Presentation on theme: "1. PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA AND THEIR IMPACT ON INDIAN HISTORY."— Presentation transcript:
1. PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA AND THEIR IMPACT ON INDIAN HISTORY
"Physical FEATURES OF INDIA AND THEIR IMPACT ON INDIAN HISTORY"
I.INTRODUCTION:- The history of a country nation or race is deeply influenced by the Physical features such as mountains, rivers, plains, rain, seasons, and types of soil of that Country.Its area was 18,00,000 square miles before the partition of 1947. II. PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA THE HIMALAYAS AND ITS EASTERN AND WESTERN RANGES. THE NORTHERN PLAINS OF THE GANGA AND THE SINDA. THE DECCAN PLATEAU EASTERN AND WESTERN COASTAL PLAINS
II IMPACT OF PHYSICAL REATURES ON INDIAN HISTORY A Political Effects Separation from North Asia. Natural Protection from three sides. Foreign invasions from north west. Punjab-the area of decisive battle of India. Growth of Important empires in Northern India. Guerilla method of warfare. Delhi as the capital of India. B Economic effect Economic prosperity of India. Growth of Important cities. Agriculture-Main occupation of Indians. Development of Industries and Foreign Trade.
C Religions effects Growth of Hinduism Birth of Buddhism and jainism. Greater Influence of Islam in north India. Preservation of Hinduism in the Deccan. DSocial Cultural effects. The martial Races of India-sikh, Rajputs, marathas. Different Living style of people of south India. Unity in Diversity. Composite Culture of the India. Development of various Arts and Literature. CONLCUSION The physical features of India have influenced the Indian History right from the ancient time to Modern times.
2. SOURCES OF ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY
Introduction- Sources are essential for writing the history of Ancient India. The chief among these are: Literary Sources and Archaeological sources. Literary Sources:- A.Religious literature B.Secular literature C.Accounts of Foreigners. A Religious Literature I.The Hindu Literature The vedas.- The Rigveda The samveda, The Aturavaveda, The yajurveda Upnishads The Ramayana, The Maha Bharta, The Puranas II The Buddhist Literature Tripitakas- viney pitak, suta pitak, Abhidham pitak. Jatakas, Deepvansha, Mahavansha III Jain Literature- 12 Angas, 12 Up-Angas, 10 prakaran, 6 Chhed sutra
BSecular Literature: Panini's "Ashtadhyayi" Chand Bardai's "Prithvi Raj Raso" Vishakhdatta's "Mudrarakshas" Kalidas- "malvikagnimitram", "Abhigyan Shakuntalam". harshvardhan-"Ratanavali", "Priyadarshika", "Nayananda". CAccounts of Foreign Travelers. Megeshenese-"Indica" Hieun-Tsang-"su-yu-ki" Al-beruni-"Tehkik-i-Hind" Taranath Lama-"History of Buddhism" II ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOURCES: Coins, Inscriptions Monuments and Buildings Weapons and tools Sculpture and Painting Remains and excavations Conclusion:- The scholars have been able to construct the history of ancient Indian on the basis of the available literary and archaeological sources.
3. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
INTRODUCTION :- In 1921-22 A.D. as a result of the excavations made by R.D. Bannerji, Daya Ram Sahni, sir John marshall and Mortimer wheeler at Mohanjodaro and Harappa, a new civilization came in to Lime light, which is known as Harppan Culture. MAIN CENTRES :- Harappa ( in Montgomery districts of Pakistan) Mohenjodaro (in Larkana district of sindh province) Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Rangpur, Lothal (Gujarat) Kotla Nihang khan, Sanghal (Punjab) Banvali, Mitathal (Haryana), Alamgirpur (U.P.)
(I)Town Planning :- (1)Roads (2)Drainage System (3)Houses of Residence (4)The Great Bath at Mohenjodaro (5)The Great Granary at Harappa (6)Assembly Hall (7)Collegiate Building OR Education center, (II) Social life :- (1)Diet, Dress and ornaments (2) Make-Up (3)Means of Entertainment (4)Condition of women (5)Household Articles (6) medicines (7)Education (8)Disposal of Dead.
(III) Economic life :- (1)Agriculture and Rearing of Animal. (2)Other occupation (3)Trade and commerce (4)weights and measurements (5)Art and Industry (6)Hunting and Fishing (7)Use of Metals (IV) Religious life :- (1)worship of Mother Goddess (2)worship of Pashupati Nath (shiva) (3)worship of Animal and Tree worship (4)worship of water Fire and Sun (5)worship of Lings and yoni (6)Faith in magic and charms Conclusion :- Indus valley cavitations is considered one of the most developed cavitations of the World.
4. VEDIC PERIOD
INTRODUCTION :- The word “Aryan” means nobles and of good Family. The Aryan race is considered one of the oldest and most celebrated races of the world. They were very fair and tall. Physically they were strong and well-built- up. According Dr. Radha kumud mookerjee ‘The Indian History is essentially the history of the Aryans.” ORIGINAL HOME OF THE ARYANS : - There are different views about the original home of the Aryans. 1.Central Asian Theary-prof. max Muller, the German Scholar 2.Sapt-sindhu Theory-A.C. Das, Dr. Sampurnanad. 3.Theory of Narth pole-BalGangadhar Tilak. 4.Tibetan Theory-Swami Dayanand saraswati 5.The Austro-Hungarin Thery-Dr. P. Giles
Social, Economic, Religious and Political Life of the Aryans (I)Social Life :- (1)Family life (2)Position of women (3) Ashramas System (4) Caste System (5) Education (6) Diet, Dress and ornaments (7) Means of Entertainment (II) Economic Life :- (1)Rearing of Animals (2)Agriculture (3)Other occupation (4)Trade and commerce
(III) Religious Life :- (1)worship of Nature (2)Mode of worship (3)Yajna and sacrifice (4)Belief in soul (5)Principal of karma (6)No Image worship (IV) Political Life :- (1)king and his duties (2)Govt. officials (3)Sabha and samiti (4)Judicial system (5)Mode of warfare
Conclusion Vedic Civilization and Culture is considered one of the most developed civilizations of the world.
5. Jainism and Buddhisim
Introduction :- 6 th Century B.c is called the period of religious revolution in India. (A) Teachings of Mahavir Swami (i)Five Mahavrat 1. Satya – Truth 2. Ahimsa – Non-violence 3.Asteya – Not to receive anything which is not Freely given 4. Aprigraha – Non-Possession of Property 5. Brahamcharya – Unmarried life
(ii) Tri Ratnas 1. True Faith 2. True knowledge 3. True action (iii) Philosophy of karma (iv) Moksha (v) Fast and meditation (vi) No belief in fod (vii) Opposed to caste system (viii) No belief in yajna and sacrifec (ix) No belief in vedas and holiness of sanskrit language
Teachings of Buddhism (i) Four Noble Truths 1.Sorrows and suffering. 2.Causes of the Sorrows. 3.To get rid of Sorrow. 4.Way to end of Sorrow. (ii) Eight Fold Path (Middle Path) 1.Right Faith. 2.Right thought 3.Right Speech. 4.Right action. 5.True way of Living. 6.True effort. 7.Right Recollection. 8.Right meditation,
(iii) Moral Life (iv) Non – violence (v) Theory of karma of Rebirth. (vi) Nirvana. (vii) No – Soul Theory. (viii) Silent about the existence of God. (ix) No belief in yajnas and sacrifice. (x) No belief in caste system (xi) No belief in hard penance and Fasting (xii) No Faith in the vedas and sanskrit. (xiii) Challenge to the Brahmnical supermacy. Conclusion :- Thus, Both the jainism and Buddhism gave valuable contribution to Indian culture in many fields.
6. ALEXANDER’S Invasion
(A)Introduction :- Alexander was the son of Philip, king of Macedonia (Greece). He invaded India in 326 B.C. (B) Causes of Alexander’s Invasion :- 1.Desire to conquer world. 2.Wealth of India. 3.Weak Political Condition of India. 4.Invitation by Indian Rulers for Invasion. 5.Defective mode of warfare. 6.No attention to the defense of the Boundary. 7.Desire of Geographical information.
(C) Impact of Alexendess Invasion 1.Rise of Chandragupta Maurya. 2.Contribution in the construction of History. 3.Change in warfare Strategy. 4.New routes opened for Trade and Communication. 5.Impact in the field of Art. 6.Evolution of Gandhar School of Art. 7.Influence of Language, Literature, Astrology and medicine 8.The Indians learnt the art of making coins from the Greeks 9.Mutual contact between Indian and Greek Culture.
Conclusion The above facts make it clear that Alexander’s invasion was an important incident in the Indian History.
7. The Mauryan Empire
(1) Introduction:- The Mauryan dynasty created great emperors like Chandra Gupta Maurya and Ashoka and Indians are proud of them. (II) Conquest of Chandra Gupta Maurya 1.Conquests of Punjab -322 B.C. 2.Conquests of Magadha-321 B.C. 3.Defeat of seleucus-305 B.C. 4.Conquests of western India. 5.Conquests of south India. 6.Extent of the empire :- His empire was from Himalaya in North to Mysore in south and from Bengal in East to sea in west. Afghanistan and Baluchistan in North west and up to the Arabian sea in the west.
(III) Ashoka’s Dhamma :- Ashoka Preached some ethic principles among his subjects through his inscriptions. These ethic principles collectively are termed as Ahoka’s Dhamma or Dharma. (A) Main principles of Dhamma 1.Respect of Elders. 2.Love with younger's. 3.Truth 4.Moral life 5.Self-Examination 6.Non-Violence 7.Charity 8.True Ceremonies. 9.Religious Tolerance 10.Karma Theory
(B) Ashoka’s Efforts to spread Dhamma :- 1.Personal Examples 2.Religious Tours. 3.Dharma Mahamatras. 4.Inscription. 5.Instructions to Government officials. (C) Importance of Dhamma :- 1.Dharmma-vijay in place of Digvijay. 2.Moral life of the people 3.Social unity 4.Decline in the Number of crimes 5.Works of public welfare 6.Ashoka’s popularity. 7.Decline of the mauryan Empire.
(D) The Mauryan Administration (A) Civil Administration :- (i) Central Administration (a)The king (b)The council of Ministers 1.Prime minister 2.Purohit (Minister for Religious affairs) 3.Dowarik (Minister for Royal Palace) 4.Samaharta ( Finance Minister) 5.Sannidhata (Minister of Treasury) 6.Vyavaharik (Law Minister) 7.Dandapal (Police officer) 8.Senapati ( Commander – in – chief of army) 9.Durgapala ( Misister for Forts) 10.Karmantik ( Minister of Mines and Factories)
(ii ) Provincial Administration – The names of the provinces were 1.Magadha-its capital was pataliputra 2.North –western Province Gandhara – Its Capital was Taxila. 3.Western Province Avanti :- Its capital was Ujjain. 4.Southern Province – Its Capital was Suvarnagiri. (iii)District Adminiseration – The provinces were divided into disricts Called “Ahara” or “vish”. Its head was called vishpati. (iv) Administration of cities – The administration of big cities like patlipura, Taxila, and Ujjain was under the charge of a “Nagar Adhyaksh”. (v)Village Adminstration – The head of the village was “Gramini” or “Gramik” Who was assisted by panchayat.
(vi) Financial Administration 1.Land Revenue System - 1/4 of Net Production 2.Other Sources of Income. 3.Expenditure (Vii) Judicial System (Viii) Spy system (B) Military Administration 1.Large and Powerful Army 2.Military council. 3.Weapons of war 4.Rewards. 5.Constriction of Forts.
8. The Gupta Empire
Achievements of Samundragupta (335 A.D. – 375 A.D.) 1.Conquests of Samundragupta. 2.Conquests of North India. 3.Conquests of South India. 4.Conquests of Border States. 5.Relations with foreign power. 6. Ashavamedha yajna 7.Extent of Empire.
Achievements of Chandra Gupta – II Vikramaditya, (375 A.D.- 414 A.D.) Conquests of Chandra Gupta II. 1.Conquests of Saka - Satrapas. (Malwa and Gujarat) 2.War against vanga. (west – Bengal) 3.Conquests of vahilka. 4.Matrimonial alliances of Chandra Gupta II. 5.Extent of Empire.
Social, Economic, Cultural and Scientific development under Guptas. (i) Social life 1.Joint Family system 2.Position of women. 3.Ashram system 4.Caste system 5.Position of slaves. 6.Devdasi System. 7.Diet, Dress and ornaments. 8.Means of entertainment.
(ii) Economic Life 1.Agriculture and Rearing of Animals. 2.Other occupation 3.Guild system. 4.Trade and commerce. (iii) Cultural and Scientific development 1.Architecture. 2.Sculpture. 3.Painting. 4.Literature. 5.Science and Technology.
9. The age of Vardhanas
(I) Introduction :- In the beginning of the 7 th Century A.D., a celebrated ruler of Vardhan Dynasty, king Harsha Vardhan, rose to power at Thaneshwar. (II) Historical Sousees:- 1.An Account of Hieun – Tsang’s Travel. 2.Banabhatta’s Harsha Charit and kadambri. 3.King Harsha’s plays – Nagananda, Priyadarshika, and Ratnavali. 4. Copper plates of Banskhera and Madhubana. 5. A copper seal discovered at sonipat.
(III) Conquest of Harsha Vardhan (606 A.D. to 647 A.D.) 1.Conquest of kannauj 2.Conquest of Sasanka of Bengal – 620 A.D. 3.Conquest of Five pradesh - (606 A.D to 612 A.D) 4.Conquest of vallabhi (Gujrat) 5.War with pulkesin II (630 A.D.) 6.Conquest of Ganjam (Orissa) – 643 A.D. 7.Subordination of the Ruler of kamrup ( Assam) 8.Conquest of Nepal, Sindha Kashmir 9.Friendly Relations with Foreign Countries. 10.Extent of Empire.
(IV) Administration of Harsha Vardhan (i) Central administration 1.King 2.Council of Ministers. (ii) Provincial and local Administration. (iii) Feudal system. (iv) Financial Administration. (v) Judicial system. (vi) Military Administration.
Literary and Religious activities of Harsha vardhan (i) Literary works of Harsha - He wrote three plays – “Ratnavali”, “priyadarshika” and “Nagananda”. His court poet Banabhatt wrote Harsha chrit and Kadambri”. Diwakar and Bhartrihari” were the Famous Scholars of royal Court. (ii) In the Religious Field 1.Adoption of Buddhism by Harsha. 2.Patronage to Buddhism. 3.Patronage to Buddhist Universities. 4.Patronage to Buddhist Scholars. 5.Harsha’s Buddhist Assemblies. (a) Religious Assembly of kannauj – 643 A.D. (b) Religious Assembly of Prayag – 643 A.D. 6. Religious Tolerance – Jainism, Hinduism.
10. Kanishka and his achievements
Introduction:- Kanishka was the greatest and the most celebrated ruler of kushana dynasty. His empire extended over whole of Northern India, Afghanistan, Baluchistan. kaniska combined in himself the military ability of Chandra Gupta Maurya and religious zeal of Ashoka.
(i) Military Achievement of kanishka 1.Conquest of Magadha. 2.Conquest of Kashmir. 3.Conquest of Saka – satraps of Malwa. 4.War against china. 5.Extent of Empire. 6.Death of kanishka – 162 A.D. (ii) Kanishka’s Contribution to the Growth of Buddhism 1.Adoption of Buddhism by kanishka. 2.Fourth Buddhist Council. 3.Necessary Reform in Buddhism 4.Construction of Buddhist viharas. 5.Sending missionaries abroad. 6.Growth of Mahayana 7.Propagation by Art and Literature.
(iii) Growth in Art, (iv) Trade under kanishka (V ) Education and Literature under Kanishka. (VI) Kanishka and Economic development. Conclusion : - Kanishka was the greatest and the most glorious king of kushana dynasty.
11. The Rajputs
(I)Origin of Rajputs – Theories of the origin of the Rajputs- 1.Foreign origin theory. 2.Surya-Vanshi and Chandra-Vanshi origin Theory. 3.Agnikunda origin Theory. 4.Theory of mixed origin. 5.Hence, Majority of the historians agree with the Rajputs were a mixed race, It may be concluded that the Rajputs originated as a result of the mixture of foreign and native elements.
(II) Polity or political organisation and administration of Rajput. 1.Lack of political unity. 2.Mutual conflicts and jealousies of the Rajput Rulers. 3.King – Head of the State. 4.Yuvaraj or crown prince. 5.Patrani or chief Queen. 6. Ministers and High officials. (a) Maha mantri (prime minister) (b) Senapati (commander – in- chief) (c) Mahadandanayaka (Chief police officer) (d) Sandhivigrahak (Foreign minister) (e) Purohit (minister of religious affairs) (f) Pratihar (minister of Royal palace)
7. Provincial Administration. 8. Feudal system. 9. Mode of warfare. 10. Attachment of the class. 11. Financial system. 12. Judicial system. 13 police system. 14. Military organization.
(III) Social life 1.Rajputs – Brave and courageous. 2.Caste system 3.Position of women. 4.Honest and truthful people. 5.Diet, Dress and ornaments. 6.Slavery 7.Entertainment 8.Some social Evils – Lack of unit, Ego, sati System, child marriage. Killing of female child. (IV) Culture under The Rajputs – 1.Architecture and sculpture. 2.Painting. 3.Literature. 4.Education.