New scientific & geographical exploration Copernicus Columbus Magellan
Power Shift “The” Church (Catholic Church) loses some power to secular governments (Nobility of court system - Kings, Queens, etc.) –Still important patron of the arts –Authority challenged Martin Luther (1483-1546)
HUMANISM New intellectual movement Focused on human accomplishments Rediscovery of Greek and Roman books and culture via the Middle East
Resulting Changes in Art Artists make art that has to do everyday HUMAN feelings Artists look back to Greek and Roman Art –Ancient Greek and Roman music had a “RHETORICAL” quality Meant to represent a feeling or idea –Ancient Greek and Roman visual art was about mythological subjects or real people of nobility; these people were represented in a life-like manner with an emphasis on sensuality of HUMAN body
How did Renaissance composers write more rhetorical music? More “life-like” text rhythms Word Painting 1.Literal or mimetic correspondences example: “alone” 2.Figurative or symbolic depiction (punning & double meanings) example: “high on the mountaintop” 3.Emotional connotations example: (chromaticism) on “pain and sorrow”
Word Painting Musical representation of specific images - for example, a falling melodic line ot accompany the word descending - often found in Renaissance and Baroque music
THOMAS WEELKES (c. 1575-1623) As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending madrigal genre a cappella vocal composition text is a sonnet (Renaissance poem) in the vernacular (English) sung 1 on a part in intimate setting includes both imitative polyphony and homophony lots of examples of text painting
Madrigal Composition for several voices set to a short secular poem, usually about love, combining homophonic and polyphonic textures and often using word painting; common in Renaissance music
A cappella (literally means“of the church” in Latin, but can refer to both sacred and secular music) Choral music without instrumental accompaniment
As Vesta was from Latmos hill descending She spied a maiden Queen the same ascending, Attended on by all the shepherds’swain; To whom Diana’s darlings came running down amain First two by two, then three by three together Leaving their Goddess all alone, hasted thither; And mingling with the shepherds of her train, With mirthful tunes her presence did entertain. Then sang the shepherds and nymphs of Diana: Long live fair Oriana!
JOHN WARD (English Renaissance Madrigalist) Upon a bank with roses set about
Upon a bank with roses set about, Where pretty turtles joining bill to bill And gentle springs steal softly murmuring out, Washing the foot of pleasure’s sacred hill, There little Love sore wounded lies, His bow and arrows broken, Bedewed with tears from Venus’s eyes O grevious to be spoken.
JOHN FARMER (English Renaissance Madrigalist) Fair Phyllis
Fair Phyllis I saw sitting all alone Feeding her flock near to the mountain side. The shepherds knew not wither she had gone, But after [her], her lover Amyntas hie’d. Up and down he wandered while she was missing; When he found her, oh, then they fell a-kissing.
JOSQUIN DESPREZ (c. 1440-1521) Two types of SACRED Renaissance music GENRES –MASS –MOTET SACRED Renaissance music DOES NOT use Text Painting –Emphasis is on musical structure and religious “otherworldly” musical qualities
Motet Polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text other than that of the mass; one of the two main forms of sacred Renaissance music
Musical Rhetoric Refers to the emotive (causing a listener to feel a specific way) or persuasive (causing the listener to "see" a scene or "hear" a story) power of music An example of musical rhetoric is the way a composer tries to "paint" a picture of a scene, story, or idea in the listener's mind of a written text, which is either sung or given to the listener in the form of a program.
FRANZ SCHUBERT - Erlköing (The Elfking) Lied (leet) / Lieder (leader) –An art song with a German text
ANTONIO VIVALDI - First Movement: Allegro from La Primavera [Spring], Concerto for Violin and String Orchestra, Op. 8, No. 1 from The Four Seasons
Spring has come, and joyfully, The birds greet it with a happy song. And the streams, fanned by gentle breezes, Flow along with a sweet murmur. Covering the sky with a black cloak, Thunder and lightning come to announce the season. When these have quieted down, the little birds Return to their enchanting song.
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, & scientist A “Renaissance” Man –Emphasis on education Mona Lisa –Real person
Botticelli (1445-1510) The Birth of Venus (1485) –Mythological deity –Emphasis on reality & sensuality of human body La Primavera (1477- 78) –Mix of real people & mythological characters –Depiction of everyday HUMAN emotions