Presentation on theme: "of ancient river valley Civilizations Explain empires of Mesopotamia"— Presentation transcript:
1of ancient river valley Civilizations Explain empires of Mesopotamia ObjectivesAssess knowledgeof ancient river valleyCivilizationsExplain empires ofMesopotamiaRecognize HispanicHeritage month10/7 & 10/11
3Geography Important features: Mountains Himalayas Rivers Huang He YangtzeDesertsTaklamakanGobiGeographyTalk to your neighbor –How did these physicalfeatures affect the developmentof ancientChineseCivilizations?
4Mountains Deserts, Ocean Rivers Provided protection from invaders – isolated – no trade with outsidersMountainsDeserts, OceanRiversProvided water and fertile soil. Loess (windblown silt) from unpredictable flooding of the Huang He River replenished the soil with nutrients. It also colored the river yellow, giving it the name “Yellow River”
5The Huang HeRiver has alsobeen called“China’sSorrow” because of itshistory ofdevastating floods.
9The first civilizations emerged on the Huang He River around 2000 BCE. PoliticalThe first civilizations emergedon the Huang He River around2000 BCE.Hereditary RuleThe ruler’s sonbecame the rulerafter the rulerdied.Ruling powerstayed in thefamily.China’s earliestgovernments weredynasties.What is a dynasty?
10There were three dynasties in Ancient China: Political1. The first dynasty was the Xia but little is known because there are no written records2. The Shang dynasty followed and many artifacts and writings were found in its capital city of Anyang.
11AnyangSurrounded by a massive wall – 118 feet wide and 1.2 milesWhat can you conclude about their government?PoliticalArtifacts included the chariot and bronze weapons.Ruled by a king
12Some houses were larger and enclosed within the wall. AnyangSome houses were larger and enclosed within the wall.Others were poorly constructed and were outside the wall.Talk to your neighbor. Who lived within the walls and who lived outside the walls?
13By 1027 BCE, the Shang Dynasty was overthrown and the third dynasty began called the Zhou Dynasty. PoliticalZhou rulers justified their use of force by claiming that they had the “Mandate of Heaven”
15Ancient Dynasties of China Political256 BCE1532 BCE1027 BCEZhou DynastybeginsShang DynastyQin DynastyEra ofWarring StatesAlmost 900 years of ruleOver time, the Zhou government became de-centralized and regional nobles gained more and more power. A system of feudalism developed. What is feudalism?
16Feudalism: A government system in which regional landowners grant land to knights or warriors in exchange for loyalty and protection.During the last 500 years of Zhou rule, regional rulers were constantly at war with each other. This period is called the Era of Warring States.Political
17geography affect its economy? Talk to your neighbor. How did China’sgeography affect its economy?Talk to your neighbor.Because of China’s isolation by natural barriers, there wasnot much trade outside of ChinaIts economy was agricultural.
18EconomyAs territory in the North and South were united during the Zhou dynasty, China gained crop diversity: grains from the northern fields and rice from the south led to rise in population. Rice would become a staple in the Asian diet.
19EconomyBecause China was geographically isolated, it did not trade with other civilizationsuntil the Classical period (500 BCE-500 CE). In the Classical period, it would become a manufacturer to the world, trading along the Silk Road and Indian Ocean routes.Porcelain
20From its earliest history, Chinese culture emphasized: Importance of familyThe group is more important than the individual
21Religious beliefs:Ancestor worship: Deceased ancestors could bring good fortune or disaster.Through ancestors, gods were worshipped, especially a supreme god, Shang Di.The Chinese consultedthe gods using oracle bones.Religion
22Religion Questions were etched into the bones of animals, usually turtleshells.The bones would then beexposed to heat.The cracks in the shellwere then interpretedto see how the godsanswered.Oracle bone
23Society Society was comprised of nobles and peasants. The nobles were landowners. The peasants worked the land for the nobles.
24SocietyWomen were expected to obey their fathers and husbands. Their marriages were arranged when they were years old.The most important job for a woman was to produce a son.
25Chinese writing developed from pictographs or drawings of objects. The system used today is directly related to thewritings found on oracle bones from the Shang dynasty.Intellectual
26There is no connection between written and spoken Chinese IntellectualThere is no connection between written and spoken ChineseAdvantage: Someone can read Chinese without knowing how to speak itLoveA common language developed during the Zhou Dynasty – Mandarin Chinese
27Achievements Artifacts from Anyang The Shang civilization excelled at usingbronzefor weapons,carryingvessels andbeautifulobjects.Chariotswere inventedand used in battle
28Achievements Silk production began during the Shang dynasty and became a prized fabric of the nobles.Silk thread from silkworms is woven to make beautifulcloth.
29Achievements During the Zhou Dynasty they: Built roads and canals Developed blast furnaces that allowed them to produce cast iron
30Coined money also developed during the Zhou Dynasty. AchievementsIron was used for weapons and farm tools which expanded agriculture for China’s growing cities.Coined money also developedduring the Zhou Dynasty.