3 In Egyptian Government the pharaoh is the highest of all. The people of Egypt considered the pharaoh to be a half-man, half-god. He (or sometimes she) owned all of Egypt and everything in it, including the people, animals, land and the tools, even the Nile River. The citizens gave the pharaoh portions of their crops in taxes. Workers donated their labor, and artists created art for the pharaoh. This made the pharaoh an extremely wealthy person. The government built storehouses to hold grain that was given as tax payment. During times of severe draught the pharaoh would give some of this grain to the hungry Egyptians. Egyptian Pharaohs
4 Monarchy The pharaoh could tell anybody what to do, and they would have to listen to him (or her). This was called monarchy. The pharaoh would pick rich people and assign them to different estates. These rich people would tell other people what to do for the pharaoh, and they would have to do whatever the pharaoh told them. Monarchy : supreme power or sovereignty held by a single person.
5 Egyptian Royal Dynasties The pharaoh was usually succeeded by his oldest son. The son was trained throughout his life to take over the role of pharaoh after his father's death. Sometimes rivalries and secret plots caused a change in this succession. Egypt had thirty royal dynasties ruling for more than three thousand years due to this.
6 The Government’s Role The pharaoh chose one or two viziers, or prime ministers, to help him. The pharaoh's most important role was to serve as a lawmaker and warrior. The pharaoh had thousands of government workers to help him. They made sure the laws were carried out. They kept records of crops. The government also trained troops and carried on wars. Soldiers, policemen, and custom officers kept track of who came in and out of the country. They used trained dogs to capture thieves, runaway slaves, or people trying to leave the country without paying taxes.
7 The Pharaoh’s Attire Pharaohs wore fake beards and tails. The false beards were usually blue. No one knows why the pharaoh wore the beard. The tail was to remind the people that the pharaoh had magical powers, animal powers. The pharaoh also carried a shepherd's staff and a flail or whip. The staff represented a shepherd's protection and the flail reminded the Egyptians that they'd better do what the king wanted. The pharaoh never let his hair be seen. He wore a crown for ceremonies and a headdress called a nemes for everyday life.
9 Who was King Tut? The 12th ruler in Egypt's 18th Dynasty. Most likely the son of Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Married to his probable half-sister Ankhesenamun, the daughter of Akhneten and the famous Queen Nefertiti. Died when he was about 18, having ruled for nine years, and so is often called the Boy King. Tut's death is something of a mystery; x-rays taken in 1968 seemed to indicate that he may have been killed by a blow to his head, but 21st-century scientific analysis suggested he may have died after breaking a leg, possibly from infection to the wound.
10 Tut’s Ornaments One of them is the vulture and cobra collar. The collar was cut from a single sheet of gold that was found on the king’s body Another one is King Tut’s crown. It was made of pure gold with inlays of glass and semiprecious stones
11 EGYPTIAN PEOPLE Slides 11-16 (People) by Coledon
12 Marriage in Egypt Women in Egypt were expected to get married between the ages of 12-15. Marriage in Egypt was regulated by custom rather than by the law. Men and women drew up property contracts at the time of marriage in the event of death or divorce. Then the woman traveled home with her new husband.
13 Clothing Both men and women in Egypt wore tunics which were sewn to fit them. These tunics were like a long T-shirt which reached to the knees [for men] or to the ankles [for women]. The men and women never covered their heads. Egyptians also wore jewelry
14 Education The people of Egypt weren't very well- educated unless they had money. Some of the people would send their sons to Scribe School where they would learn how to read and write.
15 Egyptian Homes The people of Egypt lived in little huts built with bricks made out of mud. There was usually a big room with a place to cook and other areas to sleep. Animals were kept outside by the garden.
16 The Social Pyramid People usually married within their social group and continued in the same job as their parents. The pharaoh was at the top of a social pyramid that looked something like this:
17 The World’s Largest River Slides 17-21 (The Nile) by Hailey
18 The Nile River is the largest river in the world, stretching north for approximately 4,000 miles from East Africa to the Mediterranean.
19 Three rivers flowed into the Nile from the South, serving as its sources: The Blue Nile, The White Nile, and the Arabia. Southern Egypt, thus being upstream, is called Upper Egypt, and the Northern Egypt, being downstream and the Delta, is called Lower Egypt.
20 The Nile supplied a constant influx of fish which were cultivated year round. In addition to fish, water fowl and cattle were also kept by the Egyptians. Flocks of geese were raised from the earliest times and supplied eggs, meat and fat.
21 The Nile River flowed from South to North at an average speed of about four knots during inundation season. The water level was an average of about 25-33 feet deep and navigation was fast. That made a river voyage from Thebes North to Memphis lasting approximately two weeks. The Nile was the country’s main highway, carrying both goods and people. Truly, the Nile is the heart of the ancient and modern land of Egypt!
22 The Egyptians had a number system using 7 different symbols. 1 is shown by a single stroke. 10 is shown by a drawing of a hobble for cattle. 100 is represented by a coil of rope. 1,000 is a drawing of a lotus plant. 10,000 is represented by a finger and 100,000 by a tadpole or frog. 1,000,000 is the figure of a god with arms raised above his head. Slides 22-24 (Math) by Jacob
23 The Number System The Egyptians used a grouping system for numbering called “Hieroglyphics”. They had symbols for 1-1,000,000.
24 Instead of writing 2/5, they wrote 1/3 + 1/15. For 2/7, they wrote 1/4 + 1/28. Some of the fractions were very complicated. For 2/29, they wrote 1/24 + 1/58 + 1/174 + 1/232 ! How do we know about Egyptian fractions? The written record goes all the way back to 1650 B.C. The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus contains a table of Egyptian fractions copied from another papyrus 200 years older. We know they used this system for over 2,000 years!
25 Egyptian Food The Egyptians made wheat into bread and into soup and porridge. They also added hops to make the barley into beer. In fact, some people think the real reason that the Egyptians first began growing grain was to make beer. This is an Egyptian model of beer jars which the Egyptians made to put in your grave when you died so you would have beer in the next world. Slides 25-26 (Food) By Kimberly
26 Dessert For dessert, the Egyptians liked to eat dates. This is a picture of some real Egyptian dates which were put into somebody's grave for them to eat in the next world. They were preserved in the dry climate for three thousand years until archaeologists dug them up again.
27 Geography of Egypt Egypt is located in the northern part of Africa. To the north of Egypt is the Mediterranean Sea and to the east of Egypt is the Red Sea. Slides 27-30 (Geography) By Kimberly
28 Geography of Egypt The ancient Egyptians thought of Egypt as being divided into two types of land, the 'black land' and the 'red land'. Black LandRed Land
29 Black Land The 'black land' was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile. The ancient Egyptians used this land for growing their crops. This was the only land in ancient Egypt that could be farmed because a layer of rich, black soil was deposited there every year after the Nile flooded. Black Land
30 Red Land The 'red land' was the desert that protected Egypt on two sides. These deserts separated ancient Egypt from neighboring countries and invading armies. They also provided the ancient Egyptians with a source for metals and semi- precious stones. Red Land
34 Egyptian Games & Activities The games people played in ancient Egypt were very similar to some games people still play today. They played games with pieces like checkers, mancala, or senet. They played with knucklebones, like jacks, and they played games with dice too. Slides 34-37 (Games) by Maria 34
35 More Egyptian Games Pictured here are some of the other toys that the children of Egypt played with. The oldest toys made in Egypt were toy wooden boats. From the same period baked clay animals and rattles have been discovered.
36 Egyptian Leisure and Recreation The ancient Egyptians had great lives and although they built a magnificent civilization by hard work they never forgot leisure and recreation. The ancient Egyptians had games to play as adults and children. Mostly board games were available but also toys were made for the little children. 36
37 The Game of Senet Popular Ancient Egyptian board game mostly played by adults Played mainly by wealthy adults The game symbolized the struggle of good against evil. The evil forces tried to stop you from reaching the Kingdom of the god Osiris. One of these games was found in the tomb of Hesy along with painting of it and how to play. The rules of this game were very complex. It consisted of a board with 30 holes, 3 rows and 10 columns. Most of the games used 7 pawns, sticks or knucklebones for each of the two players but some only had 5. During the New Kingdom, the game of Senet had acquired a religious and magical meaning which symbolized the passage of the deceased through the other world with his resurrection dependant upon his/her ability to win the game. Queen Nefertiry playing Senet 37
39 Why Did the Egyptians Use Pyramids? They thought the pyramids would protect the mummified pharaohs. They also made a sphinx, an animal with the body of a lion and the head of a king or a god, to protect them.
40 The Great Pyramid TTTThe Great Pyramid is the largest pyramid ever built. It is made from about 2.3 million stone blocks, weighing an average of 2.5 to 15 tons each. It is estimated that the workers would have had to set a block every two and a half minutes. TTTThe pyramid has three burial chambers. The first is underground, carved into bedrock. The second, above ground chamber was called the queen's chamber by early explorers. We now know it was never intended to house one of Khufu's wives but perhaps a sacred statue of the king himself. The third is the king's chamber, which held a red granite sarcophagus placed almost exactly at the center of the pyramid. TTTThe king's chamber is accessed through the 26-foot-high Grand Gallery, which was sealed off from thieves by sliding granite blocking systems.
41 What is in the tombs? If you were to walk into an Egyptian tomb, you would see all sorts of gold, bronze, and silver artifacts and a big golden coffin in the middle of the room. Just imagine seeing all of the riches and treasures.
42 Egyptian Gods and Goddesses Slides 42-44 (Gods and Goddesses) by Rose 42
43 The Egyptians mainly based their Gods and Goddesses on protection, nature and everyday tasks. For instance, if they wanted a very sunny day, they would pray to Aten, one of the sun Gods. They would do the same thing to Nun for good boating days. Aten Nun Sun god River goddess Goddess of war Sekhmet 43
44 The Egyptians’ Gods and Goddesses were very important to them. They believed that they were the cause of every good thing in their lives. They believed that Ra, the sun god, was the most powerful god ever. Ra 44
45 Trade in Ancient Egypt Slides 45-47 (Trade) By Taylor
46 About Trade In Ancient Egypt TTTThey traded AAAArts CCCCrafts FFFFood CCCCrops M M M Metals BBBBlankets JJJJewelry
48 Egyptian Mummies Slides 48-51 (Mummies) by Willie
49 Mummies The earliest Egyptians buried their dead in pits. The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly, creating life like and natural ‘mummies’.
50 Mummies Over many centuries, the ancient Egyptians developed a method of preserving bodies so they would remain life like. The process included embalming the bodes & wrapping them in strips of linen.
51 Ancient Egyptian writing uses more than 2,000 hieroglyphic characters. Each hieroglyph represents a common object in ancient Egypt. Hieroglyphs could represent the sound of the object or they could represent an idea associated with the object. Slides 51-53 (Hieroglyphics) by Kristy
52 Rosetta Stone This stone helped us unlock the secrets of the Egyptian writing. The Rosetta Stone had writing on it in two languages, Egyptian and Greek, using three scripts, Hieroglyphic, Demotic Egyptian and Greek. Because Greek was well known, the stone was the key to deciphering the hieroglyphs.
53 These are some hieroglyphic symbols: FFFFort: AAAAnimal: KKKKristy:
54 Trades in Ancient Egypt Craftsmen in ancient Egypt were usually well trained and skilled. They were often well-respected in the community and had a comfortable lifestyle. Yet every craftsman's lifestyle and social standing depended on the quality of his skills and experience.
55 Jewelry Makers The ancient Egyptians made many different types of jewelry. Craftsmen created necklaces, bracelets, collars, earrings and more from gold, stones and glass. The work in a jewelry workshop was often divided among many people. For instance, to make a necklace, one person would make the beads, another would drill the holes in the beads, and a third would thread them onto papyrus string.
56 Artisans Many types of precious stones were used in jewelry. To make beads, artisans broke stones and rolled them between other stones to shape them. A bow drill was used to drill a hole through the beads, which were then rolled in a recessed receptacle containing an abrasive to define their shape.
57 Skilled Artisans Skilled artisans were considered superior to common laborers. They learned their art from a master who ensured stylistic beautiful objects they created for the living and the dead. Women worked in weaving, perfume making, baking and needlework. Few creations were signed, and exceptional ability was rewarded through increased social status.
58 Carpenter’s Workshop Some craftsmen worked in workshops making furniture. The furniture that was made in these workshops was usually for wealthy people or the pharaoh.
59 Carpenters Skilled carpenters made a wide range of products, from roofing beams to furniture and statues. Their tools included saws, axes, chisels, adzes, wooden mallets, stone polishers and bow drills. Wood was hard to find in Egypt, so it was imported from countries like Lebanon.
60 Stonemasons and Sculptors Sculptors had to work to very strict stylistic rules. The masons first shaped and smoothed the stones using stone hammers. Draftsmen outlined images on the stone before a team of sculptors began carving them with copper chisels. A fine powder was used to polish the stone before the images were painted.
61 Sculptors The Ancient Egyptians produced many monumental and life-size stone statues of pharaohs, nobles, gods and goddesses. Stone vessels were made by shaping the stone and smoothing its outside with materials like quartz sand. A crank-shaped drill was used to hollow out the inside.
62 Brickmakers The brickmaker had one of the more menial occupations in ancient Egypt. To make bricks, Nile mud was mixed with sand, straw and water, slapped into wooden molds and then slapped out onto the ground to dry in the sun. Bricks were used in ancient Egypt for building everything from peasants' homes to the pharaoh's palaces.
63 The Farmers The people of ancient Egypt grew everything they needed to eat. The pharaoh got the rich peasants to do the farm work on the rich lands. Egyptians grew crops such as wheat, barley, vegetables, figs, melons, pomegranates and vines. They also grew flax which was made into linen. Farmers planted fruit trees and vines along the paths, to give shade as well as fruit. The Egyptians grew their crops along the banks of the River Nile on the rich black soil, or kemet which was left behind after the yearly floods. They used the fertile soil to grow their fields of wheat and barley.
64 Farming Tools Ancient Egyptians had simple farming tools such as winnowing scoops, hoes, rakes, flint-bladed sickles and ploughs. They had both hand ploughs and ones pulled by oxen. The ploughs were used to turn the soil.
65 Reservoirs and Irrigation Canals Once the floods quit and the fields dried, the plants would die. The mud that the Nile left behind needed lots of watering. The ancient Egyptians tried to trap as much flood water as possible, so they did not have to constantly get water from the river. They built mud-brick reservoirs to trap and hold the water. They also had a network of irrigation canals that filled with water during the flood and were refilled from the reservoirs.
66 A Shaduf To lift the water from the canal they used a shaduf. A shaduf is a large pole balanced on a crossbeam, a rope and bucket on one end and a heavy counter weight at the other. By pulling the rope it lowered the bucket into the canal. The farmer then raised the bucket of water by pulling down on the weight. He then swung the pole around and emptied the bucket onto the field.
67 Scribes Scribes were the few Egyptians who knew how to read and write. Being a scribe was an extremely difficult job because in total, there were hundreds of different hieroglyphs to remember. A scribe's job was highly regarded in Ancient Egypt. Although highly regarded, it took as long as twelve years to train as a scribe. Only boys went to school to learn to be scribes. The scribes used a kind of paper called papyrus, which was made from reeds otherwise known as the papyrus plant.
68 Chariot Making The chariot paved its way into the Egyptian culture around 1500 B.C. The Egyptian chariot was unique in that it was constructed to be handsome and light in weight. This was probably due to a lack of wood along the Nile River. The Egyptians designed the chariot with the human standing directly over the axle of the chariot. By accomplishing this there was less stress put on the horse(s) because the rider’s weight was distributed to the chariot rather than to the horse.
69 Garment Making Women were in charge of textile manufacturing and garment making. Every garment from the decorative dresses of queens and the elaborate, pleated kilts of the pharaohs to the simpler kilts and aprons of the common people were handmade by woman. The process of making garments was extensive even for the simplest of garment. Most Egyptians wore garments made from linen. This type of fabric is light, airy, and allows freedom of movement, which were important characteristics because of the hot and sometimes humid climate of Egypt. The tools involved in garment making included knives (or scissors) and needles, both of these needed to be molded, shaped or carved. With these tools and linen, garments were fashioned to suit the needs of the people based on climate and the social status.
70 Glass Making Glass making began as a result of the process of firing clay pots. The sand and slag used in making clay pots melted together to make glass. Early examples of glass were in the form of beads. It was found that when metal oxides were added to the glass nuggets, various colors resulted. There is also early evidence for glass blowing.
71 Papyrus Making Papyrus was very important to the ancient Egyptians. Once the technology of papyrus making was developed, its method of production was kept secret allowing the Egyptians to have a monopoly on it. The first use of papyrus paper is believed to have been 4000 BC. The raw material of papyrus paper comes from the plant Cyperus papyrus. This plant grew along the banks of the Nile and provided the Egyptians with the necessary raw materials. No substitution for papyrus paper could be found that was as durable and lightweight until the development of pulped paper by the Arabs. The way of making pulp paper was far easier to produce but not as durable. This not only led to a decline in papyrus paper making, but also to a decline in the papyrus plant cultivation. Eventually, the papyrus plant disappeared from the area of the Nile, where it was once the lifeblood for ancient Egypt. Papyrus making was not revived until around 1969. An Egyptian scientist named Dr. Hassan Ragab reintroduced the papyrus plant to Egypt and started a papyrus plantation near Cairo. He also had to research the method of production. Because the exact methods for making papyrus paper was such a secret, the ancient Egyptians left no written records as to the manufacturing process. Dr. Ragab finally figured out how it was done, and now papyrus making is back in Egypt after a very long absence.
72 Method of Papyrus Paper Making The stalks of the papyrus plant are harvested. Next the green skin of the stalk is removed and the inner pith is taken out and cut into long strips. The strips are then pounded and soaked in water for 3 days until pliable. The strips are then cut to the length desired and laid horizontally on a cotton sheet overlapping about 1 millimeter. Other strips are laid vertically over the horizontal strips resulting in the criss-cross pattern in papyrus paper. Another cotton sheet is placed on top. The sheet is put in a press and squeezed together, with the cotton sheets being replaced until all the moisture is removed. Finally, all the strips are pressed together forming a single sheet of papyrus paper.
73 Ancient Egyptian Quarrying Limestone blocks for the outer casing of buildings were quarried on the east bank of the Nile. –Some of the men employed here painted their names on the giant stones that they cut. Limestone was quarried one of two ways –Obtained from the surface rock Easier, but not as high quality –Obtained by tunneling Tools Used for Quarrying –Saws and chisels which were capable of cutting any kind of limestone –wedges How did they move the huge rocks? –Most likely they used manpower to pull the rock up onto large barges that would take it close to where it was needed. –Then it would be pulled inch by inch onto a large sled-like contraption that would be pulled. Large amounts of water were poured on the ground in front of the sled in order to ensure that there was less friction.
74 References The pictures and information included in this PowerPoint were taken from these websites. http://www.touregypt.net/kids/ http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/index.htm http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/menu.html http://www.iwebquest.com/egypt/ancientegypt.htm http://www.woodlands- junior.kent.sch.uk/Homework/egypt/index.htm http://www.mrdowling.com/604egypt.html http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/index.shtml