Presentation on theme: "Commas, Commas, Commas Become a Comma Superhero!."— Presentation transcript:
Commas, Commas, Commas Become a Comma Superhero!
When Are Commas Used? Introductory Phrases FANBOYS Comma Splice AAAWWUBBIS FANBOY Fakers X, Y, and Z Describers Interrupters
Commas: Why use them? Commas help readers figure out which words go together in a sentence. Commas also tell a reader which parts of your sentences are most important.
What Happens if Commas Are Used Incorrectly It may confuse a reader. It may signal ignorance of writing rules. It may also indicate carelessness.
Comma Myths A really long sentence may be perfect without commas. The length of a sentence does not determine whether or not you need a comma. Where you pause or breathe in a sentence does not reliably indicate where a comma belongs. Different readers pause or breathe in different places.
Introductory Phrases Setting off introductory phrases with a comma lets the reader know that the main subject and main verb of a sentence come later. There are small ones, medium ones, and large ones.
Introductory Phrases Small Phrases Just one word Medium Phrases 2-3 words, prepositional phrases Large Phrases More than 3 words Usually key words or groups of words Example: Generally, extraterrestrials are friendly and helpful. Example: In fact, Godzilla is just a misunderstood teen lizard of giant proportions. Example: As far as I am concerned, it is the best dish for dispatching unwanted guests.
You Try It!!! 1)Just in case it might rain you should bring your umbrella. 2)During my party my mom served the cake. 3)Generally you should come in and be prepared to learn. 4)Well if I must choose I say let’s go to Hawaii.
FANBOYS ForJosh went to play football, for I told him to get out of the house. AndThe cat wanted to eat, and she wanted to be lazy. NorLeanne did not want to go to the party, nor did I. ButMy dad wanted to buy me a car, but I told him not to. OrOrYou can go to the library, or you can stay in class and take a test. YetI told Rylee not to eat the cookie, yet she ate it anyway. SoSoIt was really too cold to go outside, so we stayed inside all day.
When Do Use a Comma with FANBOYS? You add a comma BEFORE the FANBOY if there are two complete thoughts in the sentence. The little girl dressed in her mother’s shoes and she wore her dad’s hat. The little girl dressed in her mother’s shoes, and she wore her dad’s hat.
What About Now? DO NOT use a comma if the sentence contains only one complete thought. The little girl dressed in her mother’s shoes and wore her dad’s hat.
You Try It!!! 1)It is their parents’ fiftieth wedding anniversary and the children want it to be special. 2)Mr. And Mrs. Slaughter are friendly and involved in the community. 3)I really want some spaghetti but I do not feel like cooking it. 4)You can do your work and pass or you can sit in here doing nothing and fail.
The Dreaded Comma Splice! If you do not see a FANBOY between two complete thoughts, putting a comma there causes a “comma splice” (or a run-on sentence).
BAD Comma Splice! My hamster loved to play, I gave him a hula-hoop. You wore a lovely hat, it was your only defense.
How Do You Fix the Comma Splice? You can do one of these three things: 1)Change the comma to a semicolon You wore a lovely hat; it was your only defense. 2)Add FANBOYS You wore a lovely hat, for it was your only defense. 2)Make each clause a separate sentence You wore a lovely hat. It was your only defense.
You Try It!!! 1)Joey went to the grocery store, he needed to buy eggs for supper. 2)Sara wanted to buy a new car, she didn’t have the money to do so. 3)Americans speak to rapidly this is a common complaint by foreign visitors. 4)It was snowing, the roads were getting slick.
FANBOY Wannabe’s! However, therefore, moreover, and other words like them are NOT FANBOYS. They are like small introductory phrases that begin the second complete thought of a sentence.
FANBOYS Wannabe’s! Like the FANBOYS, you need to make sure that there are TWO COMPLETE THOUGHTS on both sides of it. If you do find two complete thoughts on each side, you use a semicolon (;) after the first complete thought and a comma (,) after the small introductory phrase in the second complete thought.
FANBOYS Wannabe’s! Examples: The Good: Football is my favorite sport; however, baseball is more interesting to me. The Bad: Football is my favorite sport, however baseball is more interesting to me. The Ugly: Football is my favorite sport, however, baseball is more interesting to me.
FANBOYS Wannabe’s! You can also make two complete sentences out of them. The Good: Laboratory mice are cunning. Therefore, I can’t take my eyes off of them. The Bad: Laboratory mice are cunning, therefore I can’t take my eyes off of them.
You Try It!!! 1)Dieting is very popular in America however it can be dangerous. 2)San Francisco is my favorite city in fact I plan to spend two weeks there this summer. 3)The hikers couldn’t make it to the top of the mountain and back before dark therefore they made camp for the night. 4)We planned to go fishing at Lake Conroe this weekend instead we went salt water fishing in the gulf.
X, Y, and Z Put commas between items in a list. The final comma goes right before the conjunction. Examples: –You can buy life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness in Los Angeles. –A good student listens to his teachers without yawning, reads once in a while, and writes papers before the are due.
You Try It!!! 1)Russ went shopping for a stereo a new television and some speakers for his new house. 2)Paula invited Sam Jenny Nancy and Shane to her party. 3)Don’t forget to capitalize punctuate and complete your sentences. 4)Why do I have to take out the trash wash the dishes fold the clothes and clean my room?
Describers If you have two or more adjectives (words that describe) that are not joined by a conjunction and both/all of the adjectives describe the same word, put a comma between them. Examples: He was a bashful, dopey, sleepy dwarf. The frothy, radiant princess kissed the putrid, vile frog.
You Try It!!! 1)I really would enjoy a bright sunny day. 2)My father is a dedicated hard-working man. 3)Willy had a long bushy red beard. 4)Why must we learn the boring confusing information on commas?
Interrupters Two commas can be used to set off additional information that appears within the sentence but is separate from the primary subject and verb of the sentence. This lets the reader know that the words/phrase between the commas are not necessary to understand the rest of the sentence.
Interrupters Examples: Bob Mills, a sophomore from Raleigh, was the only North Carolina native at the Japanese food festival in Cary. Aaron thought he could see the future, not the past, in the wrinkles of his skin.
You Try It!!! 1)Ryan the boy down the street came over to play football last night. 2)I saw a pelican the Louisiana state bird at the Houston Zoo. 3)Jim sheriff of the county arrested the trespasser. 4)The game as you remember was a tie.
AAAWWUBBIS These are your sentence starters. The commas goes after the phrase the AAAWWUBBIS begins. Although As After While When Until Before Because If Since
You Try It!!! 1)After dinner we went to a movie. 2)Before you decide to take a vacation you should make sure you have the money to go. 3)If you would like some help with your work you should not be afraid to ask. 4)Until I get all of your make-up work I cannot help you with your grades.