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4- 0 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Cultural Dynamics in Assessing Global Markets Chapter 4
4- 1 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Elements of Culture Material Culture Technology Economics Social Institutions Social Organization Education Political Structures Humans and The Universe Belief Systems Aesthetics Graphic and Plastic Arts Folklore Music, Drama, and Dance Language
4- 2 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Fractured Translations English Translations made by Japanese firm added to labels to increase prestige for their products being sold in China. Product English Translation Equivalent to Japanese Spam Liver Putty Toilet PaperMy Fanny Brand Ready to Eat PancakesStrawberry Crap Dessert Antifreeze SprayHot Piss Brand Pediatrician’s SloganSpecialist in Deceased Children SOURCE: “Some Strawberry Crap Dessert, dear?” South China Morning Post, December 9, 1996 p. 12.
4- 3 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Cultural Factors Never touch the head of a Thai or Pass an object over it The head is considered sacred in Thailand. Avoid using triangular shapes in Hong Kong, Korea, and Taiwan. It is considered a negative shape. The number 7 is considered bad luck in Kenya, good luck in the Czech Republic and has a magical connotation in Benin, Africa. The number 10 is bad luck in Korea. The number 4 means death in Japan. Red represents witchcraft and death in many African countries. Red is a positive color in Denmark. SOURCE: Business America, July 12, 1993
4- 4 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Cultural Differences between Japanese and American Individual Lifestyles Clear expression of joy and sorrow Unequivocal expression of “Yes/No” Strong self-assertion Strong personality Excellent negotiating skills Priority of self-interest Cultural Background Reticence Modesty Reserve Punctiliousness Politeness Obligation Ambiguous expression of Joy/Sorrow Equivocal expression of “Yes/No” Weak self-assertion Weak personality Poor negotiating skills Priority of harmony with others Japanese A Culture of Self-restraint Americans A Culture of Self-expression SOURCE: Norihiko Shimizu, “Today’s Taboos may be gone Tomorrow,” Tokyo Business, February 1995, p.50.
4- 5 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Cultural Differences between Japanese and American Social Life Dignity of individuals Individual work ethic Great individual freedom Respect for rules An open and transparent society Multi-cultural society A society excelling in creativity and versatility Individual decisions over consensus A society which pursues the ideal Human relations oriented Dependence on the group Lack of individual freedom Low regard for rules A closed society, lacking in transparency Mono-cultural society An orderly and uniform society Dependence on consensus A society which pursues harmony with reality Japanese Society “In the Same Boat” Concept American Society Dignity of Individuals SOURCE: Norihiko Shimizu, “Today’s Taboos may be gone Tomorrow,” Tokyo Business, February 1995, p.50.
4- 6 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Cultural Change Pas de Franglais OldNew Prime TimeHeures de grande ecoute (hours of largest audience) Air BagCoussin gonflable de protection (Inflatable cushion of protection) CookieSable americain Trans. (American cookie) SOURCE: Adapted from “La Guerre Franglaise,” Fortune, June 13, 1994, p. 14.
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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
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