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Presentation on theme: "This is a partial version of Thinking about Romeo and Juliet, an interactive study guide produced by Shakespeare Help. Viewing this Presentation To view."— Presentation transcript:

1 This is a partial version of Thinking about Romeo and Juliet, an interactive study guide produced by Shakespeare Help. Viewing this Presentation To view this presentation in Slide Show View: Press the F5 key on the top row of the keyboard, or click the Slide Show tab on the ribbon and then click the From Beginning button. To exit the presentation, press the ESC key. To purchase the complete presentation, please visit: www.ShakespeareHelp.com Next Slide

2 An Interactive Study Guide Frank Dicksee Romeo and Juliet (1884) Click the mouse to continue. © 2010, ShakespeareHelp.com

3 Home IntroductionQuizzesQuotesCharactersImageryThemesYouTube VideosEssay Topics

4 The BasicsThe TextSourcesAdaptations Main Menu

5 Romeo & Juliet was Shakespeare’s first major tragedy, his 14 th play. One of Shakespeare’s earlier plays, written in 1595 Shakespeare was 33 years old; he had not developed fully as a dramatist. Use of dramatic structure combining comedy and tragedy and use of minor characters were early signs of his dramatic skill. Romeo & Juliet was one of Shakespeare’s most popular plays during his lifetime. Next O, Romeo, Romeo, Wherefore Art Thou Romeo? William Hatherell, 1912 IntroductionMain Menu

6 Romeo & Juliet was first published in a poor quality quarto version in 1597 Mistakes and omissions were corrected by later versions. The play focuses on two lovers, driven to destruction by: The inevitability of Fate Their parents’ hatred Their own impetuous actions All of the above? Next Title page of the Second Quarto of Romeo and Juliet published in 1599 IntroductionMain Menu

7 1. Pyramus and Thisbe, by the Roman poet Ovid in The Metamorphoses. 2. The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Iuliet, written by Arthur Brooke in 1562. Similar plot details and characters Shakespeare condensed time frame from 9 months to 4 days. Shakespeare also added Mercutio and Paris. 3. A popular tale of Romeo and Juliet also existed in a collection by William Painter, called The Palace of Pleasure, written in 1582. NextBack Thisbe, John William Waterhouse, 1909 IntroductionMain Menu

8 Romeo & Juliet has been adapted many times for stage, film, and opera. 18 th century productions often omitted scenes that were considered indecent. An 18 th century operatic adaptation added a happy ending. 19 th and 20 th century adaptations focused more on realism and are more faithful to Shakespeare’s original language. 20 th century adaptations 1936 – Romeo & Juliet, dir. By George Cukor 1957 – West Side Story, music Leonard Bernstein, lyrics Stephen Sondheim 1968 – Romeo & Juliet, dir. by Franco Zeffirelli 1996 – Romeo & Juliet, dir. by Baz Luhrmann BackIntroductionMain Menu

9 Act IAct IIAct III Act IV Act V

10 1. What’s the purpose of the Prologue?   2. Which Montague tried to stop the fight in Scene 1, and which Capulet challenges him to a fight? 3. What does Romeo tell Benvolio is the cause of his melancholy (sadness)? 4. What request does Paris make of Lord Capulet? 5. Why does Benvolio think Romeo should attend the Capulet's feast? 6. At the end of the act, what does Juliet discover about Romeo? Main MenuRomeo & Juliet Quizzes

11 Click anywhere to show answer. 1.What's the purpose of the Prologue? Click anywhere to show answer. The Prologue is delivered by one actor. It's in the form of a sonnet-- three quatrains and a couplet. The Prologue serves several purposes. It introduces the play and provides some general information, such as the location of the play ("fair Verona") and the length of the play ("two hours"). It also provides the dramatist's view of the tragedy that is about to be performed, citing two causes of the disaster--fate ("star-crossed lovers") and the feud between the families ("parents rage"). The tone of the Prologue is serious and formal, as befits tragedy. Next QuestionRomeo & Juliet QuizzesMain Menu

12 Act IAct IIAct III Act IV Act V

13 1. If ever you disturb our streets again, Your lives shall pay the forfeit of the peace.   2....For my mind misgives Some consequence, yet hanging in the stars, Shall bitterly begin his fearful date With this night’s revels. 3. O she doth teach the torches to burn bright! It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night As a rich jewel in an Ethiop's ear… 4. My only love sprung from my only hate. Main MenuRomeo & Juliet Quotes

14 Click anywhere to show answer. 1.If ever you disturb our streets again, Your lives shall pay the forfeit of the peace. Click anywhere to show answer. After the street brawl that opens the play is quelled, the Prince of Verona warns both Montagues and Capulets that death will be the penalty of future disruptions of the civil peace. After the street brawl that opens the play is quelled, the Prince of Verona warns both Montagues and Capulets that death will be the penalty of future disruptions of the civil peace. Further, he summons the leaders of both houses to meet with him that afternoon. Prince Escalus represents the civil authority in the play. Further, he summons the leaders of both houses to meet with him that afternoon. Prince Escalus represents the civil authority in the play. Next QuestionMain MenuRomeo & Juliet Quotes

15 Main Menu RomeoJulietFriar LaurenceTybalt Mercutio Prince EscalusJuliet’s NurseParisBalthasarBenvolioLord CapuletLady CapuletLord MontagueLady MontagueFriar JohnPeter

16 At the beginning of the play, Romeo was immediately recognizable to Elizabethan audiences as a symbol of courtly love. He stays alone, broods, recites poetry, etc. Romeo agrees to attend the Capulet ball, but is convinced he will not see anyone more beautiful than Rosaline. His immature infatuation with Rosaline will contrast with his love for Juliet later in the play. Upon entering the party, Romeo has his first “premonition.” …for my mind misgives Some consequence yet hanging in the stars Shall bitterly begin his fearful date With this night's revels and expire the term Of a despised life closed in my breast By some vile forfeit of untimely death. (I, 4) This is the first foreshadowing of what happens later in the play. Main MenuNextCharacters

17 When Romeo meets Juliet at the party, he immediately falls head-over-heels in love with her, instantly forgetting Rosaline. The Prologue of Act II points out that even though Romeo was willing to die for Rosaline, now that he has met Juliet, Rosaline doesn’t seem so “fair.” That fair for which love groan'd for and would die, / With tender Juliet match'd, is now not fair. (II, Prologue) Main MenuNextBack Is Shakespeare criticizing Romeo as fickle, or is he simply presenting an example of young love? ? Characters Richard Burbage, 1567-1619 Probably the first actor to play Romeo.

18 In the most celebrated love scene in literature, Romeo’s poetry is filled with images of brightness: Juliet is the sun… She doth teach the torches to burn bright… Speak again, bright angel… Romeo curses his name, which makes him Juliet’s enemy. Romeo’s words in this scene contain references to death that foreshadow the tragedy. My life were better ended by their hate, Than death prorogued, wanting of thy love By the end of this scene, Romeo and Juliet have agreed to meet and marry the next day. Main MenuNextBack Characters Romeo and Juliet, Ford Madox Brown, 1867

19 When Romeo is confronted by Tybalt, he is reluctant to fight. He sincerely wants to end the feud between the two families. Now that he and Juliet are married, Romeo and Tybalt are relatives. Romeo inadvertently causes Mercutio’s death by intervening in the fight with Tybalt. Romeo’s “good intentions” bring about a tragedy. I thought all for the best… After killing Tybalt as vengeance for Mercutio’s murder, Romeo realizes his predicament: O, I am fortune’s fool! Romeo’s fatal mistake occurs in a moment of hate in the middle of a play about love. Main MenuNextBack Characters

20 After learning of his exile, Romeo is desperate. Tries to stab himself, preferring death over life without Juliet. In III, 5, the morning after their first night together, Romeo’s poetry continues the pattern of bright images: Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund day Stands tiptoe on the misty mountain tops. (III, 5) Daylight is now Romeo’s enemy. Light is now hateful to their love, which had been associated with brilliance in the darkness. More light and light; more dark and dark our woes. (III, 5) Main MenuNextBack Characters Where's Romeo, William Hatherell, 1912

21 Romeo’s desperate state of mind is emphasized in the final act. When Romeo learns of Juliet’s “death,” he resolves to join her: Then I defy you, stars! (V, 1) Romeo rashly decides to commit suicide, not waiting to hear from Friar Laurence. Romeo’s final metaphor is a pilot who has lost control of his ship to the forces of nature: Thou desperate pilot, now at once run on The dashing rocks thy sea-sick weary bark! (V, 3) As he drinks the poison and dies, he praises the apothecary: Thy drugs are quick. (V, 3) Ironically, if he had waited a few minutes, the tragedy might have been averted. Main MenuBack Characters

22 Dreams and OmensLight and DarkOppositesRomeo as PilotStars Main Menu

23 The love of Romeo and Juliet is often associated with light in the darkness. These images are appropriate for a play about love trying to exist against a backdrop of hate (the Montague-Capulet feud). Romeo and Juliet are two enemies who fall in love. Light is also represents the potential destructiveness of their love. Like lightning, their love is brief, intense and explosive. When Romeo first sees Juliet, he uses images of light and dark: O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright. She hangs upon the cheek of night As a rich jewel in an Ethiop’s ear… …a snowy dove trooping with crows. (I, 5) Main MenuNextImagery

24 Light imagery recurs throughout the balcony scene (III, 2). Romeo’s first words about Juliet are images of light: It is the East, and Juliet is the sun… …her eyes in heaven Would through the airy region stream so bright That birds would sing and think it were not night. O speak again, bright angel! When Juliet expresses her fears in this scene, the light imagery changes for the first time, becoming explosive. It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden; Too like the lightning, which doth cease to be Ere one can say it lightens. Main MenuNextBackImagery

25 Friar Laurence’s image of destructive light predicts that “violent ends” will be the result of “violent delights,” i.e., hasty, intense love. These violent delights have violent ends, And in their triumph die, like fire and powder, Which, as they kiss, consume. (II, 6) It’s interesting to note that both Romeo and Juliet die with a kiss. After Romeo is banished, Friar Laurence cautions him not to turn his vows of love to perjury, killing that which he cherishes: He compares Romeo’s situation to powder accidentally set afire by an unskilled soldier. Like powder in a skilless soldier’s flask, Is set afire by thine own ignorance. (III, 3) Main MenuNextBackImagery

26 As Juliet waits for Romeo in Act III, unaware that he has killed Tybalt and been exiled, she describes him in images of light in the darkness: Come, thou day in night; For thou wilt lie upon the wings of night Whiter than new snow upon a raven’s back; (III, 2) Give me my Romeo; and, when I shall die, Take him and cut him out in little stars And he will make the face of heaven so fine That all the world will be in love with the night And pay no attention to the garish sun. (III, 2) * * In 1964, Robert Kennedy used this quote to eulogize his brother, John F. Kennedy, at the Democratic National Convention. JFK had been assassinated the previous November. Main MenuNextBackImagery

27 The reversal of the light-dark imagery begins in III, 5. Romeo and Juliet have just consummated their marriage. Though their love has been associated with brilliance in the darkness, now daylight is hateful to them. More light and light—more dark and dark our woes. (III, 5) When Romeo buys poison from the apothecary, he asks that it work quickly, unconsciously alluding to Friar Laurence’s earlier references to “fire and powder” and “violent ends.” That the life-weary taker may fall dead And that the trunk may be discharged of breath As violently as hasty powder fired Doth hurry from the fatal cannon's womb. Main MenuNextBackImagery

28 In the final scene (V, 3), Shakespeare visually repeats the image of a light in the darkness: Paris enters with a torch and puts it out, so as not to be seen. Romeo enters the darkness, holding a torch. After killing Paris, Romeo comments on Juliet’s “corpse”: For here lies Juliet, and her beauty makes This vault a feasting presence full of light. (V, 3) Romeo vows to “never from this pallet of dim night depart again.” Romeo and Juliet will exist eternally in night and darkness. At the end of the play, the Prince declares: A glooming peace this morning with it brings. The sun for sorrow will not show his head. (V, 3) Main MenuBackImagery

29 Inevitability of FateLoveLove and ViolenceSpeedYouth vs. Age Main Menu

30 The intense love between Romeo and Juliet is often associated with violence. This idea is expressed in images that combine light and destruction. It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden; Too like the lightning (Juliet, II, 2) These violent delights have violent ends, And in their triumph die, like fire and powder, Which, as they kiss, consume. (Friar Laurence, II, 6) After Romeo is banished, he threatens to kill himself with a knife: O, tell me, friar, tell me, In what vile part of this anatomy Doth my name lodge? tell me, that I may sack The hateful mansion. ThemesMain MenuNextBack

31 Both Romeo and Juliet imagine the other is dead on the morning after their first (and only) night together. Juliet:Methinks I see thee, now thou art below, As one dead in the bottom of a tomb. Either my eyesight fails, or thou look'st pale. RomeoAnd trust me, love, in my eye so do you: Dry sorrow drinks our blood. Adieu, adieu! (III, 5) Juliet also threatens to take her own life after Capulet declares that Juliet must marry Paris: If all else fail, myself have power to die. (III, 5) The connection between love and violence ultimately leads to the double suicide of the two lovers. Romeo and Juliet are only able to preserve their love in death. ThemesMain MenuNextBack

32 ThemesMain MenuBack The Reconciliation of the Montagues and Capulets, Edmund Blair Leighton, 1855

33 Main Menu

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