Presentation on theme: "The four most important Antarctic explorers were probably Roald Amundsen, Sir Ernest Shackleton, Robert Falcon Scott, and Richard E. Byrd. But probably."— Presentation transcript:
The four most important Antarctic explorers were probably Roald Amundsen, Sir Ernest Shackleton, Robert Falcon Scott, and Richard E. Byrd. But probably the most famous explorer of them all is Sir Ernest Shackleton. He was born on February 17, 1874, and died on January 25, 1922, on South Georgia Island. When he went to Antarctica for the first time in 1901-1902 with Robert Falcon Scott, almost no one had gone there before. He made another trip to Antarctica in 1907-1909. In December 1911, the first trip to the South Pole was made. It was done by a Norwegian scientist, Roald Amundsen, who lived from 1872 to 1928. He was the first person to make it back all the way to his home. Other scientists could not make it back, and would die on their way either back to their ship or on their way back to their homes. It was surprising to all the people that he made it back
Old Antarctic clothing main purpose was to be weatherproof and easy to move around in. A major problem with these clothes was that they did not allow any moisture to escape. The problem was that they did not allow any moisture to escape. Captain Robert Scott's expedition to the South Pole in 1911-1912 gave useful info about appropriate clothing for Antarctica. Scott was protected from the weather but no moisture could escape from their clothes. They couldn't remove any clothing without exposing parts of themselves, like their hands, to the ice/snow/wind. This was dangerous because it was easy to develop frostbite. These days, most people in Antarctica keep warm by layering their clothes. Layering keeps them warm and allows them to take off some clothes if they are too hot.
Roald Amundsen, Sir Ernest Shackleton, Robert Falcon Scott, Richard E. Byrd. Douglas Mawson Frank Bickerton
Old Antarctic clothing main purpose was to be weatherproof and easy to move around in. A major problem with these clothes was that they did not allow any moisture to escape. The problem was that they did not allow any moisture to escape.
Mr Scott's team died on there way back to their ship because they were wearing wool instead of heavy down parkas. Amundsen's team wore heavy down parkas and made it back to their homes. It was a very long and difficult journey, and it took them almost two years to do it. They were travelling by foot, on sled, and in their ships for over 2000 miles! In 1911, a British trip was led by Robert Falcon Scott. He reached the South Pole five weeks after Mr Amundsen. Instead of using Normal materials, like down parkas and other Antarctic winter equipment, they used wool. Wool is not a very heavy material. When Scott and his crew were leaving and hiking back to their ship, wearing wool, they stopped for a break about a mile from their ship. It was so cold that they froze to death. Scott was born in 1868 and died in 1912, the year after he went there.
Ernest Shackleton was a famous British Antarctic explorer. In 1908, Shackleton led his first expedition to Antarctica on the 'Nimrod' and established a base camp at Cape Royds. By November 1908, Shackleton and his team had discovered and climbed the Beadmore Glacier. Mr Shackleton and his men reached further south than anyone else before them. Although they were only 180 kilometres from the South Pole, they were forced back by starvation and terrible weather. Nonetheless, Mr Shackleton and his team had walked 2,736 kilometres across the coldest place on Earth. Mr Shackleton was made famous for his efforts and was knighted by King Edward the 7th of England. Sir Ernest Shackleton. He was born on February 17, 1874, and died on January 25, 1922, on South Georgia Island. When he went to Antarctica for the first time in 1901-1902 with Robert Falcon Scott, almost no one had gone there before. He made another trip to Antarctica in 1907-1909.
Frank Bickerton is largely unknown despite his prominent role in several daring expeditions in the early part of the 20th century. Bickerton moved to Plymouth as a child in 1895 after his father drowned at Torcross. His mother died shortly afterwards, but he continued to live in the city until 1920. Bickerton accompanied Sir Douglas Mawson's Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-14) as engineer and was responsible for the pioneering use of an aeroplane and wireless telegraphy in the Antarctic. He also led a three-man sledging expedition which discovered the first meteorite to be found in the Antarctic. Bickerton was awarded the prestigious Polar Medal in silver and was subsequently recruited by Sir Ernest Shackleton for the ill-fated Endurance expedition. Although he was involved in the preparatory testing work for this expedition, he eventually decided to fight on the Western Front - first as a trenches officer and then as an observer and fighter pilot with the Royal Flying Corps. He shot down two German aircraft and was credited as being one of the first men to demonstrate that the Sopwith Camel could be flown as a night fighter. Bickerton later farmed in Newfoundland and Africa; led a safari in Africa; helped to found one of California's most prestigious golf clubs and fought with distinction with the RAF during World War II. Frank Bickerton died in Wales in 1954.
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