Presentation on theme: "Alexander III, 1881-1894. Alexander Alexandrovich Born 1845 (when Alexander II was 47) Second son, so not prepared for throne 1865: older brother Nicholas."— Presentation transcript:
Alexander Alexandrovich Born 1845 (when Alexander II was 47) Second son, so not prepared for throne 1865: older brother Nicholas died of tuberculosis
Alexander III comes to throne Re-educated S. Soloviev and K. Pobedonostsev Married Danish princess Dagmar (Maria Feodorovna) Disagreed with Alex II’s pro-Prussian foreign policy, especially during Franco- Prussian war, 1870-71. Otto von Bismarck allied with Austria and Russia.
2 March 1881: Alexander III ascended throne 8 March: discussed Loris-Melikov’s “constitution” elected, advisory body Pobedonostsev and more conservative advisors criticized it sharply. Never implemented.
Anti-Jewish Pogroms, 1881-1884 Sparked by rumors that Jews killed Alexander II. – Gesya Mirovna Gelfman Pale of Settlement: Ukraine and Poland over 200 anti-Jewish riots: – Kiev – Warsaw – Odessa Led to mass migration and Zionist movement
Instead… 29 April 1881: proclaimed a sort of manifesto for autocracy: “…But in the middle our great sorrow the voice of God commands us to be cheerful in the matter of Ruling, in reliance on Divine Providence, with faith in the power and truth of autocratic power, which we intend to assert and protect for the benefit of the people from all their longing… [Alexander called] all loyal subjects to serve in faith and truth in the eradication of the vile sedition, [which] disgraced the Russian land - to the assertion of faith and morals - to the good upbringing of children - the extermination of injustice and theft - to the restoration of order and justice in the actions of all institutions. "
14 August 1881: “Decree about measures for the preservation of state order and public quiet and the placement of certain places in a position of reinforced surveillance” Gave political police right to operate without subordinating to the administration or courts – Exile an “undesirable individuals” without trial or the courts’ involvement – Close educational institutions, newspapers, printing houses, or private businesses. Temporary, but was in force in various locations until 1917.
Reforms Redemption payments reduced somewhat. Rules of peasants selling land loosened. Land captains created to oversee peasant communes. Re-invigorated official nationality policy. Russification policies
1887: Assassination “attempt”? Alexander Ilyich Ulyanov, 1866-1887 Excellent student Earned two gold medals (zoology) 1883: St. Petersburg University Father died January 1886 Joined “terrorist faction” of revived Narodnaya Volya. Strongly influenced by Marx, Engels, Plekhanov 1 March 1887: Arrested (with 14 others) still planning assassination. Made political speech at trial. Sentenced to death. Mother tried to save him. 8 May: Executed (with five others).
Left younger brother in charge Vladimir Iliich Ulyanov, 1870- 1924 (Lenin) Then, oldest male in Ulyanov household Graduated from gymnasium that spring 1887 with gold medal. In response to brother’s execution, supposedly said, “"Нет, мы пойдем не таким путём. Не таким путем надо идти". [No, we will not take that path. It is not necessary to go down that path.] 1902: What is to be done?
17 (29) October 1888: Train crashed Near Kharkov in south Two engines, too fast (68 km/hour) 21 died, but royal family unharmed, having dinner Alex held up the roof! Church and government used it as propaganda: “miracle” Sergei Witte emerged as important state figure.
Crucial foreign policy change, 1890-2 1888: new German emperor: Wilhelm II Pushed Bismarck to retire 1890: refused to renew Reinsurance treaty 1891: French fleet visited Kronstadt – first time La Marseillaise played on an official occasion in Russian Empire 1892: Franco-Russian Alliance – Changed balance of power – Led to two armed blocs Marianna to the Russian bear: “Tell me, darling, I'll give you my heart, but will I get your fur coat in the winter?”