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The Intellect, the Will, and the Emotions Some Fundamental Points on Human Nature.

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Presentation on theme: "The Intellect, the Will, and the Emotions Some Fundamental Points on Human Nature."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Intellect, the Will, and the Emotions Some Fundamental Points on Human Nature

2 Conrad Baars M.D. …man’s emotions have an innate need to be guided and directed by reason. That is to say that they need and desire to be guided by their very nature. …When an emotion receives its proper guidance, it is satisfied and is now disposed to submit to the decision of the will as to what course of action shall be taken.

3 The Hierarchy of Being in the Material Universe There is an order in nature from the lower to the higher to the highest


5 Non-living matter: the periodic table of elements.

6 Living things: biology. Living things are characterized by growth, reproduction, and nutritive activity.


8 Human beings have everything plants have (growth, reproduction, nutrition), and everything animals have (sense perception and sense appetite), but they have more: intelligence and will (or rationality and free choice)

9 Animals have an appetite for sensible goods (goods that are pleasing to the senses).

10 Human beings also have an appetite for sensible goods, but most importantly, they have an appetite for intelligible goods: i.e., truth, beauty, friendship, marriage, etc.


12 The Human Emotions The emotions or passions often get in the way of human reason. That is why it is worth coming to understand them. The human emotions stem from two sensitive appetites

13 The Sensitive Appetites


15 Love, Desire, Satisfaction The animal sees the red meat, loves red meat, desires the red meat, feels pleasure eating the red meat. The person sees the cake, loves cake, desires cake, feels satisfied eating the cake.


17 Hate, Aversion, Sorrow The animal sees the skunk, hates the smell of skunk, experiences aversion and tries to move away, experiences sorrow (the opposite of pleasure)

18 Hope and Despair

19 The animal desires the red meat, but it is now difficult to get (it is on the table). He hopes to receive it, tries to get it, eventually despairs of getting to it.


21 Daring, Fear, Anger The animal perceives something that is a threat to his existence (i.e., a large animal). If he evaluates that the threat is surmountable, he will experience daring, if it is insurmountable, he will experience fear. Fear and sorrow can lead to anger, and anger can compel the animal to rise above the difficulty.

22 Disorder Concupiscible appetite Irascible appetite IntellectWill Bestial Life. A disordered life is one that is governed by the passions. A person does what he feels like, not what is reasonable.

23 Ordered Life Concupiscible appetiteIrascible appetite Will Reason The emotions need to be ordered and directed by reason. An ordered life is one in which reason governs the passions.

24 Wind chimes sound beautiful

25 The result of such order is harmony and beauty. A person who is governed by his passions is disordered and morally repugnant.

26 An engine with all its parts in the right order is more powerful than one that is out of order. So too, those whose passions are ordered by reason are more passionate people.

27 The Intellectual Virtues: Wisdom, Science, Understanding. The Intellect The Will The irascible appetite The concupiscible appetite Prudence Justice Courage Temperance The Moral Virtues Beautiful (Noble) Character

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