Presentation on theme: "Ancient India 1100 BCE to 500 CE SSWH2-The Student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE."— Presentation transcript:
Ancient India 1100 BCE to 500 CE SSWH2-The Student will identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies from 1100 BCE to 500 CE
Areas of Study Indian civilizations and Empires Development and impact of Hinduism and Buddhism
Basic Indian Geography Often described as a subcontinent Surrounded by highest mountain ranges in the world-Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalayas 2 major river systems-Ganges and Indus river Southern Peninsula is made up of the Deccan Plateau Monsoons-Seasonal winds- that brings extreme moist weather depending on the season Isolated from SW Asia but similar challenges as Mesopotamia i.e.-flood control, river flow and unpredictable weather patterns
Ancient India 1 st major civilization found was the Indus River Civilization (sometimes known as the Harappan Civilization) Made up of cities: Harappa & Mohenjo- Daro Remarkable city planning -streets formed in a grid -plumbing & drainage systems Culture-peaceful,trade Language-symbols, undecipherable Religion-traces of Hindu origin
The Aryans Unsure of origin -The Vedas-4 collections of prayers, spells, rituals and hymns -The Aryans were organized into 4 groups: 1) Brahmins (priests), 2) Warriors, 3) Traders and landowners and 4) peasants or traders This system became known as the Caste system. People were born into a particular caste-which determined who they marry or associate with. -untouchables worked impure jobs therefore endangered the ritual purity of others.
Creation of Hinduism Mahabharata- Epic history of Aryan Kings control of Indian land -Bhagavad Gita- section that will outline beliefs of Hinduism. -Hindus see religion as a way of liberating the soul from illusions, mistakes, and disappointments Upanishads-commentary of the Vedas Basic Beliefs: Moksha-a state of perfect understanding of all things. Uniting the atman(individual soul) and the Brahman (world soul). This cannot occur in one lifetime. Reincarnation (Rebirth) must occur until Moksha is achieved. A soul’s karma ( good or bad deeds) determines the type of reincarnation. Doing your duty in life (dharma) helps determine karma
Impact of Hinduism Brahma can be seen in the forms of 3 Gods- Brahma the creator, Vishnu the conqueror, and Shiva the destroyer. Hindus today can choose a path for achieving moksha and can choose which deities they worship Hinduism was easily woven into the caste system- good karma allowed people to be born in an upper caste. With this combination, Hinduism and the caste system dominated every aspect of a person’s life
From Hinduism: Jainism and Buddhism Jainism-a religion that believed everything in the universe has a soul and should not be harmed including insects and animals. NONVIOLENCE Buddhism - founder of Buddhism was Siddhartha Gautama thought only religious life offered refuge from suffering enlightenment- wisdom meditated for 49 days/ then understood what caused suffering, then known as Buddha, or enlightened one
4 Noble truths After enlightenment, Buddha discovered 4 Noble Truths: 1. life is filled with suffering and sorrow 2. cause of suffering= desire for world’s temp. pleasures 3. way to end suffering is to end desire 4. way to overcome desire is to follow Eight Fold Path Eight Fold Path is like a staircase, and is climbed over many lifetimes eventually reaching nirvana nirvana- release from selfishness and pain Believed in reincarnation but rejected the caste*
8 Fold path…. 1. Right View 2. Right Intention 3. Right Speech 4. Right Action 5. Right Livelihood 6. Right Effort 7. Right Mindfulness 8. Right Concentration
Impact of Buddhism followers vow to live a life of poverty, to be nonviolent Monks and nuns spread the message, during the rainy season, they would retreat to mountains and caves Hindus viewed Buddha as one of the 10 reincarnations of their god Vishnu As trade increased Buddhist ideas were spread over east Asia
India’s first Empires -Aryan kingdoms were taken over by Alexander the Great 321 B.C.- Chandragupta Maurya led a rebellion and created the Mauryan Empire. 303 B.C.- Maurya defeated Seleucus I (a former Gen) to unite northern India. -He created a bureaucratic government. He divided the empire into provinces and local districts who assessed taxes and enforced laws. 269 B.C. Asoka (Chandragupta-great grandson) came to power. After a battle, he decided to rule by Buddhism ideas (peace to all beings) ruled with religious tolerance, nonviolence, improved roads and rest stations
India’s first empires cont. After Asoka’s death in 232 B.C., The Andhra dynasty rose and fell. In Southern India-The Tamil people ruled In 320 A.D. The second largest empire rose under Chandra Gupta. The Gupta Empire expanded and lasted until Under the empire… Civilized societies developed complete with district and towns. -Patriarchal society- families were headed by eldest male in the North -Matriarchal society- eldest Female in the south
Contributions of the Empires Some Buddhists changed Buddhism from an individual discipline to a mass religion that offered salvation to all and allowed popular worship Division occurred: Mahayana sect and Theravada/Hinayana (stricter, original teachings) Inspired art-Buddhists statues and stupas-mounded stone structure GOLDEN AGE of Gupta -Culture Kalidasa- Literature- Shakuntala-famous play. Classical tradition Indian dramas began -Astronomy, Mathematics and Medicine adapted western calendar through trade, learned the earth was round by observing the lunar eclipse. Calculated the value of Pi and the solar year at 365 days. Medically 2 medical guides were compiled-discussed 1000 diseases and medicinal plants. Hindu physicians also performed surgery including plastic surgery -Spread of Indian Trade Spices, diamonds, sapphires, gold, pearls, wood were valuable items of exchange Traded with gold and ivory coast in Africa, Rome, Arabia and China for numerous goods Effects of trade included: Banking industry, lending, loans and mixing cultural traits.