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Presentation on theme: "Pragmatics SPEECH ACTS & EVENTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 pragmatics SPEECH ACTS & EVENTS


3 Speech acts: Actions performed via utterances
Locutionary acts Illocutionary acts Perlocutionary acts

4 Locutionary acts Performed via producing a meaning linguistic expression

5 Illocutionary acts Performed via the communicative force of an utterance

6 Perlocutionary acts Performed via the effect of the utterance on the hearer.

7 Problem The same utterance can potentially have quite different illocutionary acts How can speakers assume that the intended illocutionary act will be recognized by the hearer?

8 Solution Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID)
Felicity conditions

9 Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID)
Performative verbs Used in a simple positive present tense sentence 1st person singular subject I promise… I sentence you… I apologize…

10 Test of performative verbs
I hereby V … I _______ name the ship ‘Elizabeth’. I _______ warn you not to sleep in class. I _______ believe that there’s no Santa Claus.

11 Felicity conditions The appropriate circumstances for the performance of a speech act to be recognized.

12 Felicity conditions “I promise to see you tomorrow’.
General conditions The utterance is understood. Content conditions The content of the utterance is about a future event and the speaker is committed to the act. Preparatory conditions The event does not happen by itself. The event will have a beneficial effect. Sincerity conditions The speaker does have a genuine intention to carry out the future act. Essential conditions The utterance changes the speaker’s state from non-obligation to obligation

13 The performative hypothesis
To assume that every utterance (U) underlies a clause that contains a performative verb, which make the illocutionary forces explicit. I (hereby) Vperformative you (that) U Open the door. Implicit/primary performatives I hereby order you that you open the door. Explicit performatives

14 Speech act classification
Declarations Representatives Expressives Directives Commissives

15 Declarations The speech acts that change the state of the world via utterances. I now pronounce you husband and wife We find the defendant guilty.

16 Representatives The speech acts that states what the speaker believes to be the case or not. Statements of fact, assertions, conclusions, and descriptions The world is flat. It is a sunny day.

17 Expressives The speech acts that state what the speaker feels.
Psychological stats (pleasure, pain, likes, joy, sorrow…) I am sorry. Congratulations.

18 Directives The speech acts used by the speaker to get someone else to do something. Commands, orders, requests, suggestions. Go away!

19 Commissives The speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions Promises, threats, refusals, pledges. I can’t do that.

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