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Pragmatics SPEECH ACTS & EVENTS. SPEECH ACTS Locutionary actsLocutionary acts Illocutionary actsIllocutionary acts Perlocutionary actsPerlocutionary.

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Presentation on theme: "Pragmatics SPEECH ACTS & EVENTS. SPEECH ACTS Locutionary actsLocutionary acts Illocutionary actsIllocutionary acts Perlocutionary actsPerlocutionary."— Presentation transcript:

1 pragmatics SPEECH ACTS & EVENTS

2 SPEECH ACTS

3 Locutionary actsLocutionary acts Illocutionary actsIllocutionary acts Perlocutionary actsPerlocutionary acts Speech acts: Actions performed via utterances

4 Performed via producing a meaning linguistic expressionPerformed via producing a meaning linguistic expression Locutionary acts

5 Performed via the communicative force of an utterancePerformed via the communicative force of an utterance Illocutionary acts

6 Performed via the effect of the utterance on the hearer.Performed via the effect of the utterance on the hearer. Perlocutionary acts

7 The same utterance can potentially have quite different illocutionary actsThe same utterance can potentially have quite different illocutionary acts How can speakers assume that the intended illocutionary act will be recognized by the hearer?How can speakers assume that the intended illocutionary act will be recognized by the hearer? Problem

8 Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID)Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID) Felicity conditionsFelicity conditions Solution

9 Performative verbsPerformative verbs –Used in a simple positive present tense sentence –1st person singular subject I promise…I promise… I sentence you…I sentence you… I apologize…I apologize… Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID)

10 Test of performative verbs I hereby V …I hereby V … –I _______ name the ship ‘Elizabeth’. –I _______ warn you not to sleep in class. –I _______ believe that there’s no Santa Claus.

11 The appropriate circumstances for the performance of a speech act to be recognized.The appropriate circumstances for the performance of a speech act to be recognized. Felicity conditions

12 General conditions General conditions – The utterance is understood. Content conditions Content conditions – The content of the utterance is about a future event and the speaker is committed to the act. Preparatory conditions Preparatory conditions – The event does not happen by itself. – The event will have a beneficial effect. Sincerity conditions Sincerity conditions – The speaker does have a genuine intention to carry out the future act. Essential conditions Essential conditions – The utterance changes the speaker’s state from non-obligation to obligation Felicity conditions “I promise to see you tomorrow’.

13 To assume that every utterance (U) underlies a clause that contains a performative verb, which make the illocutionary forces explicit.To assume that every utterance (U) underlies a clause that contains a performative verb, which make the illocutionary forces explicit. I (hereby) V performative you (that) UI (hereby) V performative you (that) U –Open the door. Implicit/primary performativesImplicit/primary performatives –I hereby order you that you open the door. Explicit performativesExplicit performatives The performative hypothesis

14 DeclarationsDeclarations RepresentativesRepresentatives ExpressivesExpressives DirectivesDirectives CommissivesCommissives Speech act classification

15 The speech acts that change the state of the world via utterances.The speech acts that change the state of the world via utterances. –I now pronounce you husband and wife –We find the defendant guilty. Declarations

16 The speech acts that states what the speaker believes to be the case or not.The speech acts that states what the speaker believes to be the case or not. Statements of fact, assertions, conclusions, and descriptionsStatements of fact, assertions, conclusions, and descriptions –The world is flat. –It is a sunny day. Representatives

17 The speech acts that state what the speaker feels.The speech acts that state what the speaker feels. Psychological stats (pleasure, pain, likes, joy, sorrow…)Psychological stats (pleasure, pain, likes, joy, sorrow…) –I am sorry. –Congratulations. Expressives

18 The speech acts used by the speaker to get someone else to do something.The speech acts used by the speaker to get someone else to do something. Commands, orders, requests, suggestions.Commands, orders, requests, suggestions. –Go away! Directives

19 The speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions The speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions Promises, threats, refusals, pledges. Promises, threats, refusals, pledges. – I can’t do that. Commissives


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