2Frank R. Stockton ( )Frank Stockton was considered by most a major literary figure in the United States at the height of his success. Though he wrote enough to fill twenty-three volumes of stories, novels, and nonfiction, he is primarily known for one story: The Lady, or the Tiger?His early works were mainly written for children, and though he later left in 1878, he wrote numerous stories for the widely popular children’s magazine, St. Nicholas. In 1882, Stockton wrote the short story The Lady, or the Tiger? for Century Magazine.Connell’s story didn’t gain popularity until much later, but it was later the basis for an operetta, a play, a movie, and a recording. Poet Robert Browning even wrote a poem about the ending, and scholars continued to debate the issue.
3THE TIGER ELEMENTS LITERARY IN PLOT SETTING CHARACTER THEME Overall message or lesson of the storyPerson, animal, or thing in the storySequence of events in a storyTime and place a story occursLITERARYELEMENTSTHE TIGERINPLOTSETTINGCHARACTERTHEME
4READING BEFORE prediction Read the title of the story. Based on the title and the author’s biography, make a about what the plot is going to be about.predictionWhich is the stronger emotion: love or jealousy?
5Vocabulary to know exuberant fervid grievous procure aesthetic valor Obtain through particular careaspiringMentioned, or spoken of, previouslyexuberantprocureSorrowfulFull or grief or sorrowaforementionedaestheticdolefulTo aim for ambitious goalsRoundabout coursedeviousAppreciative of beautiful thingsvalorincorruptiblePassionately enthusiasticferviddecreeCourage or braverygrievousDevotion or loyalty to something or someoneallegianceOfficial orderVery great, or extremeNot able to corrupt
6Dramatic Plot Structure A literary plot has five elements:ExpositionRising ActionClimaxFalling ActionResolution
7Dramatic Plot Structure Exposition During a plot’s exposition, the author gives background information about the story and introduces the story’s characters and setting. The exposition also introduces the main conflict.Rising Action Rising action is the series of events that lead up to the climax, or most dramatic moment, of the story.Climax The climax is a story’s most dramatic and revealing moment. It usually comes near the end of a story and satisfies the reader’s curiosity about what happens.
8Dramatic Plot Structure Falling Action The falling action follows the climax and describes the results of the climax.Resolution The resolution, or denouement, comes at the end of the falling action.“The Lady, or the Tiger?” has a trick ending—readers must supply the resolution.
9The Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank Stockton Connecting to the StoryWould you trust your life to a friend?Before you read the story, think about the following questions:• Which is a stronger emotion—love or jealousy?• How completely can one person ever know and understand another?
10During the Middle Ages in England, guilt or innocence was decided through a practice known as an ordeal. An accused person was physically tested, and the outcome determined guilt or innocence. The accusers believed that supernatural forces controlled what happened.The plot of this story focuses on the emotions of one young princess and her semi-barbaric king. Most of the setting takes place in an amphitheater, much like the gladiators of Ancient Rome.STORYBACKGROUND
11The Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank Stockton AFTER YOU READThe Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank StocktonWhy does a life-or-death trial appeal to the king?The king enjoys putting people at the mercy of a heartless and whimsical fate and uses this cruel spectacle to teach his subjects a lesson.Why do the king’s subjects enjoy the life-or-death trial?The uncertainty is exciting.
12The Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank Stockton AFTER YOU READThe Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank StocktonRecall and Interpret(a) In the kingdom described in the story, what happens when a person is accused of a crime? (b) Why do the members of the community support this method?(a) The accused person must choose between two doors concealing either a tiger that will kill him or a woman who will marry him. Chance governs his choice. (b) They find the trials exciting and entertaining, as well as fair, since the accused made the choice.
13The Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank Stockton AFTER YOU READThe Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank StocktonRecall and Interpret(a) What is the young man’s crime?(b) Why are his actions considered criminal?(a) Loving the king’s daughter(b) His low position in society made him an unworthy suitor.
14The Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank Stockton AFTER YOU READThe Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank StocktonRecall and Interpret(a) What does the princess do when the young man is in the arena? (b) What motive does she have for sending him to his death, and what motive does she have for saving his life?(a) Gesture toward the right (b) Jealousy; true, unselfish love
15The Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank Stockton AFTER YOU READThe Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank StocktonAnalyze and EvaluateWhy do you think the story ends with a question instead of an answer?To invite readers to ponder the conflict between love and jealousy.
16The Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank Stockton AFTER YOU READThe Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank StocktonConnectIn what ways is the king’s justice similar to flipping a coin to decide an important question?In both cases, chance alone determines the outcome.
17The Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank Stockton AFTER YOU READThe Lady, or The Tiger?—Frank StocktonLITERARY ANALYSISLiterary ElementConflictWhat conflicts does the young man have? Are his conflicts internal or external? Support your answers with details from the story.External: which door to open – possibly facing the tigerInternal: whether to believe the princessWhy is the princess’s internal conflict so central to the story?Her decision governs if the young man lives or dies. Your view of her will affect your choice of resolution.
18AfterReadingMost stories end by telling the readers that happened, but this story lets the readers decide. What is your opinion of this type of ending? Explain.Frank R. Stockton wrote enough literature to fill a twenty-three volume collection, yet “The Lady, or the Tiger?” remains his most famous work. In your opinion, why has this story stood the test of time?
19The Lady, or the Tiger Extra Credit Create a soundtrack of the story The Lady, or the Tiger?. Include a decorated CD cover complete with song list (4 minimum). Make sure the songs reflect the characters, plot, or setting. (25 pts)Write an alternate ending to the story while including a resolution to the major conflict (be sure to stay true to the characters!). (15 pts)Draw and color a sketch of the amphitheater with the two covered doors. (15 pts)