Presentation on theme: "Objectives Assess knowledge of ancient river valley Civilizations Explain empires of Mesopotamia Recognize Hispanic Heritage month 10/7 & 10/11."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Assess knowledge of ancient river valley Civilizations Explain empires of Mesopotamia Recognize Hispanic Heritage month 10/7 & 10/11
China Huang He River Civilization
Geography Important features: Mountains Himalayas Rivers Huang He Yangtze Deserts Taklamakan Gobi Talk to your neighbor – How did these physical features affect the development of ancient Chinese Civilizations?
Mountains Deserts, Ocean Rivers Provided protection from invaders – isolated – no trade with outsiders Provided water and fertile soil. Loess (windblown silt) from unpredictable flooding of the Huang He River replenished the soil with nutrients. It also colored the river yellow, giving it the name “Yellow River”
The Huang He River has also been called “China’s Sorrow” because of its history of devastating floods.
Taklamakan Desert with snow
The Gobi Desert
The Yangtze River
Political China’s earliest governments were dynasties. What is a dynasty? The first civilizations emerged on the Huang He River around 2000 BCE. Hereditary Rule The ruler’s son became the ruler after the ruler died. Ruling power stayed in the family.
1. The first dynasty was the Xia but little is known because there are no written records 2. The Shang dynasty followed and many artifacts and writings were found in its capital city of Anyang. Political There were three dynasties in Ancient China:
Anyang Surrounded by a massive wall – 118 feet wide and 1.2 miles What can you conclude about their government? Political Artifacts included the chariot and bronze weapons. Ruled by a king
Some houses were larger and enclosed within the wall. Others were poorly constructed and were outside the wall. Anyang Talk to your neighbor. Who lived within the walls and who lived outside the walls?
By 1027 BCE, the Shang Dynasty was overthrown and the third dynasty began called the Zhou Dynasty. Political Zhou rulers justified their use of force by claiming that they had the “Mandate of Heaven”
Ancient Dynasties of China 1027 BCE 256 BCE Zhou Dynasty begins Qin Dynasty Shang Dynasty 1532 BCE Almost 900 years of rule Over time, the Zhou government became de- centralized and regional nobles gained more and more power. A system of feudalism developed. What is feudalism? Era of Warring States Political
Feudalism: A government system in which regional landowners grant land to knights or warriors in exchange for loyalty and protection. During the last 500 years of Zhou rule, regional rulers were constantly at war with each other. This period is called the Era of Warring States. Political
How did China’s geography affect its economy? Talk to your neighbor. Because of China’s isolation by natural barriers, there was not much trade outside of China Its economy was agricultural. Economy
As territory in the North and South were united during the Zhou dynasty, China gained crop diversity: grains from the northern fields and rice from the south led to rise in population. Rice would become a staple in the Asian diet. Economy
Because China was geographically isolated, it did not trade with other civilizations until the Classical period (500 BCE-500 CE). In the Classical period, it would become a manufacturer to the world, trading along the Silk Road and Indian Ocean routes. Porcelain
Chinese Culture From its earliest history, Chinese culture emphasized: Importance of family The group is more important than the individual
Religion Religious beliefs: Ancestor worship: Deceased ancestors could bring good fortune or disaster. Through ancestors, gods were worshipped, especially a supreme god, Shang Di. The Chinese consulted the gods using oracle bones.
Questions were etched into the bones of animals, usually turtle shells. The bones would then be exposed to heat. The cracks in the shell were then interpreted to see how the gods answered. Religion Oracle bone
Society Society was comprised of nobles and peasants. The nobles were landowners. The peasants worked the land for the nobles.
Women were expected to obey their fathers and husbands. Their marriages were arranged when they were years old. The most important job for a woman was to produce a son. Society
Intellectual Chinese writing developed from pictographs or drawings of objects. The system used today is directly related to the writings found on oracle bones from the Shang dynasty.
Intellectual There is no connection between written and spoken Chinese –Advantage: Someone can read Chinese without knowing how to speak it Love A common language developed during the Zhou Dynasty – Mandarin Chinese
Artifacts from Anyang The Shang civilization excelled at using bronze for weapons, carrying vessels and beautiful objects. Chariots were invented and used in battle Achievements
Silk production began during the Shang dynasty and became a prized fabric of the nobles. Silk thread from silkworms is woven to make beautiful cloth.
Achievements During the Zhou Dynasty they: – Built roads and canals – Developed blast furnaces that allowed them to produce cast iron
Achievements Iron was used for weapons and farm tools which expanded agriculture for China’s growing cities. Coined money also developed during the Zhou Dynasty.