3Knowledge and vocabulary are directly related to reading Reminder…Extensive research supports the necessity for reading on grade level in early elementary grades, with the consequences being directly related to HS graduation ratesThe achievement gap grows the longer students are in schoolThe gap is not caused by lack of critical thinking, failure to use comprehension strategies, failure to master “standards”Knowledge and vocabulary are directly related to readingRECAP of liben presentations
4Five Essential Studies Hernandez 2011, “Double Jeopardy”Lesnick et al 2010, “Reading on Grade Level in Third Grade: How Is it Related to High School Performance and College Enrollment?”Fletcher and Lyon 1998, 74% of 3rd graders who read poorly will still be struggling in 9th grade.Snow et al 1998, “A person who is not at least a modestly skilled reader by the end of third grade is quite unlikely to graduate from high school.”Juel 1988, 1st grade reading scores are a “reliable predictor of later reading scores.”Hernandez 2011 from the Annie E. Casey Foundation showed that students that are not reading proficient by third grade are 4 times less likely to graduate from high school on time than students who are reading proficiently in 3rd grade.These 5 studies all suggest that if you are not reading successfully by at least the third grade your chances of catching up are low. This is both distressing and puzzling. Why would scores so early be such a strong predictor of outcomes later?
5The Baseball Study Recht & Leslie (1988) Compared reading comprehension for four categories of students:High reading abilityHigh knowledge of baseballLow knowledge of baseballLow reading abilityQuick check for understanding/following along. Ask people who they think was in each category (i.e. likely “jocks” in the low reading ability, high baseball knowledge group; “nerds” in the high ability low knowledge of baseball group).The students in these 4 groups read a passage about baseball and then took a test of their comprehension. Ask participants to predict what % of questions on a reading comprehension test each category of student would get right. The best is for them to draw a grid on their paper and put an actual % of predicted questions correct in each quadrant. Tell them that the colors are so they can quickly match the group with the graphs on the next slide.Technical Notes:“The high-ability /high-knowledge cell had 10 boys and 6 girls; the high ability/low-knowledge cell had 3 boys and 13 girls; the low-ability/high-knowledge cell had 12 boys and 4 girls; and the low-ability/low knowledge cell had 7 boys and 9 girls.”High reading ability was defined as 70th percentile or higher on a standardized test of reading. Low reading ability was defined as 30th percentile or lower.High knowledge of baseball was defined as 70th percentile or higher on a test of baseball knowledge. Low baseball ability was defined as 30th percentile or lower.
6After they predict percentages, show them this slide and give them a minute to take it in. They should notice that the low reading ability students with high knowledge (the “jocks”) outperformed the high reading ability students with low knowledge (the “nerds”). In addition there is little difference between the two high knowledge groups and the two low knowledge groups.from pg. 18, table 1, Recht & Leslie (Qualitative Measure) Note: conversion from raw numbers to percentages achieved by dividing score by achieved by total possible score.Frequently Asked Questions:Is this study generalizable? Yes! In fact a European study replicated the finding exactly with students of a totally different background on the topic of soccer. Additional research has shown similar results on a wide variety of other topic and subject areas.Is the impact here from knowledge or from interest? Knowledge. It’s hard to disentangle these variables, but a separate study using basketball was able to distinguish the two and found that the one that had the major impact was knowledge.If knowledge is so important does this undermine the value of close reading? No. Close reading teaches students how to gain knowledge from text by attending to it carefully. But, as we will soon discuss, high volume reading of informational text is also necessary to build the base of knowledge and vocabulary necessary to succeed with close reading. This is a BOTH, AND type of question, not an either or.
7FindingsKnowledge of the topic had a MUCH bigger impact on comprehension than generalized reading ability did (pg. 18)With sufficient prior knowledge “low ability” students performed similarly to higher ability students. (pg. 19) The difference in their performance was not statistically significant.The second bullet point here has a big implication for student scaffolds. By helping students build their knowledge, “low readers” can perform at levels similar to “high readers.”Reference:“With adequate prior knowledge, those students who are comprehending below the 30th percentile on the SRA [standardize reading assessment] are comparable with those above the 30th percentile in reenactment, verbal recall, and the ability to summarize text.” (pg. 19)
8The Causes What they are NOT What they ARE Lack of critical thinking Failure to know or use comprehension strategiesFailure to master the standardsVocabulary: Failure to grow sufficient vocabularyKnowledge: Failure to develop wide background knowledgeFluency: Failure to become a fluent readerWHAT THIS MEANS:Students now have an extremely small window to graduate high school with the knowledge, vocabulary, and skills necessary to navigate successfully in college and/or career.
9Imagine what it’s like to be a student with a vocabulary and knowledge deficit on test day… Talk about the words and phrases that are not redacted because the words may be known, but not in the combinations as they appear here, nor with the intended meaning (which could be determined by context, if the context didn’t also contain redacted words and words that may be fuzzy)Example: body of knowledgeHuman social communityTraining, prejudiceGram of fluff
11What To Do About Vocabulary and Knowledge “Building knowledge systematically in English language arts is like giving children various pieces of a puzzle in each grade that, over time, will form one big picture…”From the standards:Building knowledge systematically in English language arts is like giving children various pieces of a puzzle in each grade that, over time, will form one big picture. At a curricular or instructional level, texts—within and across grade levels—need to be selected around topics or themes that systematically develop the knowledge base of students. Within a grade level, there should be an adequate number of titles on a single topic that would allow children to study that topic for a sustained period. The knowledge children have learned about particular topics in early grade levels should then be expanded and developed in subsequent grade levels to ensure an increasingly deeper understanding of these topics. Children in the upper elementary grades will generally be expected to read these texts independently and reflect on them in writing. However, children in the early grades (particularly K–2) should participate in rich, structured conversations with an adult in response to the written texts that are read aloud, orally comparing and contrasting as well as analyzing and synthesizing, in the manner called for by the Standards. Preparation for reading complex informational texts should begin at the very earliest elementary school grades. What follows is one example that uses domain specific nonfiction titles across grade levels to illustrate how curriculum designers and classroom teachers can infuse the English language arts block with rich, age-appropriate content knowledge and vocabulary in history/social studies, science, and the arts. Having students listen to informational read-alouds in the early grades helps lay the necessary foundation for students’ reading and understanding of increasingly complex texts on their own in subsequent grades
122014 and 1/2015 ELA CC Regents Exam Topics & Tasks Carl Sagan, Broca’s BrainWang Anyi, The Song of Everlasting SorrowStephen Hawking & Leonard Mlodinow, “The (Elusive) Theory of Everything”Consumer privacyThe economics of hosting the Olympic GamesEthics of De-extinctionAnna Howard Shaw, Women’s Suffrage, 1915Red Jacket, Chief of the Seneca Nation, Speech to US War Dept, 1801Henry D. Thoreau , Walden, 1910
13The HS ELA standards are built off a foundation in the preceding grades This foundation includes: reading of grade-level complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
14What To Do About Vocabulary and Knowledge In the HS grades, addressing vocabulary and knowledge gaps is akin to emergency triage—but it is still necessary!Building habits of mind, exposing students to a volume of non-fiction texts, making interdisciplinary connectionsEnhancing understanding of Literary texts, including contemporary relevanceFrom the standards:Building knowledge systematically in English language arts is like giving children various pieces of a puzzle in each grade that, over time, will form one big picture. At a curricular or instructional level, texts—within and across grade levels—need to be selected around topics or themes that systematically develop the knowledge base of students. Within a grade level, there should be an adequate number of titles on a single topic that would allow children to study that topic for a sustained period. The knowledge children have learned about particular topics in early grade levels should then be expanded and developed in subsequent grade levels to ensure an increasingly deeper understanding of these topics. Children in the upper elementary grades will generally be expected to read these texts independently and reflect on them in writing. However, children in the early grades (particularly K–2) should participate in rich, structured conversations with an adult in response to the written texts that are read aloud, orally comparing and contrasting as well as analyzing and synthesizing, in the manner called for by the Standards. Preparation for reading complex informational texts should begin at the very earliest elementary school grades. What follows is one example that uses domain specific nonfiction titles across grade levels to illustrate how curriculum designers and classroom teachers can infuse the English language arts block with rich, age-appropriate content knowledge and vocabulary in history/social studies, science, and the arts. Having students listen to informational read-alouds in the early grades helps lay the necessary foundation for students’ reading and understanding of increasingly complex texts on their own in subsequent grades
15Connection between Volume of Reading, Knowledge, and Vocabulary Research by Landauer and Dumais into vocabulary acquisition shows that students acquire vocabulary up to four times faster when they read a series of related texts.Reading a number of texts within a topic grows knowledge and vocabulary far faster than any other approach
16How Does Volume of Reading Complement Close Reading?
18Volume of Reading and Texts Sets Text sets focus onvolume of reading;gaining knowledge about a topic through reading a range of complexities;light teacher support;student-driven/ independenceClear and repetitive practice for accountability from pre-existing choiceContrast this to the typical way we do business where we skip around from topic to topic, plants today, tree mammal tomorrow, the colonies the day after. Instead we need to spend time reading several texts within the same topic in order to build knowledge and vocabulary faster. With the huge volume of words and huge bodies of knowledge that students need to learn, we can’t afford to not use the most effective, fastest way to gain this knowledge.The research referenced here is what led to the creation of the idea of text sets: a thoughtfully sequenced series of texts designed to build knowledge and vocabulary.
19What is a Text Set?A text set is a set of “texts” around a similar topic, theme, or idea.Strong text sets share common vocabulary, which helps bolster students’ vocabulary knowledge through repeated readings.Strong text sets also provide students with repeated readings about similar ideas, which allow them to build knowledge.
20Strong Whole-Class Text Set, Grade 7 Anchor: A Christmas Carol, Charles Dickens (Literary, non-leveled or adapted version)“The Gift of the Magi,” O. Henry (Literary, Appendix B Exemplar)“The Treasure of Lemon Brown,” Walter Dean Myers (Literary)Reader’s Theatre version of A Christmas Carol (SCOPE Magazine, Scholastic) (Literary)“Charles Dickens: Six Things He Gave the Modern World,” Alex Hudson (BBC News) (Informational)Live drama/film of A Christmas Carol EXCERPTOriginal Manuscript of A Christmas Carol with Dickens’ revisions (New York Times)Theme around Dickens and “A Christmas Carol” – deep dive
21Text Set as Mini-Assessment Grade 9 The Manhattan Project TextsBased on a series of texts about theManhattan Project and President Truman’s communication to Joseph Stalin regarding the United States’ development of an atomic bomb.Questions may address several standards within the same question; complex texts tend to yield rich assessment questions that call for deep analysis.In this mini-assessment there are eleven selected-response or Additionally, there is an optional writing prompt, which is aligned to both the Reading Standards for Informational Texts and the Writing Standards.
22Systems that Must be in Place ContentELLELASWDAISCross Content CommunicationShared understanding of knowledge and vocabulary process and deficitsCross Service Communication: ELL, AIS, SWD, ELA
23An Expert Pack Text SetCollection of resources organized for students to build knowledge about a specific topic; ideally related to a topic in general education classroomGlossary of terms to help students access challenging vocabularySuggested activities to help students capture and express their learningAs independent as possible: in this process the bulk of the teacher work is pre-loaded.
24Expert Pack ResourcesText broadly defined: text, graphic novel/text, free articles (readworks), art, infographic, interactive graphics and text, interviews, audio, etc.Text sequenced generally beginning with lower reading levels (quantitative and qualitative) and moving to more complex levels.Support students’ ability to read the next selection (mostly) independently or in pairs.Students develop expertise on the topic.Topics ideally connected in some way to a content area curriculum .
25Expert Pack Development of Steps Text Selection (between 8 and 10 texts)Vocabulary Selection (teacher identifies anticipated vocabulary within each text)Suggested Activities: Learning worth remembering for specific texts and developing conversation across text includes:Summary: table where students record text, their central learning, and how this learning builds on/adds to learning from previous textVocabulary “sensational six:” students select vocabulary that they think is critical to understanding text, locate definition, and use it in a sentence specifically about the text
26Expert Pack Development of Steps Student accountability – is this work worth doing?“light touch approach” for teachers and students. Can this be done easily and mostly independently?Picture of knowledge (students record something they read that was interesting, taught you something new, made you want to learn more, and is still confusing)Quizmaker – students develop questions for other students for reading of text, that require the text to develop the answer.Wonderings: I am still confused about/ This made me wonderUsing vocabulary in discussion of text
27Of Mice and Men and text set What kind of text set?Assessment? Expert Pack?Extension?What topic could I concentrate on that would support student understanding of the central text and provide background that does not give students answers to the central questions that we will be exploring in the module, but provides a foundation that may benefit students in knowledge and vocabulary as they tackle the text?Dust bowl and migrant workers? To what extent?
28You Try: OMAM Expert Pack-in-progress Read the sample OMAM expert pack and think about the following:What knowledge about the world and words does this text provide?How can this knowledge benefit students as they read Of Mice and Men?How can this knowledge benefit students in other texts and topics they may encounter in ELA or other subject area classes?Sequence of textsWhere texts work or don’t work for this purposehow will these texts (including graphics/images) support and enhance understanding of the context of the novel? Of other texts and topics they may encounter in ELA or other subject area classes?Sequence of texts—what order would you give these to students with this end goal in mindWhere texts work or don’t work for this purpose—would you ditch one, two, all of these for other resources? Why? What is missing from this set that you feel is needed?
29You Try: OMAM Expert Pack-in-progress Keep in mind the function of the expert pack is ideally supporting struggling students with the goal of building knowledge and vocabulary within a topic
30Learn more!The training materials for SAP’s text Set Project, as well as the completed text sets are housed in an Edmodo group. Follow these steps for access: Make a teacher account atOn the left side of home screen, it will say "Groups" under your name and picture. Click on the "+" next to "Groups" and choose "Join".Type in the group code: sma265 Now, from your home screen, you should see "Text Set Project" listed under "Groups". Click on this tab.Choose "Folders" from the left side of your screen, and, here, you will find all of the materials.