2Ancient China: Section 1 Contrasting Climate and Landforms Southern China- warm and wet as a result of the Monsoons from the South China SeaNorthern- cool and dry, dependent on rivers as a source of water
3“The Middle Kingdom” Geographic features such as mountains , deserts andseas blocked off China from the restof the Ancient world.They only knew of the nomadic people to the North and West of themChina had no knowledge of Egypt, India, Greece, Rome, etc.They were sure they lived in the center of the earth that they called themselves the “Middle Kingdom”
4Rivers, the Birthplace of Civilization The Huang He river and the Yangtze River would overflow.This would provided rich, fertile soil ideal for farming near the rivers. Both deposit yellow siltChang Jiang/Yangtze located in central ChinaHuang He/Yellow River is located to the northFarming done between the two rivers—area called North China Plain
5China’s SorrowThe Huang He river was also called “China’s Sorrow” because it was very unpredictableDestructive floods would come without warningAt times the floods would cut new paths for the river
6The Bonds of FamilyTraditional Families- A household in ancient China might contain as many as 5 generations living together.Most privileges in a family would belong to the elders (they would make household decisions)Women were typically governed by men (their fathers, husbands or sons)
7A Varied Climate Western China: dry like Western United States Northern China: like New England (Maine, New Hampshire, Connecticut, etc.)Wheat and millet grown in the drier northern landsSoutheast China: like southern United StatesRice grown in the moist climate
8Shang DynastyAround 2000 B.C. farming settlements along the Huang He grew into cities.The beginning of Chinese culture developed.China is the oldest, longest lasting civilization in the world!
9Shang Kings Dynasty: line of rulers from the same family 1766 B.C. Shang family started to rule some cities.Kings were responsible for religious activities.Claimed to rule with gods’ permissionControlled central portion of North China PlainRelatives ruled distant areasProtected themselves from nomads, the Zhou, to the North and west with chariots.
10Shang Families Respect for family and ancestors very important Family was closely tied to religionBelieves spirits of ancestors could bring good fortune to familyFamily paid respect to father’s ancestors by making animal sacrificesMen were in charge of the family
11Family Names The Chinese were the first people to have 2 names. One name was for the family, one was for the individual.In Chinese society the family name comes first.
12Developing LanguageOracle bones— animal bones or turtle shells on which Shang royal priests used to interpret messages from the gods.Priests would make scratch marks on bones and shells—early form of writing
13Developing Language Continued… Pictograph system of writing developedUsed simple drawings/symbols for words or ideasTo barely be able to read and write must know at least 1,500 Characters in the Chinese alphabetScribe needed to know 10,000 characters
14Ancient China Section 2: The Life of Confucius Confucius was the most famous and important Chinese thinkers.Born 551 B.C.Noble but poor familyLoved learning and self-taught himselfThought to be China’s first professional teacherEducation was very expensive—Confucius charged a small fee but would also take in students who were poor if they truly wanted to learn.
15The Life of Confucius (cont.) Confucius wandered North China looking for rulers to follow his teachings.Was unsuccessful finding a rulerDied 479 B.C.—72 years oldFelt his life was a failure.
16Teachings of Confucius Confucius never wrote down his teachings.Students gathered his sayings and made up a philosophy, after his death.A philosophy is a system of beliefs or values.This philosophy became known as Confucianism, one of several important philosophies of ancient China.
17Teachings of Confucius (cont.) Confucius’s goal—order in society.If people would behave properly to one another, order and peace would return.People should know their place in family and in society.You should respect people above and below you.
18Five RelationshipsConfucius created code of proper conduct for people.Each relationship has its own duties and own code of conduct.Relationships fall under two categories:Proper conduct in the familyProper conduct in societyFather and ChildElder Brother and Junior BrotherHusband and WifeFriend and FriendRuler and Subject
19Proper Conduct Family Society Authority should be respected.Ruler should lead in a right, moral way and subjects will obey.Ruler should treat subjects with respect.FamilyConfucius believed respect and good behavior started at home.Filial Piety—respect for one’s parents and ancestors
20Impact of ConfuciusConfucius teachings became basic training for members of civil service groups.Civil service group of people who work for the government.Before Confucius ideas, government posts given to sons of important people. Afterward jobs given on merit.Candidates had to pass official exams.(Exams were based on Confucius teachings.)
22What’s a dynasty?A sequence of powerful leaders within the same familyChinese history is measured and described through the various dynasties.
23Chinese Dynasties Xia Dynasty About 1994 BCE - 1766 BCE Shang Dynasty 1766 BCE BCEZhou Dynasty 1122 BCE -256 BCEQin Dynasty 221 BCE BCEEarly Han Dynasty 206 BCE - 9 ADXin Dynasty 9 AD - 24 ADLater Han Dynasty 25 AD ADThree Kingdoms - Period of Disunion 220 AD ADSui Dynasty 589 AD ADTang Dynasty 618 AD ADSong Dynasty 969 AD ADYuan Dyansty 1279 AD ADMing Dynasty 1368 AD ADManchu or Qing Dynasty 1644 AD AD
24The First Dynasty? Xia or Shang? According to legend, the Xia Dynasty is the first Chinese dynasty that existed from 1994 BCE BCE.However, there is no archeological evidence to prove the existence of the Xia dynasty.Therefore, the Shang Dynasty is the first known dynasty with historical evidence
25Cycle of Chinese Dynasties (dynastic cycle) 1. A new dynasty rises.-A strong local ruler defeats the others-He often adds land to China-Believed to have mandate (or approval)from the heavens2. The new dynasty rules-Restores peace-Chooses local officials-Makes reforms3. The dynasty grows weak-Rules don’t do the hard work of running the empire-Tax the people too much-Can’t deal with disasters such as famine, earthquakes, invasions4. The dynasty falls-Dynasty is believed to no longer have mandate from the heavens-Rebellions put an end to the weakened dynasty5. A period of local violence follows-New dynasties fight for powerand restore peace and order
26The Shang Dynasty Arose sometime after 1700BC Some of the finest bronze work of Ancient ChinaFirst to introduce a Chinese writing language
27Who was Shi Huangdi? Ruler of the Qin Dynasty Originally, his name was Zheng“cracking his long whip, he drove the universe before him… His might shook the four seas.”By 221 Zheng extended his rule to cover most of modern day ChinaRenamed himself Shi Huangdi or “first emperor”
28The Qin Unified ChinaShi Huangdi stopped battles within warring states. CoConquered rival statesDrove out nomadic invadersChina grew the largest it had ever been!
29The Qin Unified China Cont. Huangdi killed or put into prison anyone who opposed himWanted total control of China:Took land away from defeated noble familiesForced nobles to live at the capital so he could watch themThis weakened noble families’ power.He divided China into districts, and each district was run by the emperor’s most trusted officials
30Organizing the Government Shi Huangdi build highways and irrigation projects.Forced peasants to work on projects such as building roadsThese roads helped his army to rush to the scene if a rebellion occurred.Set high taxes for peasants to pay
31Unifying the CultureShi Huangdi ordered one type of currency (money) to be used throughout China. This united China.Ordered a common system of weights and measuresHe tried to control the thoughts of people by outlawing the ideas of Confucius and other thinkers.Killed 460 government critics and ConfucianistsOrdered the burning of books unless they were about medicine, technology, or farming
32Great Wall of ChinaThroughout China’s history, people were constantly worried about attacks from the north. Different towns built walls to help protect their borders.Shi Huangdi set out to connect those walls by building the Great Wall of China
33Great Wall of China Cont’d Shi Huangdi ordered farmers, merchants (peasants), and criminals to form an army of about 300,000 workersMany died and the people resented the emperor.Great Wall linked many small walls that were built during the time of the Warring States.Earliest walls built of earth, later stone and brick were used.When finished the wall stretched for 1,400 miles. (The distance from Washington DC to Denver, Colorado)
34Terra-cotta ArmyIn 1974, 8,000 life-size statues were discovered in Northern China.
35For over 2000 years these soldiers protected the tomb of Shi Huangdi
36No 2 statues are identical With his underground army Shi Huangdi planned on ruling a second empire in the afterlife
37End of the Qin Dynasty Shi Huandi died in 210 BC This started four years of chaos and civil warMarked the end of the Qin dynasty
38The Han DynastyOne of the rebels that helped overthrow the Qin dynasty was Liu BangLiu Bang became the 1st emperor of the Han dynasty by 202B.C.The stable government of the Han dynasty lasted about 400 years
39Han GovernmentLiu Bang kept Qin policies of central government, but lowered taxes.Made punishments less harsh.Peasant men owed the government a month of labor/work a year on government projects.Peasants built roads, canals, and irrigation projects.
40Han Government Cont…Bureaucracy: network of appointed officials that assist in governmentOfficials helped Liu Bang enforce rules.Bureaucrats put family members and trusted people in local government positions.Set up a system of tests to find the most educated and ethical people for the imperial bureaucratic state.Tested people on their knowledge of Confucianism.
41Empress Rules Liu Bang died 195 B.C. Widow, Empress Lu took the thrown for their young son.Outlived son and continued to put babies on the throne so she could rule for them.When she died in 180 B.C. all her family members were killed.
42Wudi- The Warrior Emperor The Han Dynasty reached its peak under the rule of Liu Bang’s great grandson WudiWudi (descendent of Liu Bang) ruled the Han empire from B.C.E.Made improvements to the Great WallExtended Chinese territoryMade many military conquests including southern Chinese provinces, northern Vietnam, and northern Korea.Chased nomadic invaders out of northern ChinaChina was almost as large as modern day China.
43Collapse of Han Dynasty The Han empire faced rebellions, peasant revolts, floods, famine, and economic disasters, but stayed in power until 220 C.E./A.D.After Wudi’s death the Han dynasty slowly began to fall apartWarlords (leaders of armed local bands) took control
44Only Chinese knew how to make silk during the Han dynasty. Silk is a luxury fabric around the world.
45Achievements of Ancient China Section 4: The Silk Road A trade route that went from China to the Mediterranean SeaIt was a series of routes that covered more than 4,000 miles
46The Silk Road Cont’dCrossing the Silk Road was dangerous, travelers were easily killed by desert sandstormsFew travelers made the entire journey, generally goods were passed trader to traderOnce they reached the Mediterranean goods such as silk were shipped to Ancient Greece, Rome, India, and Egypt.
47Silk Road Cont’dSilk Road received its name from silk, made only in ChinaTrade of Ideas- The silk road was also a way of spreading ideas.Buddhism spread from India into China via the silk road