Presentation on theme: "We will be researching the Battle of Stirling Bridge."— Presentation transcript:
We will be researching the Battle of Stirling Bridge.
YOU MAY TAKE OUR LIVES….BUT YOU WILL NEVER TAKE OUR FREEDOM YOU MAY TAKE OUR LIVES….BUT YOU WILL NEVER TAKE OUR FREEDOM Mrs Templeton CDHS
The Battle of Stirling Bridge 11 th September, 1297 Heading
Why did Wallace and Murray win the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297? Mrs Templeton CDHS
Learning Intentions To explain why Wallace and Murray won the Battle of Stirling Bridge Success Criteria Select relevant information Answer in sentences Reach a conclusion using evidence from a variety of sources
Background Wallace and Moray’s armies joined 22 Aug - Edward departed for France English army marched to Stirling – led by the Earl of Warenne, John Surrey, – old soldier, tremendous power – Sir Hugh Cressingham nicknamed the ‘treacherer’ (treasurer) By August 1297, Andrew Moray/Murray had control of the North Wallace had driven English out of Fife and Perthshire
Importance of Stirling Powerful castle Key to control Scotland Access to north Stirling
Scottish ArmyEnglish Army Starting position Wallace and Moray placed their army between the River Forth and the Ochil Hills facing the Stirling Bridge Their army took up the high ground known as Abbey Craig. South side of the River Forth. LeadersWallace and Moray. This was Wallace’s first experience of a standing battle He had always used guerrilla tactics before. Hugh de Cressingham (English Governor of Scotland) and Earl of Surrey. Both had experience in leading troops into battle. AmbitionsScotland to be free from English control. Return of King John Balliol. To regain control of Scotland ArmiesSmaller force The army was mainly from the ‘lesser’ ranks in society. They were inexperienced and not well trained. Huge army The army was well trained, organised and experienced. WeaponsMen made most of their weapons themselves. They had 12 feet long spears, axes and knives. The army was well equipped. They had skilled well trained longbowmen Uniforms Wore rough hide tunics of homespun cloth. Few men had helmets or any form of body armour. Wore protective clothing. Knights wore armour.
The English were overconfident with their forces- they thought they would win easy! Wallace puts his troops on Abbey Craig near the Ford. The ford is the easiest and shallowest place to cross the river. Stirling Bridge is narrow and made from wood. This is where the English chose to cross. Mrs Templeton CDHS Warenne delays crossing for several days to allow negotiations. Sure Scots will choose peace. Surprised Scots do not surrender. Decides to cross on 11 Sept 1297.
6am – English and Welsh start to cross but are recalled as Warenne overslept. -Cross again and are recalled as Warenne thinks Scots will negotiate. -Warenne wants to sent cavalry upstream for support but Cressingham says this is too expensive. Insist they cross at once 2 at a time -More than half the English cross the bridge. YELL OF ATTACK from Wallace at the right time! Wooden Bridge collapses as the English try to retreat in a state of confusion! Mrs Templeton CDHS Victory for Wallace 1. Over 100 Knights and 5,000 infantry are massacred – including High De Cressingham the tax collector 2. Causes collapse of English occupation. Wallace devastates north of England. 715 villages burnt. Brutality.
Wooden Bridge collapses as the English try to retreat in a state of confusion! Mrs Templeton CDHS 1.1 st Battle in Europe when a common army of spearmen had defeated knights. 2.Destroyed myth that English were invincible. 3.The Scots had not defeated an English army since the dark ages. 4.Strengthened will to resist. 5.Humiliation strengthened Edwards determination to crush the Scots.
English were over confident Good Scottish positioning Cressingham’s poor tactics Scottish Schiltrons Bridge collapses Few Scottish casualties Mrs Templeton CDHS
English were over confident The English were over confident. Over 10 000 English troops including cavalry and archers faced 5 000 Scottish troops, mostly on foot. Contemporary Chronicals reveal that the English were ‘cock sure’…..They were surprised when the Scots would not surrender. Mrs Templeton CDHS
Good Scottish positioning Wallace had organised his men onto a rocky hill called Abbey Craig which guarded a ford where the English could have crossed the river. With the Scots stationed here the English had to think of another way of getting across the river. Mrs Templeton CDHS
Cressingham’s poor tactics Did not cross at Ford Chose the ;’easiest’ and laziest option of crossing the river over the bridge Mrs Templeton CDHS
Scottish Schiltrons Wallace and Murray’s use of Schiltrons to attack English. Mrs Templeton CDHS
Collapse of the wooden Bridge. Once 500 English troops had stated to cross the bridge Wallace yelled ATTACK!. The Wooden Bridge carrying the English troops collapsed. The English, in a state of confusion, tried to go back across the bridge. The bridge fell beneath them and many soldiers drowned in the River Forth. Many troops got trapped in the marshy muddy ground below the bridge and so were an easy target for the pursuing Scots. Bridge collapses Mrs Templeton CDHS
Even though they were outnumbered the Scots had killed more English soldiers. They also captured and beheaded Cressingham. Few Scottish casualties Mrs Templeton CDHS
Why did Wallace win? E- English were over confident A- Abbey Craig S- Stirling Bridge Y- ell of attack from Wallace W- Wooden Bridge collapses I- Increasing numbers of English killed N- Not many Scottish casualties= victory
Battle of Stirling Bridge Souvenirs The English treasurer Cressingham, who was quite large man, was beheaded. According to further reports Wallace and his men decided to make good use of his big fleshy body. They made belts and boots and saddles. Nice. Mrs Templeton CDHS