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Educational Psychology

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1 Educational Psychology
Name and describe Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Note behaviors associated with each stage and the implications of the theory for classroom practice. Evaluate the theory and compare/contrast it with Bingham & Stryker’s theory of socioemotional development for girls. Developed by W. Huitt, 1999

2 Erikson’s Theory Erik Erikson was a follower of Sigmund Freud who broke with his teacher over the fundamental point of what motivates or drives human behavior. For Freud it was biology or more specifically the biological instincts of life and aggression.

3 Erikson’s Theory For Erikson, who was not trained in biology and/or the medical sciences (unlike Freud and many of his contemporaries), the most important force driving human behavior and the development of personality was social interaction.

4 Erikson’s Theory Erikson left his native Germany in the 1930's and immigrated to America where he studied Native American traditions of human development and continued his work as a psychoanalyst. His developmental theory of the "Eight Stages of Man" was unique in that it covered the entire lifespan rather than childhood and adolescent development.

5 Erikson’s Theory Erikson’s view was that the social environment combined with biological maturation provides each individual with a set of “crises” that must be resolved. The individual is provided with a "sensitive period" in which to successfully resolve each crisis before a new crisis is presented.

6 Erikson’s Theory The results of the resolution, whether successful or not, are carried forward to the next crisis and provide the foundation for its resolution.

7 Erikson’s Eight Stages
Child develops a belief that the environment can be counted on to meet his or her basic physiological and social needs. Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy

8 Erikson’s Eight Stages Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
Child learns what he/she can control and develops a sense of free will and corresponding sense of regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of self-control. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Toddlerhood

9 Erikson’s Eight Stages
Child learns to begin action, to explore, to imagine as well as feeling remorse for actions. Initiative vs. Guilt Early Childhood

10 Erikson’s Eight Stages Industry vs. Inferiority
Child learns to do things well or correctly in comparison to a standard or to others Industry vs. Inferiority Middle Childhood

11 Erikson’s Eight Stages Identity vs. Role Confusion
Develops a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desires social identity personal identity Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence

12 Erikson’s Eight Stages
Develops ability to give and receive love; begins to make long-term commitment to relationships Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adulthood

13 Erikson’s Eight Stages Generativity vs. Stagnation
Develops interest in guiding the development of the next generation Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood

14 Erikson’s Eight Stages Ego-integrity vs. Despair
Develops a sense of acceptance of life as it was lived and the importance of the people and relationships that individual developed over the lifespan Ego-integrity vs. Despair Later Adulthood

15 Bingham & Stryker’s Theory
A major criticism of Erikson’s theory is that it is based primarily on work done with boys and men. Bingham and Stryker (1995) suggest that development of identity, intimacy and generativity may receive different emphases throughout adulthood for men and women. Bingham, M., & Stryker, S. (1995). Things will be different for my daughter: A practical guide to building her self-esteem and self-reliance. New York: Penguin Books.

16 Bingham & Stryker’s Theory
Bingham and Stiker propose five stages of socioemotional development for girls and women that parallels those proposed by Erikson, but places different emphases at important sensitive time periods.

17 Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Developing the Hardy Personality
Feel in control of own life, committed to specific activities, look forward to challenge and opportunity for growth Developing the Hardy Personality Through age 8

18 Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Form Identity as an Achiever
Develop steady, durable core of self as person who is capable of accomplishment in a variety of areas (e.g., intellectual, physical, social, potential career) Form Identity as an Achiever Age 9-12

19 Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Skill Building for Self-Esteem
Feeling of being worthy, deserving, entitled to assert needs and wants; confidence in ability to cope with life Skill Building for Self-Esteem Age 13-16

20 Bingham & Stryker’s Theory
Sense of responsibility for taking care of herself and, perhaps, a family; based on a sense of autonomy Strategies for Self-Sufficiency (Emotional-Financial) Age 17-22

21 Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Satisfaction in Work and Love
Contentedness in personal accomplishments and social/personal relationships Satisfaction in Work and Love Adulthood

22 A Hardy Personality Suzanne Kobasa Ouellette, a professor at the City University of New York suggests that a hardy personality is based on three C's: control, commitment, and challenge.

23 A Hardy Personality Ouellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills: Recognize and tolerate anxiety and act anyway; Separate fantasy from reality and tackle reality; Set goals and establish priorities;

24 A Hardy Personality Ouellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills: Project into the future and understand how today's choices affect the future; Discriminate and make choices consistent with goals and values; Set boundaries and limits;

25 A Hardy Personality Ouellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills: Ask assertively for wants and desires; Trust self and own perceptions.

26 Theories Compared The competencies for developing a “hardy personality” seem to be very similar to the to the “outcomes of a satisfactory resolution” of the first three crises proposed by Erikson: Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt

27 Theories Compared What may be different is that these are not the traditional desired outcomes of infancy and early childhood for girls. Rather there may be a tendency to socialize girls to be more acquiescent and dependent, which is to their detriment in terms of further development.

28 Theories Compared Erikson’s stage of “Industry vs. Inferiority” seems to be essentially equivalent to Bingham and Stryker’s “Form Identity as an Achiever.” For boys, there may be more of an opportunity to address the issue of any deficiencies in a sense of accomplishment within the stage of identity formation.

29 Theories Compared However, it is likely that if girls have not successfully developed a sense of accomplishment during middle and late childhood, it may be a decade or more before there is an opportunity to again tackle this issue. This is because as girls attend to the issue of identity, their natural attention to relationships produces a different pathway for identity development .

30 Self-Esteem Another issue is the drop in self-esteem that occurs naturally as a part of adolescence in modern society. The importance of self-esteem for girls in the adolescent years cannot be overemphasized.

31 Self-Esteem A study by the American Association of University Women (AAUW, 1991) showed that girls had a precipitous drop in self-esteem between elementary and high school. While boys also showed a decline it was not nearly as dramatic.

32 Self-Esteem Percentage Responding Positively to the statement "I am happy the way I am" High % Elementary School Decrease Boys White Girls African-American Girls Hispanic Girls

33 Theories Compared A major difference between the Erikson and Bingham-Stryker models occurs in the stages of adulthood. In Erikson's model the crisis of young adulthood is intimacy versus isolation. In the Bingham-Stryker model the crisis is emotional and financial self-sufficiency.

34 Theories Compared The difference may lie in gender expectations.
Men are expected to become self-sufficient; the male crisis is one of establishing intimacy. Women are expected to establish relationships; the female crisis is autonomy in terms of taking care of themselves emotionally and financially.

35 Theories Compared Similar differences exist in middle and older adulthood. Erikson considers two separate crises: Generativity and Ego Integrity. Bingham and Stryker hypothesize one crisis for adult women: Satisfaction in Work and Love

36 The End

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