Presentation on theme: "The Intellect, the Will, and the Emotions"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Intellect, the Will, and the Emotions Some Fundamental Points on Human Nature
2 Conrad Baars M.D.…man’s emotions have an innate need to be guided and directed by reason. That is to say that they need and desire to be guided by their very nature. …When an emotion receives its proper guidance, it is satisfied and is now disposed to submit to the decision of the will as to what course of action shall be taken.
3 The Hierarchy of Being in the Material Universe There is an order in nature from the lower to the higher to the highest
4 The Human Level The Animal Level Vegetative LevelThere is a hierarchy in nature, and each level of the hierarchy includes the level below it while surpassing it. The vegetative level is characterized by the three powers of nutrition, growth, and reproduction. In nutrition, the plant nourishes itself on minerals, thereby transforming non-living matter into living matter. The animal level includes the vegetative level (for animals grow, reproduce, and they have a nutritive faculty), but animals have the ability to sense. The human level includes both the vegetative and the animal levels, but the two powers that specify man are those of intelligence and will.Mineral Level
5 The Mineral LevelNon-living matter: the periodic table of elements.
6 Living things: biology. The Vegetative LevelLiving things: biology.Living things are characterized by growth, reproduction, and nutritive activity.
7 The Animal LevelAnimals have everything that plants have (i.e., growth, reproduction, nutrition) but more. An animal has the power of sense perception and sense appetite.
8 The Human LevelHuman beings have everything plants have (growth, reproduction, nutrition), and everything animals have (sense perception and sense appetite), but they have more: intelligence and will (or rationality and free choice)
9 Two Kinds of Goods Sensible and Intelligible Animals have an appetite for sensible goods (goods that are pleasing to the senses).
10 Intelligible GoodsHuman beings also have an appetite for sensible goods, but most importantly, they have an appetite for intelligible goods: i.e., truth, beauty, friendship, marriage, etc.
11 Man Intellect (mind): understands the natures of things Will: Rational Appetite -- desires intelligible goods5 Senses: perceives the sense qualities of particular things (colors, taste, odor, sound, etc)Sense Appetites: Emotions – desires sensible goods (or is averse to sensible evils)
12 The Human EmotionsThe emotions or passions often get in the way of human reason. That is why it is worth coming to understand them.The human emotions stem from two sensitive appetites
13 The Sensitive Appetites Concupiscible appetiteSensitiveAppetitesMan is a rational animal. In so far as he is an animal, he has sensitive appetites. The eleven basic emotions are rooted in these two appetites, the concupiscible and the irascible. His other appetite is the rational appetite, otherwise known as the will.Irascible appetite
14 Emotions of the Concupiscible or Pleasure Appetite
15 Love, Desire, Satisfaction The animal sees the red meat, loves red meat, desires the red meat, feels pleasure eating the red meat.The person sees the cake, loves cake, desires cake, feels satisfied eating the cake.
16 Emotions of the Concupiscible or Pleasure Appetite
17 Hate, Aversion, SorrowThe animal sees the skunk, hates the smell of skunk, experiences aversion and tries to move away, experiences sorrow (the opposite of pleasure)
18 Emotions of the Irascible or aggressive appetite Hope and Despair
19 Hope and DespairThe animal desires the red meat, but it is now difficult to get (it is on the table). He hopes to receive it, tries to get it, eventually despairs of getting to it.
21 Daring, Fear, AngerThe animal perceives something that is a threat to his existence (i.e., a large animal). If he evaluates that the threat is surmountable, he will experience daring, if it is insurmountable, he will experience fear. Fear and sorrow can lead to anger, and anger can compel the animal to rise above the difficulty.
22 Concupiscible appetite DisorderConcupiscible appetiteA disordered life is one that is governed by the passions. A person does what he feels like, not what is reasonable.Irascible appetiteIntellectWillBestial Life.
23 Concupiscible appetite Ordered LifeReasonWillConcupiscible appetiteIrascible appetiteThe emotions need to be ordered and directed by reason. An ordered life is one in which reason governs the passions.