3 Speech acts: Actions performed via utterances Locutionary actsIllocutionary actsPerlocutionary acts
4 Locutionary actsPerformed via producing a meaning linguistic expression
5 Illocutionary actsPerformed via the communicative force of an utterance
6 Perlocutionary actsPerformed via the effect of the utterance on the hearer.
7 ProblemThe same utterance can potentially have quite different illocutionary actsHow can speakers assume that the intended illocutionary act will be recognized by the hearer?
8 Solution Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID) Felicity conditions
9 Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID) Performative verbsUsed in a simple positive present tense sentence1st person singular subjectI promise…I sentence you…I apologize…
10 Test of performative verbs I hereby V …I _______ name the ship ‘Elizabeth’.I _______ warn you not to sleep in class.I _______ believe that there’s no Santa Claus.
11 Felicity conditionsThe appropriate circumstances for the performance of a speech act to be recognized.
12 Felicity conditions “I promise to see you tomorrow’. General conditionsThe utterance is understood.Content conditionsThe content of the utterance is about a future event and the speaker is committed to the act.Preparatory conditionsThe event does not happen by itself.The event will have a beneficial effect.Sincerity conditionsThe speaker does have a genuine intention to carry out the future act.Essential conditionsThe utterance changes the speaker’s state from non-obligation to obligation
13 The performative hypothesis To assume that every utterance (U) underlies a clause that contains a performative verb, which make the illocutionary forces explicit.I (hereby) Vperformative you (that) UOpen the door.Implicit/primary performativesI hereby order you that you open the door.Explicit performatives