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CHINA. TUESDAY Activation: Map from the last unit. Add China, Huang River. If you lost your map, draw a rough sketch that shows all four ancient civilizations.

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Presentation on theme: "CHINA. TUESDAY Activation: Map from the last unit. Add China, Huang River. If you lost your map, draw a rough sketch that shows all four ancient civilizations."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHINA

2 TUESDAY Activation: Map from the last unit. Add China, Huang River. If you lost your map, draw a rough sketch that shows all four ancient civilizations on it.

3 SSWH2: The student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE. c. Describe the development of Chinese civilization under the Zhou and Qin. d. Explain the impact of Confucianism on Chinese culture; include the examination system, the Mandate of Heaven, the status of peasants, the status of merchants, and the patriarchal family, and explain diffusion to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Korea.

4 TUESDAY Essential Question: What role did rivers play in Chinese life? How did geography influence the development of Chinese culture?

5 TUESDAY Instruction: Geographic and Cultural Influences: Physical Setting, Isolation Work: Fill in the Blank Activity about Geography/Discussion of Activity Assessment: completion of map, geography questions

6 ISOLATION China was isolated from the other ancient civilizations because of its geography.  Mountains to the west  Gobi desert  Distance Developed a distinctive culture  Influenced less by other cultures than any other ancient peoples Strong identity, felt superior to others

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8 RIVERS Huang (Yellow)  2900 miles across China to the Yellow Sea  Fertile soil (loess) gives the river a yellow tint.  “China’s Sorrow” – often devastating floods  Unpredictable rainfall – floods or drought and famine. Chang (Yangtze)  3434 miles  Ocean-going ships can travel 600 miles upstream Xi (Shee)  Southern China  Large commercial waterway

9 TUESDAY Summary/Closing Activity: What role did rivers play in Chinese life? How did geography influence the development of Chinese culture?

10 WEDNESDAY Activation: Chart on page 83: You will complete one section on calendars, economy, government, religion, or writing. You will be assigned which section

11 SSWH2: The student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE. c. Describe the development of Chinese civilization under the Zhou and Qin. d. Explain the impact of Confucianism on Chinese culture; include the examination system, the Mandate of Heaven, the status of peasants, the status of merchants, and the patriarchal family, and explain diffusion to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Korea.

12 WEDNESDAY Essential Question: What were the main features of Shang religious beliefs?

13 WEDNESDAY Instruction: organizer Shang Dynasty Work: Read about your topic, complete the graphic organizer, terms and matching Assessment: Participation in discussion, gathering information on a topic, reading for facts

14 SHANG DYNASTY Invaded the Huang River Valley between 1750 and 1500 B.C. Introduced irrigation and flood control systems  Helped them control people of the region Stretched across 40,000 square miles Created a complex bureaucracy (government with different levels and tasks).  Ruled by hereditary king  Used war chariots and bronze  weapons to defend itself

15 SHANG DYNASTY Farming – millet and rice Raised silkworms - spun thread and wove cloth Artisans worked jade, bone and ivory Potters worked kaolin, glazed Solar and lunar calendars

16 Shang Silk Clothing Shang Jade

17 ANIMISM [AN-UH-MIZ-UHM] Believed spirits inhabited everything. All-powerful, kind dragon lived in seas and rivers – could rise into clouds.  DRAGON as symbol of Chinese rulers. Shangdi – god who controls human destiny and nature.  rulers offer sacrifices and ask ancestors to plead with Shangdi on their behalf. Oracle bones: priests interpret messages from spirits of ancestors – bones heated and cracks are interpreted.

18 LANGUAGE AND WRITING Developed a written language Spoke many dialects  Written language could be used for all dialects  Special symbols for words in language  Pictographs an ideographs  Phonetic sound signs told how to pronounce  Could invent new characters by  Combining signs.  Scribes kept records  Writing became an art  - calligraphy

19 WEDNESDAY Summary/Closing Activity: What were the main features of Shang religious beliefs? If you had lived at that time, what would you have liked/disliked about the Shang religious beliefs?

20 ZHOU DYNASTY [CHIN] Zhou = Began ruling China in 1050 B.C. The Zhou did not create a centralized government, instead they granted territories to members of the royal family and their allies. Zhou rulers believed that the god of heaven decided who should rule - “ MANDATE OF HEAVEN”. ************When a new group overthrew a dynasty they claimed that the previous group had lost the mandate of heaven.*********

21 ZHOU INVENTIONS Invented the crossbow and began to use cavalry in battle. Used iron plows and developed better irrigation systems. Built better roads, which allowed the empire to make contact with outsiders and to trade.

22 END OF THE ZHOU DYNASTY An invading force destroyed the Zhou capital in 771 B.C. The Zhou ruler fled and established a new capital. The Zhou dynasty lasted for 500 more years but lost a lot of its power. New powers, known as the Warring States began to compete for power in China One of the Warring states the Qin [chin], emerged as the leaders

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24 QIN DYNASTY Came to power in 221 B.C. through its military might. The Qin ruler Cheng, founded their dynasty, he took the title Shih Huang Ti (first emperor). They established an autocracy, in which the emperor held total power.  Officials who resisted his control were put to death, or sent north to work on the Great Wall.

25 QIN DYNASTY The Great Wall of China was started during the Qin dynasty Was about 1,500 miles long during Qin times. The Qin employed forced labor for public projects like this, this angered many people. In 206 B.C. a rebel army revolted against the dynasty. Qin died in 210 B.C. – dynasty fell shortly after.  1974 his tomb was discovered – 6,000 life size terra cotta soldiers, each with different faces (realism). In that same year Liu Bang, an army general overthrew the empire and established the Han dynasty.

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27 HAN DYNASTY -Kept power for about 400 years. -Great influence over development of China – some Chinese today call themselves “People of Han”. -Established a civil service system to govern China – system of examinations rather than recommendation based on family connections alone. -Leveling system – price controls to balance economic effects of shortages or surpluses.

28 HAN DYNASTY Silk Road  Trade route from China across Asia to the Mediterranean region.  Sold jade, silk, and other Chinese goods to wealthy Greeks and Romans.  Brought gold, silver and wool back to China.  For 2,000 years, this was the world’s longest road.  Allowed spread of luxury items from China and the way for the positive influence of Buddhism to spread into China. - Fall of Han dynasty followed by countless nomadic people coming through China.

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30 PHILOSOPHIES OF ANCIENT CHINA Zhou period was one of the most creative in the area of Chinese philosophy. At the root of many Chinese philosophies was an ancient Chinese belief regarding dualism, or two-sidedness of nature. This idea states that everything in the world results from a balance between the two forces. The force known as yin is female, dark, and passive. The opposite force yang is male, bright, and active. Yin and Yang are not in conflict with each other instead they depend on each other.

31 CONFUCIUS Lived from 551 B.C. – 449 B.C. his followers collected his ideas and teachings in a work called the Analects, his teachings became known as Confucianism. He taught the importance of family, respect for one’s elders, and reverence for the past and one’s ancestors. These three concepts form the basis of Confucius philosophy!!!!! He sought to end political disorder of his time. He was concerned with ideas about political and social unrest and how moral and ethical leadership could solve those problems (not concerned with purely religious matters)

32 CONFUCIUS His teachings were the most influential philosophy in Chinese life. He aimed to encourage strong, positive behavior from Chinese leadership. He had two ways to accomplish this: Every person should willingly accept his or her role in society and should perform the duties of that role. The government and its leaders should be virtuous.

33 THURSDAY Summary/Closing Activity: Write a paragraph designed to persuade readers that the achievements of the Han dynasty mark a cultural and economic highpoint in Chinese history. Consider the following in your answer: The development of the civil service Liu Ch’e’s policy of leveling Trade along the Silk Road

34 DAOISM Founded by Laozi. He taught that people should withdraw from the world and contemplate nature. that people should not strive for material wealth, he also shunned politics, he advised people not to seek power, rather they should work to bring themselves into harmony with the Dao. Tao (Dao) “ The Way ”

35 DAOISM Daoism and Confucianism = balance Daoism came second in importance only to Confucianism in Chinese life. It appealed to many peasants because of its focus on natural forces.

36 LEGALISM Concerned itself with politics. Legalist believed in power – not virtue – and in harsh laws. people were naturally selfish and untrustworthy. Peace and prosperity could only be accomplished by threatening severe punishment if people did not obey the laws.

37 LEGALISM IN PRACTICE The first Qin emperor Cheng followed legalism, he succeeded in creating a very powerful empire. The government of the Han accepted many of the legalistic ideas. The Han rulers followed more moderate principles of Confucianism. The Han found balance between legalism and Confucianism.

38 BUDDHISM IN CHINA Missionaries from India brought Buddhism to china during the Han dynasty When the Han dynasty fell many Chinese especially peasants turned to Buddhism, because it helped to explain the social unrest they were experiencing. Buddhist temples provided a refuge from the turbulent times. Mahayana Buddhism is what was popular in China.  Worship Buddha as savior  Believe he is committed to helping all humans escape miseries of the world.

39 CHINESE FAMILY Revolved around nuclear family – parents and children. Hierarchical – father, eldest son, younger sons, mother, daughters. Focus on duty, respect for ancestors, filial piety = needs of male head of family or ruler come first.

40 SOCIAL CLASSES Based on desire for order and harmony. Landowners at the top Peasants (90% of society) rank just below landowners - not at bottom as in most societies. Merchants, shopkeepers, traders were the lower class.  Movement between classes wasn’t prohibited, but it didn’t happen often. Chinese Peasant

41 FRIDAY Summary/Closing Activity: How did these beliefs influence Chinese history?


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