3TRICLINIUM, DINING ROOM •Poor Romans ate sitting at a wooden table, on wooden stools or, if they were slaves, they just sat on the floor or on a straw mat.•Rich people, at least when they had company, ate in a more formal way, lying down on couches around a table. Often had several dining rooms to choose from: cold-weather dining rooms faced west to take advantage of the warm afternoon sun, and warm-weather rooms faced east or north in order to remain shaded for most of the day. Many of the larger houses also had outdoor dining areas with a pergola to shade the diners and usually a fountain nearby.Diners wore brightly coloured dinner suits called cenatoria. The classical Roman dining arrangement consisted of three large couches each of which seated three people. The host sat at the end of the leftmost couch and the guest of honour sat at the left of the middle couch. The food was served in bite-sized pieces, and diners ate from small plates placed on a ledge in front of them, using spoons or their fingers.3.
4OVERVIEW: DINING IN POMPEII AND HERCULANUEM Dining took place in the TricliniumThe wealthy ate lying down on couches around a tableThe host sat at the end of the leftmost couch and the guest of honour sat at the left of the middle couch. The food was served in bite-sized pieces, and diners ate from small plates placed on a ledge in front of them, using spoons or their fingers.The poor Poor Romans ate sitting at a wooden table on wooden stools or, if they were slaves, they just sat on the floor or on a straw mat.4.
66. CARBONISED FOOD FOUND IN POMPEII AND HERCULANUEM (13) Carbonized onion bulbs from Herculaneum (14) Carbonized garlic clove from Herculaneum (15) Carbonized fig (16) Carbonized Capri fig showing seed cavities (17) Carbonized chestnuts6.
7(1 & 2) Wall painting showing fruit (3) Eggs (4) A loaf of bread (5) Walnuts (6) Sausage (7) Bones of small animals (8) Cake (9) Carbonised fruit including grapes, pears and figs.7.
8OVERVIEW: FOOD IN POMPEII AND HERCULANUEM Garum was made by the crushing and fermentation in brine of the intestines of fish . It was mixed with wine, vinegar, pepper, oil, or water to enhance the flavor of many dishes.Bread was eaten with fruit at breakfast, at lunch and dinner dipped in olive oil or used to sop up sauces and stews.Food of all sorts was usually boiled, smoked, fried or baked and either seasoned with fish sauce or wine.Foods included: Dates, figs, pomegranates, prunes, almonds, chestnuts, walnuts, olives, myrtle berry’s, bread, pork, beef, lamb, goat, rabbit, oysters, squid, fish, prawns, clams, pigeons, ducks, chickens, apples, grapes, plums, pears, cabbage, turnips, truffles, cucumber, leeks.Elaborate meals consisted of 3 parts, Entrée, Main, Dessert.Simple meals consisted of Bread, cheese, nuts and salad .8.
12OVERVIEW: CLOTHING IN POMPEII AND HERCULANUEM Clothing was made from either wool or linen.Men wore a loincloth, with a linen shift underneath a tunic, which was belted and reached the knees.The toga was worn outdoors by officials and the upper classes.Women wore ashift and a tunic, or stola, down to the ankles. Over this, a palla covered the head. Both sexes wore sandals or slippersThe colour of the toga was significant, marking differences in age and status. Off-white colour worn by adult male citizens. Off-white toga with a broad purple border, curule magistrates. Toga made of dark-colured wool worn during periods of mourning. Artificially whitened toga worn by candidates for political office.Purple toga embroidered with gold thread worn by a victorious general during a triumphal parade and later adopted by emperors for state occasions.