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The Intellect, the Will, and the Emotions

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Presentation on theme: "The Intellect, the Will, and the Emotions"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Intellect, the Will, and the Emotions
Some Fundamental Points on Human Nature

2 Conrad Baars M.D. …man’s emotions have an innate need to be guided and directed by reason.  That is to say that they need and desire to be guided by their very nature.  …When an emotion receives its proper guidance, it is satisfied and is now disposed to submit to the decision of the will as to what course of action shall be taken.

3 The Hierarchy of Being in the Material Universe
There is an order in nature from the lower to the higher to the highest

4 The Human Level The Animal Level
Vegetative Level There is a hierarchy in nature, and each level of the hierarchy includes the level below it while surpassing it. The vegetative level is characterized by the three powers of nutrition, growth, and reproduction. In nutrition, the plant nourishes itself on minerals, thereby transforming non-living matter into living matter. The animal level includes the vegetative level (for animals grow, reproduce, and they have a nutritive faculty), but animals have the ability to sense. The human level includes both the vegetative and the animal levels, but the two powers that specify man are those of intelligence and will. Mineral Level

5 The Mineral Level Non-living matter: the periodic table of elements.

6 Living things: biology.
The Vegetative Level Living things: biology. Living things are characterized by growth, reproduction, and nutritive activity.

7 The Animal Level Animals have everything that plants have (i.e., growth, reproduction, nutrition) but more. An animal has the power of sense perception and sense appetite.

8 The Human Level Human beings have everything plants have (growth, reproduction, nutrition), and everything animals have (sense perception and sense appetite), but they have more: intelligence and will (or rationality and free choice)

9 Two Kinds of Goods Sensible and Intelligible
Animals have an appetite for sensible goods (goods that are pleasing to the senses).

10 Intelligible Goods Human beings also have an appetite for sensible goods, but most importantly, they have an appetite for intelligible goods: i.e., truth, beauty, friendship, marriage, etc.

11 Man Intellect (mind): understands the natures of things
Will: Rational Appetite -- desires intelligible goods 5 Senses: perceives the sense qualities of particular things (colors, taste, odor, sound, etc) Sense Appetites: Emotions – desires sensible goods (or is averse to sensible evils)

12 The Human Emotions The emotions or passions often get in the way of human reason. That is why it is worth coming to understand them. The human emotions stem from two sensitive appetites

13 The Sensitive Appetites
Concupiscible appetite Sensitive Appetites Man is a rational animal. In so far as he is an animal, he has sensitive appetites. The eleven basic emotions are rooted in these two appetites, the concupiscible and the irascible. His other appetite is the rational appetite, otherwise known as the will. Irascible appetite

14 Emotions of the Concupiscible or
Pleasure Appetite

15 Love, Desire, Satisfaction
The animal sees the red meat, loves red meat, desires the red meat, feels pleasure eating the red meat. The person sees the cake, loves cake, desires cake, feels satisfied eating the cake.

16 Emotions of the Concupiscible or Pleasure Appetite

17 Hate, Aversion, Sorrow The animal sees the skunk, hates the smell of skunk, experiences aversion and tries to move away, experiences sorrow (the opposite of pleasure)

18 Emotions of the Irascible or aggressive appetite
Hope and Despair

19 Hope and Despair The animal desires the red meat, but it is now difficult to get (it is on the table). He hopes to receive it, tries to get it, eventually despairs of getting to it.

20 Daring, Fear, anger

21 Daring, Fear, Anger The animal perceives something that is a threat to his existence (i.e., a large animal). If he evaluates that the threat is surmountable, he will experience daring, if it is insurmountable, he will experience fear. Fear and sorrow can lead to anger, and anger can compel the animal to rise above the difficulty.

22 Concupiscible appetite
Disorder Concupiscible appetite A disordered life is one that is governed by the passions. A person does what he feels like, not what is reasonable. Irascible appetite Intellect Will Bestial Life.

23 Concupiscible appetite
Ordered Life Reason Will Concupiscible appetite Irascible appetite The emotions need to be ordered and directed by reason. An ordered life is one in which reason governs the passions.

24 Wind chimes sound beautiful

25 The result of such order is harmony and beauty
The result of such order is harmony and beauty. A person who is governed by his passions is disordered and morally repugnant.

26 An engine with all its parts in the right order is more powerful than one that is out of order.
So too, those whose passions are ordered by reason are more passionate people.

27 Beautiful (Noble) Character
The Intellectual Virtues: Wisdom, Science, Understanding. The Moral Virtues The Intellect The Will The irascible appetite The concupiscible appetite Prudence Justice Courage Temperance

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