Presentation on theme: "Egyptian Culture Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Egyptian Religion"— Presentation transcript:
1Egyptian Culture Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Egyptian Religion Mummification and BurialDaily LifeArt, Writing, and Science
2Egyptian Culture Main Idea Reading Focus The ancient Egyptians are famous for their religion, their burial practices, and their advances in art, writing and science.Reading FocusWhat were the main principles of Egyptian religion?Why did Egyptians practice mummification and burial?What was daily life like in ancient Egypt?What advances did Egyptians make in art, writing and science?
3Egyptian Religion Egyptians worshipped many gods Some from the earliest days of the Old KingdomOthers like Imhotep added laterBelieved that gods controlled all natural eventsChief gods and goddessesGod of sun always a key figure, Re in Old KingdomLater linked to sky god, Amon, and known as Amon-ReSun god temple at Karnak the largest ever built in EgyptAnubisThe protector of the dead, weighed souls to decide fateLight souls had been good in life and were rewardedUnworthy souls fed to terrible monster
4Osiris, Isis and Horus Hathor and Thoth Osiris introduced civilization into EgyptBrother Seth killed Osiris, scattered pieces of his body around EgyptWife Isis reassembled pieces and brought Osiris back to lifeOsiris became new judge of dead, replacing AnubisHathor and ThothHathor was the cow-headed goddess of loveThoth was the god of wisdomThere were also local gods with power over small areas or single households
5Temples and Religious Practices Temples built to honor, provide homes for godsRuins can still be seen in EgyptFeaturesDecorated with massive statuesElaborate paintings, detailed carvingsObelisksTall, thin pillars with pyramid-shaped topsMade from single piece of stoneCarved with intricate designs
6Temples and Religious Practices Rituals to fulfill gods’ needsCleaned and refreshed statue of god dailyThis kept gods aliveIn return gods would bring Egypt prosperityPriests had responsibility for careCommon people had no part in ritualsOrdinary Egyptians never entered templesPeople did worship gods at annual festivals
7What religious practices did the Egyptians follow to honor their gods? AnalyzeWhat religious practices did the Egyptians follow to honor their gods?Answer(s): They built temples to honor them and provide homes for them. In the temples, priests performed rituals to fulfill the gods' needs.
8Mummification and Burial Central to Egyptian religion was the belief in an afterlife, a land of the dead where souls would go to live. Because of this belief, Egyptians developed elaborate rituals regarding death and burial.Physical body dies, releases kaKa was individual’s personalityKa needed food and drink to surviveSought to prevent decomposition so ka would not vanishTeachingsDeveloped process to prevent breakdown of bodyMummification only for kings, royal family at firstProcess available later to any who could affordMummificationInternal organs removedHeart left in bodyBody wrapped with linen stripsFeatures painted on mummy to help ka recognize its bodyProcess
9Burial Possessions Pharaohs’ tombs Decorations Dead Egyptians buried with possessions needed for afterlifeFood and drink for the kaPharaohs and nobles buried also with treasures and richesPharaohs’ tombsFilled with statues of servantsEgyptians thought statues would come to life to serve kaAlso contained models of animals, chariots and boatsDecorationsWalls painted with scenes from person’s lifeWalls painted with stories about the godsEgyptians believed figures would come to life and maximize ka’s happiness
10How did beliefs about the afterlife shape Egyptian burial practices? SummarizeHow did beliefs about the afterlife shape Egyptian burial practices?Answer(s): Egyptians believed in an afterlife for the ka, or life force. The ka needed food and drink to survive, so both were buried with bodies. Great care was taken to keep the body from decomposing so that the ka would not shrivel away and vanish.
11Daily Life Burial Practices Social Structure Top Layer Archeologists learned much from items buried in tombsAlso learned from images painted on tomb wallsGood picture of society, cultureSocial Structure Top LayerHighly layered, with pharaoh, then key officials, priests, priestesses, scribes, military leaders, doctors, landownersAll among wealthiest in EgyptSocial Structure Next LevelNext level included artisans, craftspeople and merchantsThe people who made and sold goods used by othersSocial Structure Bottom90% of society were peasant farmersSometimes recruited to build large public works, pyramidsRecruited also for mines, army
12Daily Life Slaves Status Home and Family Life Houses Slaves were not a large part of the populationMost convicted criminals or prisoners of warMore slaves in New KingdomStatusEgyptian society less rigid than other ancient civilizationsPossible to move up in societyBecoming scribe the fastest way to gain statusHome and Family LifeVaried from class to classPharaohs had more than one wife, most men only onePharaohs married sisters to keep royal blood pureHousesMost lived as family units with father as head of householdPoor families lived in hutsRich families had brick homesNoble families lived in palaces
13Appearance and Customs Daily LifeWoman’s primary duty to care for home and childrenEgyptian women had more rights, could work outside homeCould be priestess, own property, divorce husbandFew children educatedPlayed with wooden toysWomen and ChildrenEgyptians paid close attention to their appearanceMany shaved heads, wore wigs, as well as perfume and makeupClothing of linen and woolChildren wore no clothes until adolescenceEnjoyed sports, fishing, sailing and board gamesAppearance and Customs
14How did life differ for rich and poor Egyptians? ContrastHow did life differ for rich and poor Egyptians?Answer(s): Rich had large homes, poor might live in tiny huts; wealthy men wore longer skirts or robes than peasants; wealthy men and women often wore gold jewelry.
15Art, Writing, and Science Ancient Egyptian civilization lasted more than 2,000 years and made many tremendous advances, particularly in art, literature and science.Very distinctive and easily distinguished from art of other ancient civilizationsPaintingsDetailed and colorfulStories of godsPictures of daily lifeMost on walls of tombs, templesSome in manuscriptsEgyptian ArtStatuesLarge, imposingMost show gods, pharaohsShow power and majestyGreat Sphynx, the largest and most famousEgyptian Statues
16Egyptian WritingThe Egyptians were prolific writers who recorded events in great detail and composed beautiful songs and stories. However, before they could create even the simplest tale, they needed a system of writing.The main Egyptian writing systemUses picture symbols to represent objectsformal writing, stone monuments, religious textsDifficult to learn, time consumingHieroglyphicsTwo other systems for texts that needed to be written more quicklyHieratic, religious textsDemotic, legal and literary writingsSimpler and less attractiveMade on wood, pottery and papyrusOther SystemsEgyptians used the pulp of the papyrus plant that grew along the Nile to make paperlike sheets. Many papyrus scrolls are still readable today.
17Egyptian Writing Historians could not decipher hieroglyphs Rosetta StoneDiscovered near Nile Delta village of Rosetta in 1799Long passages of writing on the broken stoneSame text in hieroglyphic, demotic and GreekUsing Greek as guide, hieroglyphs and demotic meanings revealedUnlocked the mystery of Egyptian writing
18Egyptian Math Egyptian Science Egyptians had thorough understanding of basic arithmeticAlso understood basic principles of geometryThis along with grasp of engineering helped them build pyramidsBuildings still standing, so skills were greatEgyptian ScienceGreatest scientific advances were in medicineEgyptians masters of human anatomyDoctors treated wounds, performed surgery, used medicines made from plants and animalsPrescribed regimens of basic hygiene to prevent illness
19Find the Main IdeaWhat advances did the ancient Egyptians make in art, writing, and science?Answer(s): detailed, colorful paintings, large, imposing statues, developed several writing systems, grasp of geometry and engineering, anatomy