueblo adobe house can contain dozens of units and was often home to an entire extended clan.
60Unlike most old-fashioned Indian shelters, traditional Pueblo houses are still used by many people today. In fact, some Pueblo people have been living in the same adobe house complex, such as Sky City, for dozens of generations. Other Pueblo families now live in modern houses or apartment buildings, just like you.Why are Pueblo built on high ground?
61Pueblo Food Pueblo people were farmers, even though they lived in the in thebasin and range region.They lived in a verydry area and irrigatedtheir crops during droughtThey grew corn, beans, and squash.They hunted rabbit and antelope and made stewThese farmers also grew cotton – used for weaving
62Pueblo men grew cotton and used it for weaving clothes and other fabric Their woven cotton is famousAnimal skins (rabbit) were also used for clothingPueblo Clothing
63Because they lived in a hot, dry area, often Pueblo men didn't wear much clothing-- only breechcloths or short kilts. Pueblo women wore knee-length cotton dresses called mantas. A manta fastened at a woman's right shoulder, leaving her left shoulder bare.Men and women both wore deerskin moccasins on their feet. For dances and special occasions, women painted their moccasins white and wrapped white strips of deerskin called puttee around their shins as leggings.
64Pueblo Transportation Pueblo nearly always traveled by foot, walking or running. Pueblos used dogs pulling a travois (a kind of drag sled) to help them carry heavy loads.
68Pueblo Art, Music and Storytelling Pottery, Baskets and Kachinas
69There are lots of traditional Pueblo legends and fairy tales There are lots of traditional Pueblo legends and fairy tales. Storytelling is very important in the Pueblo culture. Pueblo artists are famous for their beautiful pottery and heishi jewelry. They also made stone carvings, baskets, and colorful weavings. All of these art forms are still flourishing today. Here is a good site on the art of Pueblo pottery.Pueblo pottery
74Pueblo Roles of Man and Woman Men farmed, hunted, made tools, gathered cotton and wove it into clothing.Men also built the pueblos.Women ground corn, prepared food and taught children.Women wove basketsand made beautiful anddistintive pottery.
76Pueblo is a Spanish word that means “village” The Pueblo nation includes the Tewa, Hopi and Zuni tribes. They are the descendents of the Anasazi – the Ancient Ones – who built the great adobe cities in the Southwest. Around 750 a huge city was built by the Anasazi in what is now New Mexico. What happened to that city? It was abandoned. Perhaps climate changes in the 1300’s and long periods without rain forced the people to move away.
77Some Pueblo people still live traditional lives in the American Southwest. Many of them still farm, weave baskets , make beautiful rugs, silver jewelry and fine pottery. Some of their homes, like the Taos Pueblo in New Mexico, were built about 1,000 years ago.The Pueblo live along side the Navajo in Arizona, Utah and New Mexico. The Navajo and the Pueblo are alike in many ways.
79LakotaLakota people lived in the Great Plains, an area characterized by dry grasslands.
80What is the difference between the Lakota, the Dakota and the Sioux? There is no real difference. "Lakota" and "Dakota" are different pronunciations of the same tribal name, which means "the allies.“ "Sioux," on the other hand, is not a Lakota name. It comes from the Ojibway name for the tribe, which means "little snakes." Many Lakotas use the word Sioux to refer to themselves when they're speaking English, however. Most prefer the name Lakota.
81Lakota Food Lakota Women Speak about the Buffalo The Lakota are hunter-gatherers.Lakota depended on the buffalo (bison) for everything, including food.The Lakota were nomadic — they followed herds of buffaloThey also hunted elk, antelope and other animals.
84Lakota ClothingLakota clothing was mostly made of buffalo hides and deer skin; it was very decorated and sewn with sinew (animal tendon)
85Lakota warriors and chiefs were well-known for their impressive feathered warbonnets, but they didn't wear them in everyday life; they were for special occasions. Each feather in the war bonnet was earned through some act of bravery. Only the greatest chiefs had a long headdress. Both Lakota men and women wore their hair long, cutting it only when they were in mourning.
86Lakota Shelter Lakota tepees were made of buffalo hides. Teepees could be taken down and moved to a new location as the tribe followed the buffalo herds.The Lakota were nomads and needed portable shelter.
87Lakota Transportation Lakota transportation changed after Spanish brought horses to North America.Dogs and horses pulled a travois (type of sled)
88Photos & Music: Plains Indians and Horses Plains Indians
89The Lakota Indians of the northern plains have been called a “horse nation” because they have strong ties, culturally and historically, with the animals.The Lakota originally lived by the Great Lakes. The establishment of settlements caused them to migrate west from the Great Lakes region. They later called themselves the Lakota, and were also called Sioux. They were introduced to horse culture by the Cheyenne.After their adoption of the horse, their society centered on the buffalo hunt with the horse.
90Lakota Role of Man and Woman Women made tepees and butchered buffaloWomen cooked and cared for childrenMen hunted and protected the tribe
91Lakota Art and MusicLakota decorated their clothing and headdresses with beads, feathers, bones and sinew.Drums and pipes were played
92Lakota baskets were utilitarian in design Lakota baskets were utilitarian in design. They were small bowl-like containers, usually lidded and intended to store dried berries, herbs, medicines and powders. Made of dried pine needles stitched together by sinew from deer or bison, baskets were left flexible and porous or were coated with pitch to make them waterproof.
94The Lakota weren’t the only people living in the Great Plains. There were Cheyenne, Arapaho, Blackfeet, Comanche and Pawnee. All had many things in common, but one of the biggest was the importance of the buffalo.The Plains Indians depended on these huge shaggy beasts for almost everything.Buffalo Hunt: Dances With Wolves
95The bison provided meat, leather, sinew for bows, grease, dried dung for fires, and even the hooves could be boiled for glue. When times were bad, bison were consumed down to the last bit of marrow.
104IroquiosThe Iroquois Indians originally lived near Lake Ontario and along the Mohawk River in New York State.Five tribes, the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas, banded together to form a confederacy, the Iroquios Nation. Later a sixth tribe, the Tuscarora, joined.
105The Iroquois confederacy created the Great Law of Peace which explained how to settle diputes. It brought peace and prosperity to the Iroquois for hundreds of years. That peace was shattered when settlers came from Europe.
106Iroquois ShelterThe Iroquois live in longhouses made of wood, bark, animal skins.They are up to 100 feet long and four or five families shared one longhouse.There was a shared fire in the center for cooking– sometimesa row of center firesand a hole in ceilingfor smoke to escape.
110Iroquois FoodThe Iroquois were farmers. They grew corn, squash, beans, which they called the three sisters. They also grew pumpkins.The Iroquois were also hunter/gatherers, often collecting nuts, berries and wild roots for food.They also fished, often using canoes.They hunted deer, bear, small game like rabbits, squirrels, and turkeys.
112Iroquois Clothing Most Iroquois clothing was made from deerskin. They needed warm clothing for the cold winters in the northeast.They wore long fringedskirts, breech cloths,moccasins, leggings.Clothing was oftendecorated with beads,feathers and sinew.
114The Iroquois Indians used the pelts of animals for their clothing The Iroquois Indians used the pelts of animals for their clothing. In the winter, the men wore shirts, leggings, and moccasins made of buckskin, made from the skins of animals, mainly deer.The women wore skirts they had woven from the wild grasses, covered with furs, with leggings underneath.In the summer, the men wore a breechcloth, a short piece of buckskin that hung from the front to the back.The women wore their grass dresses, and the children wore nothing at all in the summer.
116Iroquois Transportation Iroquois made canoes covered with waterproof elm or birch bark.
117Role of Man and WomanWomen were the head of the family and owned the land.Women held a powerful position in the Iroquois tribe. They owned longhouses, controlled the land, and chose the chief. When a man married, he lived moved to the longhouse of his wife and lived with his wife's clan.Children belonged to their mother's clan.Men were hunters and fishers and built the longhouses. They also made canoes and tools. They protected the family and clan.
118Iroquois WomenWhile Iroquois sachems (chiefs-leaders) were men, women nominated them for their leadership positions and made sure they fulfilled their responsibilitiesWomen belonged to Medicine Societies and they participated in political ceremonies.The Iroquois were an agricultural people and it was the women who owned the land and tended the crops.
120Iroquois Art and MusicArt and music were important in Iroquois culture, particularly basket weaving,pottery and beadwork.
121Baskets Hand woven baskets are an important part of Iroquois culture and tradition. In fact, during a marriage ceremony, it is mandatory for the husband and the wife to exchange baskets with one another. Pottery Pots with a round bottom, made from clay, which have geometric designs on them, are a typical Iroquois art. They were used by Iroquois people to cook food.
122Iroquois use beads for creating some stunning designs on the clothes and jewelery that they wear. Earrings made from glass beads, which are threaded on a porcupine's quill, have always been very popular in this culture. The Iroquois painted on surfaces and animal hides, till about the year It was only in the year 1821, that they began painting on canvas and paper.
123Lacrosse was started by the Iroquois. In wintertime, Iroquois people used laced snowshoes and sleds to travel through the snow.
124Hiawatha who lived around 1550, was a leader of the Onondaga and Mohawk nations of the Iroquios.
128The European settlers treated the Native Americans harshly The European settlers treated the Native Americans harshly. Their land was taken away from them and they were forced to move from their native lands to Indian reservations. Some were forced to send their children away to schools run by white authorities. The young people often lost the chance to learn about their own culture and traditions. Today, there are schools on the reservations, and many of the Native American people have moved from the reservations and into American cities to find work to support their families. Native Americans live both on reservations and in the cities and towns of our country. They are US citizens and also members of their tribes. Native Americans have had to fight for their rights to teach their children about the traditions of the tribes, to hunt and fish, and to open new businesses on the reservations. Slowly things are changing. Now Native Americans pass down their traditions, such as native dances, to their children. Although poverty continues to be a major problem for Native Americans both on and off reservations, there is gradual improvement.